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Encyclopedia > Yersinia enterocolitica
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Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia enterocolitica colonies growing on XLD agar plates.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Yersinia
Species: Y. enterocolitica
Binomial name
Yersinia enterocolitica
(Schleifstein & Coleman 1939)

Yersinia enterocolitica is a species of gram-negative coccobacillus-shaped bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Primarily a zoonotic disease (cattle, deer, pigs, and birds), animals which recover frequently become asymptomatic carriers of the disease.[1] Image File history File links Yersinia_enterocolitica_01. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Species Y. pestis Y. enterocolitica Y. pseudotuberculosis etc. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Coccobacillus is the singular of coccobacilli, which are bacteria of a slightly elongated shape. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ...

Contents

Pathogenesis

Acute infections

Acute Y. enterocolitica infections produce severe diarrhea in humans, along with Peyer's patch necrosis, chronic lymphadenopathy, and hepatic or splenic abscesses. Additional symptoms may include entero-colitis, fever, mesenteric adenitis, erythema nodosum and acute terminal ileitis, which may be confused with appendicitis or Crohn's disease. See yersiniosis for further details. Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Hans Conrad Peyer. ... Lymphadenopathy is swelling of one or more lymph nodes. ... Enteritis is the inflammation of the small intestine (inflammation of the large intestine is termed colitis). ... Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon. ... Adenitis is a general term for an inflammation of a gland or lymph node. ... Erythema nodosum is a form of inflammation of the subcutaneous fatty tissue. ... Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix[1]. While mild cases may resolve without treatment, most require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining in between). ... Yersiniosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Yersinia. ...


Treatment

Treatment of Y. enterocolitica infections requires aggressive antibiotic therapy, typically involving a combination of chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and polymyxin.[1] Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. ... Polymyxins are cationic detergent antibiotics, with a general structure of a cyclic peptide with a long hydrophobic tail. ...


Long-term effects

Y. enterocolitica infections are sometimes followed by chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.[2] Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...


Y. enterocolitica seems to be associated with autoimmune Graves-Basedow thyroiditis.[3] Whilst indirect evidence exists, direct causative evidence is limited,[4] and Y. enterocolitica is probably not a major cause of this disease, but may contribute to the development of thyroid autoimmunity arising for other reasons in genetically susceptible individuals.[5] It has also been suggested that Y. enterocolitica infection is not the cause of auto-immune thyroid disease, but rather is only an associated condition; with both having a shared inherited susceptibility.[6] More recently the role for Y. enterocolitica has been disputed.[7] Graves-Basedow disease or known simply as Graves disease is a medical disorder that may manifest several different conditions including goitre and hyperthyroidism (over-activity of thyroid hormone production), infiltrative exophthalmos (protruberance of one or both eyes and associated problems) and infiltrative dermopathy (a skin condition usually of the lower... In statistics, an association (statistics) comes from two variables who are related. ...


Genomics

  • Yersinia Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) is a genome browsing and annotation system developed by the DOE-Joint Genome Institute. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Collins FM (1996). Pasteurella, Yersinia, and Francisella. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  2. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  3. ^ Benvenga S, Santarpia L, Trimarchi F, Guarneri F (2006). "Human Thyroid Autoantigens and Proteins of Yersinia and Borrelia Share Amino Acid Sequence Homology That Includes Binding Motifs to HLA-DR Molecules and T-Cell Receptor". Thyroid 16 (3): 225-236. PubMed. 
  4. ^ Tomer Y, Davies T (1993). "Infection, thyroid disease, and autoimmunity." (PDF). Endocr Rev 14 (1): 107-20. PMID 8491150. 
  5. ^ Toivanen P, Toivanen A (1994). "Does Yersinia induce autoimmunity?". Int Arch Allergy Immunol 104 (2): 107-11. PMID 8199453. 
  6. ^ Strieder T, Wenzel B, Prummel M, Tijssen J, Wiersinga W (2003). "Increased prevalence of antibodies to enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica virulence proteins in relatives of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.". Clin Exp Immunol 132 (2): 278-82. PMID 12699417. 
  7. ^ Hansen P, Wenzel B, Brix T, Hegedüs L (2006). "Yersinia enterocolitica infection does not confer an increased risk of thyroid antibodies: evidence from a Danish twin study.". Clin Exp Immunol 146 (1): 32-8. PMID 16968395. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book - Yersinia enterocolitica (899 words)
enterocolitica, a small rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium, is often isolated from clinical specimens such as wounds, feces, sputum and mesenteric lymph nodes.
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enterocolitica outbreak in Arkansas, Tennessee, and Mississippi associated with the consumption of pasteurized milk.
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