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Encyclopedia > Yggdrasil
This tree from the Viking Age Överhogdal tapestries is believed to show Yggdrasil with Viðópnir.
This tree from the Viking Age Överhogdal tapestries is believed to show Yggdrasil with Viðópnir.
Illustration from the Ockelbo Runestone, 11th-century Sweden.
Illustration from the Ockelbo Runestone, 11th-century Sweden.

In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil (Old Norse Yggdrasill, IPA: [ˈygˌdrasilː]; the extra -l is a nominative case marker) is the World Tree, a great ash tree located at the center of the universe and joining the nine worlds of Norse cosmology. The trunk of the tree may be thought of as forming a vertical axis around which these worlds are situated, with Ásgard, realm of the gods, at the top and the underworld realm of Niflheim at the bottom. Midgard, the world of mortals, is located in the middle and surrounded by Jötunheim, land of giants, both of which are separated by the ocean. Yggdrasil is also sometimes known as Mimameid or Laerad. Yggdrasil (also spelled as Yggdrasill) can refer to: In Mythology: Yggdrasil is the world tree of Norse mythology In Anime: Yggdrasil (Oh My Goddess!) is a powerful computer used by Heaven to run the universe in Oh My Goddess! Yggdrasil (Digimon) is the leader/overseer of the Digital World in... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Viking ship, detail from the Överhogdal tapestries. ... This tree from the Viking Age Överhogdal tapestries is believed to show Yggdrasill with Víðópnir. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The geographic distribution of the Sigurd stones. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... This article is about the religious motif. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Numbers are significant in Norse mythology although not to the extent which they are in some traditions e. ... Norse cosmology, as it is described in Norse mythology, recognizes the existence of multiple worlds and the World Tree Yggdrasill. ... Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr) is the realm of the gods, the Aesir, in Norse mythology, thought to be separate from the realm of the mortals, Midgard. ... In Old Norse, the Æsir (singular Ás, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur, Anglo-Saxon Ós, from Proto-Germanic *Ansuz) are the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse mythology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Niflheim. ... Niflheim (Land of Mists) is the realm of ice and cold in Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Midgard (disambiguation). ... Jötunheimr (often anglicized Jotunheim) is the world of the giants (two types: rock and frost, collectively called Jotuns) in the Norse Mythology. ... The giants Fafner and Fasolt seize Freyja in Arthur Rackhams illustration to Richard Wagners version of the Norse myths. ...

Contents

Etymology and alternative names

The most commonly accepted etymology of the name is ygg "terrible" + drasil "steed". While the name means the "terrible steed", it is usually taken to mean the "steed of the the terrible one", with Yggr the epithet of the god Odin. In other words, Odin's horse, referring to the nine nights he is said to have spent hanging from the tree, or "riding the gallows", in order to acquire knowledge of the runes. The gallows are sometimes described in Old Norse poetry as the "horse of the hanged." In the case of "terrible steed", the association with Odin may be secondary, and any number of riders possible. A third interpretation, with etymological difficulties, is "yew-column", associating the tree with the Eihwaz rune ᛇ. Odin was referred to by many names in the skaldic tradition. ... For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Rune redirects here. ... Old Norse poetry encompasses a range of verse forms written in a number of Nordic languages, embraced by the term Old Norse, during the period from the 8th century to as late as the far end of the 13th century. ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Yews are small coniferous trees or shrubs in the genus Taxus in the... Eihwaz (or Eiwaz, Îgwaz) is the Proto-Germanic word for yew, and the reconstructed name of the rune ᛇ. Its is commonly transliterated as ei or ï. Its phonetic value at the time of the invention of the Futhark (2nd century) was not necessarily a diphtong, but possibly a vowel somewhere...


Fjölsvinnsmál, a poem in the Poetic Edda, refers to the World Tree as Mimameid (ON: Mímameiðr, "Mímir's tree" ). The tree is also probably identical to Laerad (ON: Læraðr) a tree whose leaves and branches reach down to the roof of Valhalla and provide food for the goat Heidrun (ON: Heiðrún) and the stag Eikthyrnir (ON: Eikþyrnir). Menglöð. Fjölsvinnsmál or The Sayings of Fjölsvinnr is the second of two Old Norse poems which comprise the Svipdagsmál, The Lay of Svipdagr. ... Look up Poetic Edda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Mimir was a primal god of Norse mythology whose head was severed and sent to Odin during the war between the Aesir and the Vanir deities. ... Læraðr is a tree in Norse mythology, often identified with Yggdrasill. ... For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Heidrun was the name of a goat which lived upon the roof of Valhalla where she ate the leaves from the tree Laerad. ... Eikþyrnir and Heiðrún have fun on top of Valhalla in this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript. ...


Yggdrasil in the Eddas

This illustration shows a 19th century attempt to visualize the world view of the Prose Edda.
This article is part of the
Nine Worlds series
The Nine Worlds
of
Germanic Paganism
Connected by
  • Yggdrasil
Aspect of

taken from the german language version of wikipedia Painted by Oluf Olufsen Bagge File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... taken from the german language version of wikipedia Painted by Oluf Olufsen Bagge File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Álfheim (Old Norse Álfheimr Elf-home) is the abode of the Álfar Elves in Norse mythology and appears also in northern English ballads under the forms Elfhame and Elphame, sometimes modernized as Elfland or Elfenland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In the late 19th century, this Norwegian mountain district was named Jotunheimen after Jötunheimr of Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Midgard (disambiguation). ... Muspelheim (Flameland), also called Muspel (Old Norse Múspellsheimr and Múspell, respectively), is the realm of fire in Norse Mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Niðavellir (Dark fields) is a land inhabited by the dwarves. ... Niflheim (Land of Mists) is the realm of ice and cold in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Svartálfaheim is the underground domain of the dark-elves. ... Norse cosmology, as it is described in Norse mythology, recognizes the existence of multiple worlds and the World Tree Yggdrasill. ...

Poetic Edda

Völuspá

Yggdrasil features prominently in Völuspá, the first poem of the Poetic Edda. Völuspá (The Prophecy of the Seeress) is the first poem in the Poetic Edda. ... Look up Poetic Edda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In stanza 2, the völva or seeress who advises Odin recalls her own ancient past when the universe was young. Yggdrasil 'the glorious Mjötviðr' was still a seedling 'before the ground below' existed. The name mjöt-viðr means the 'wood of proper measure', describing the harmony of the living universe, where every feature has its proper amount. The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ...


In stanza 19, the völva provides a description of the tree:

"I know that an ash-tree stands called Yggdrasill,
a high tree, soaked with shining loam;
from there come the dews which fall in the valley,
ever green, it stands over the well of fate."
— Larrington trans.

In stanza 20 she recounts the appearance of the three Norns, or Fates, from a lake which stands under the tree, a motif similar to the Lady of the Lake from Arthurian legend. Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... Wyrd is a concept in ancient Anglo-Saxon and Nordic cultures roughly corresponding to fate. ... The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ...


Stanza 27 is more obscure, with the first two lines of the verse indicating a connection with Heimdall: Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ...

"She knows that Heimdall's hearing is hidden
under the radiant, sacred tree;"
— Larrington trans.

Scholars including John Lindow and Carolyne Larrington have suggested that Heimdall may have sacrificed one of his ears in return for his heightened power of hearing (according to Gylfaginning he can hear grass growing on the earth or wool on the backs of sheep), depositing it in the well in much the same manner that Odin pledged an eye to the Well of Mimir in return for knowledge and wisdom. Indeed, the völva refers to this Odinic sacrifice in the second half of the stanza and in stanza 28. External links Original text English text Categories: Mythology stubs | Medieval literature | Sagas of Iceland | Norse mythology | Nordic folklore ... In Norse mythology, the Well of Mimir (so named for the god charged with guarding it) granted the power to see the future. ...


Finally, in stanza 47 the seeress foretells that Yggdrasil will tremble and groan during Ragnarök, the final conflict between the gods and giants. Although we are not specifically told if the tree survives the fiery conflagration of Surtr, the rebirth of the world and a new generation of gods and men are positive indications. For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ...


John Lindow in Norse Mythology (2001) explains how Gro Steinsland's analysis of Völuspá and the emphasis on Yggdrasil throughout the poem shows that the tree brought not only spatial unity but also chronological unity, from its presence in seed in the past (stanza 2), as a place of sacrifice and assembly in the present (27), as a symbol of the demise of the cosmos (47), and finally as a symbol of the new world represented in the wooden lots chosen by the god Hoenir for runic divination with a prophetic eye to the future (63). In Norse mythology, HÅ“nir was a very indecisive god and a member of the Æsir. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...


Hávamál

According to the poem Hávamál, Óðinn paradoxically hangs himself from a tree (usually taken to be Yggdrasil although it is not explicitly identified as such) as a human sacrifice to himself, who remains alive as a divinity. He suffers the pain and hardship of this transcendent consciousness for nine nights, in order to acquire knowledge of the runes. Hávamál (Sayings of Hár, Sayings of the high one) is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda. ...


138.

"I know that I hung on a windy tree
nine long nights,
wounded with a spear, dedicated to Odin,
myself to myself,
on that tree of which no man knows
from where its roots run."
— Larrington trans.

139.

"No bread did they give me nor a drink from a horn,
downwards I peered;
I took up the runes, screaming I took them,
then I fell back from there."
— Larrington trans.

Here name for the World Tree, Ygg-drasill, means the 'terrible steed'. Relating to the shamans of the Saami, a person can send out their Hugr ('soul', 'mindforce', or 'consciousness') to travel via the Tree from one world to another. To contemplate the entirety of all worlds and transcend them to peer out across the infinite nothingness of Ginnungagap, awakens existential power. Óðinn 'rides' the Tree to reach a trance-like experience that transcends the worlds of life and death, to achieve the power over reality in the form of written language. Also compare cognate concepts of transcendence, nirvana and enlightenment in Buddhism.


Grímnismál

The poem Grímnismál has much to say concerning Yggdrasil. According to stanzas 25 and 26, the goat Heidrun stands atop the roof of Valhalla and feeds from the leaves and branches of the tree. From her udder flows an endless supply of mead for the einherjar. Likewise, the stag Eikthyrnir also feeds from the tree atop the roof of the hall, and from his antlers water drips into the wellspring Hvergelmir, located in Niflheim and from which all rivers flow. In both stanzas the tree is called Laerad but is often identified with the World Tree. Both share similar locations relative to the hall of Odin, both are associated with animals who derive nourishment from its foliage, and Hvergelmir as well shares a connection with both trees. Grímnismál (Sayings of Grímnir) is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda. ... In Norse mythology, Heidrun was the name of a goat which lived upon the roof of Valhalla where she ate the leaves from the tree Laerad. ... For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... In Norse religion the einherjar or einheriar were spirits of warriors who had died bravely in battle. ... Eikþyrnir and Heiðrún have fun on top of Valhalla in this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Hvergelmir is the wellspring of cold in Niflheim in Norse mythology. ... Niflheim (Land of Mists) is the realm of ice and cold in Norse mythology. ... Læraðr is a tree in Norse mythology, often identified with Yggdrasill. ... For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ...


Stanzas 29 to 35 provide further details. Each day the gods ride to Yggdrasil to hold court and pronounce judgments. The three roots of the tree grow in three separate directions, the first into Hel, the second among the frost giants (whose realm is not named but presumably is Jotunheim), and the third among humans or Midgard. In the Gylfaginning section of the Prose Edda, the third root (among mortals) is instead placed by Snorri in Asgard among the gods. The stanzas also mention yet more creatures that populate the tree, including four stags that gnaw the highest boughs, named Dain, Dvalin, Duneyr and Durathror, as well as a horde of serpents: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Niflheim. ... Jotunheim is the world of the giants (two types: rock and frost, collectively called Jotuns) in the Norse Mythology. ... For other uses, see Midgard (disambiguation). ... External links Original text English text Categories: Mythology stubs | Medieval literature | Sagas of Iceland | Norse mythology | Nordic folklore ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In Old Norse, the Æsir (singular Ás, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur, Anglo-Saxon Ós, from Proto-Germanic *Ansuz) are the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse mythology. ... The 17th century Icelander who made this illustration had probably never seen a stag and had little idea what one looked like. ...


34.

"More serpents lie under the ash of Yggdrasill
than any fool can imagine:
Goin and Moin, they are Grafvitnir's sons,
Grabak and Grafvollud,
Ofnir and Svafnir I think forever will
bite on the tree's branches."
— Larrington trans.

In addition, an eagle sits perched above while the dragon Nidhogg rends the tree from beneath, and serving the role of a messenger bearing spiteful words between the two is a squirrel named Ratatosk who must run up and down the length of the trunk which is gradually rotting. "The ash of Yggdrasil suffers agony more than men know", and yet according to stanza 44 it is still the "noblest of trees." Níðhöggr gnaws the roots of Yggdrasill in this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript. ... This image from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript shows Ratatoskr with a horn. ...


Fjölsvinnsmál

Fjölsvinnsmál, forming the second part of the poem Svipdagsmál, twice mentions a tree called Mimameid ("Mimir's Tree") which is usually considered identical to Yggdrasil due to Mímir's connection with the World Tree as the keeper of one of its wellsprings. According to the poem, it has mysterious roots, casts its limbs abroad over every land and is impervious to fire and iron. Its fruit when eaten by women has the power to ensure safe childbirth, and at the top of the highest bough perches a golden rooster named Víðópnir (Vidopnir). Menglöð. Fjölsvinnsmál or The Sayings of Fjölsvinnr is the second of two Old Norse poems which comprise the Svipdagsmál, The Lay of Svipdagr. ... Svipdagsmál or The Lay of Svipdag is an Old Norse work, a part of the Elder Edda, comprised of two poems, The Spell of Groa and The Lay of Fjolsvith. ... Mimir was a primal god of Norse mythology whose head was severed and sent to Odin during the war between the Aesir and the Vanir deities. ... This tree from the Viking Age Överhogdal tapestries is believed to show Yggdrasill with Víðópnir. ...


Prose Edda

Gylfaginning

In the Gylfaginning section of his Prose Edda, Snorri Sturluson repeats much of the information found in the Poetic Edda but also expands upon certain ideas and uses the earlier material as the basis for his own conceptions of Yggdrasil. According to Snorri, one of its roots extends into Niflheim at the wellspring of Hvergelmir which is infested with serpents. Here the root is gnawed upon by the dragon Nidhogg. A second root extends among the frost giants "where Ginnungagap once was" at the Well of Mimir, a source of knowledge and wisdom. The third reaches into Asgard among the gods (in the Poetic Edda this root instead extends into Midgard among mortals), and here is located the Well of Urd, a holy place where the gods hold their court. Each day they ride there across Bifröst the rainbow bridge with the exception of Thor who walks. External links Original text English text Categories: Mythology stubs | Medieval literature | Sagas of Iceland | Norse mythology | Nordic folklore ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... Look up Poetic Edda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Norse mythology, Ginnungagap (seeming emptiness or gaping gap) was a vast chasm that existed before the ordering of the world. ... In Norse mythology, the Well of Mimir (so named for the god charged with guarding it) granted the power to see the future. ... The Well of Urd (ON: Urðarbrunnr) is from Norse Mythology as the well in Asgard which fed one of the roots of the Yggdrasil. ... In Norse Mythology, Bifröst is the bridge leading from the realm of the mortals Midgard to the realm of the gods Asgard, which the gods travel daily to hold their councils under the shade of the tree Yggdrasill. ...


Also located under the ash by Urd's well is the hall of the Norns who sustain the tree using water from the well. They mix the water with the mud that lies around the well (forming a curative poultice) and pour it over the tree so that its branches may not decay or rot, and to regenerate it from the wounds caused by the various animals and monsters that feed from it. There are also two swans that drink from the well, and this water is so pure that all things that touch it are turned white, including this first pair of swans and all those descended from them, as well as the "white mud" or "shining loam" used by the Norns. Yggdrasil is also said to be the source of honeydew that falls to the earth and from which bees feed. The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ... A poultice is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed, or painful part of the body. ... Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. ...


Other ideas borrowed by Snorri from the Poetic Edda include the eagle which sits perched at the top of the tree, which he expands on. This eagle, who is not named, is said to have knowledge of many things, and on its head sits a hawk called Vedrfolnir. The significance of this hawk is unclear but John Lindow (Norse Mythology, 2001) suggests that it may represent a higher faculty of wisdom, possibly sent out to acquire knowledge in a similar manner as Odin's ravens Hugin and Munin. This illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript attempts the difficult task of showing a hawk on top of an eagle on top of a tree. ... Huginn and Muninn sit on Odins shoulders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ...


Germanic sacrifices

This illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript shows Yggdrasill with the assorted animals that live in it.
This illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript shows Yggdrasill with the assorted animals that live in it.

The Germanic custom of hanging sacrificial victims from trees was probably in reference to this myth (see also Human sacrifice, Tyr). In 1950, the preserved corpse of the so-called "Tollund Man" was found in a peat bog in Jutland. The excellent level of preservation made it possible to deduce that he had been ritually hanged and respectfully consigned to the bog, not more than a hundred yards from where a ritually hanged woman had been found some decades previously. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x2329, 4393 KB)Yggdrasill with the assorted animals that live in it and on it. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x2329, 4393 KB)Yggdrasill with the assorted animals that live in it and on it. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Preserved full length corpse of the Tollund Man, with rope around neck The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ...


Ragnarök

Main article: Ragnarök

Yggdrasil is also central in the myth of Ragnarök, the end of the world. The only two humans to survive Ragnarök (there are some survivors among the gods), Lif and Lifthrasir, are able to escape by sheltering in the branches of Yggdrasil, where they feed on the dew and are protected by the tree. For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... Norse gods Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including Jotun, the dividing line between these groups is less than clear. ... In Norse mythology, Lif (life/(f)) and Lifthrasir (eager for life/(m)) will be the only two to survive Ragnarok, the end of the world. ...


Germanic veneration of trees

Yggdrasil apparently had smaller counterparts as the Sacred tree at Uppsala, the enormous evergreen of unknown species that stood at the Temple at Uppsala and Irminsul, which was an oak venerated by the pagan Saxons and which was said to connect heaven and earth. The Old Norse form of Irmin was Jörmun and interestingly, just like Ygg, it was one of Odin's names. It appears, then, that Irminsul may have been representing a world tree corresponding to Yggdrasil among the pagan Saxons. Midwinter blót (with the sacred tree to the left of the entrance), by Carl Larsson (1915) The Sacred tree at Uppsala was a sacred tree located at the Temple at Uppsala, Sweden, in the second half of the 11th century. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ... Detail of the bent Irminsul on the Externsteine relief. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Germanic cultural fondness for tree symbolism appears to have been widespread, with other patron trees such as Thor's Oak appearing in surviving accounts (8th century) and Ahmad ibn Fadlan's account of his encounter with the Scandinavian Rus tribe in the early 10th century, describing them as tattooed from "fingernails to neck" with dark blue "tree patterns." Thors Oak was an ancient tree sacred to the Germanic tribe of the Chatti, ancestors of todays Hessians, and one of the most important sacred sites of the Germans. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Ahmad ibn Fadlān ibn al-Abbās ibn RaÅ¡Ä«d ibn Hammād (أحمد إبن فضلان إبن ألعباس إبن رشيد إبن حماد) was a 10th century Muslim writer and traveler who wrote an account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, the Kit... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


Parallels

Many people have discussed the parallels between Odin's self-sacrifice in search of knowledge and the Crucifixion, particularly as Odin and Jesus were pierced with a spear. However, while surviving texts may have possibly been influenced by Christianity, the myth certainly has pre-Christian origins. There are other apparent parallels between Norse Mythology and Christianity: a slaying and resurrection (Baldr) and an apocalyptic battle at Armageddon (Ragnarok). Probably, a source for all of these traditions is Zoroastrianism, whose influence radiated from the Persian Empire into Judaism, Christianity, Mahayana Buddhism, and so on. For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Baldr. ... Look up Ragnarok in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Potential origins

It has been proposed as an explanation for the World Tree myth that the Cirrus clouds – to a ground standing observer appearing to be virtually stationary on the sky – were imagined to be the branches of a gigantic tree, turned seemingly pale the same way that far away mountains do. Accordingly, rain was held to be the dew dropping from the World Tree. Two old German synonyms for clouds, Wetterbaum and Regenbaum (meaning Weather Tree and Rain Tree), are said to attest to this hypothesis.[citation needed] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ...


Modern popular culture

Although depictions vary widely, Yggdrasil is generally portrayed in modern popular culture as a large tree with great power.


References

  • Faulkes, Anthony (trans.) (1987). Edda (Snorri Sturluson). Everyman. ISBN 0-460-87616-3.
  • Larrington, Carolyne (trans.) (1996). The Poetic Edda. Oxford World's Classics. ISBN 0-19-283946-2.

Everymans Library is a series of reprinted classic literature currently published by Alfred A. Knopf (a division of Random House) in the United States, and Weidenfeld and Nicolson in the United Kingdom. ... Oxford Worlds Classics is an imprint of Oxford University Press. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yggdrasil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (937 words)
In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil (actually Yggdrasill [ˈygˌdrasil:]; the extra -l is a nominative case marker) also sometimes called Mímameiðr or Lérað is the "World Tree", a gigantic ash tree, thought to connect all the nine worlds of Norse cosmology.
Yggdrasil is also central in the myth of Ragnarok, the end of the world.
Yggdrasil apparently had smaller counterparts as the enormous evergreen of unknown species that stood at the Temple at Uppsala and Irminsul, which was an oak venerated by the pagan Saxons and which was said to connect heaven and earth.
Yggdrasil Linux - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (239 words)
Yggdrasil Linux was an early Linux distribution ("distro") developed by Yggdrasil, a company founded by Adam Richter.
Yggdrasil Linux was described as being a "Plug-and-Play" Linux distribution, in the sense that it would automatically configure itself for your hardware, a feature that is now taken for granted.
Yggdrasil was the first company to create a CD-ROM based Linux distribution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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