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Encyclopedia > Yerba mate
Yerba mate / Erva-mate
Ilex paraguariensis
Ilex paraguariensis
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Species: I. paraguariensis
Binomial name
Ilex paraguariensis
A. St. Hil.

Yerba mate / Erva-mate*, Ilex paraguariensis, is a species of holly (family Aquifoliaceae) native to subtropical South America in Argentina, eastern Paraguay, western Uruguay and southern Brazil. [1] Image File history File links Koeh-074. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families Aquifoliaceae Helwingiaceae Phyllonomaceae The Aquifoliales are an order of flowering plants, including most notably the Aquifoliaceae, or holly family. ... Genera  Ilex - Holly  Nemopanthus - Mountain holly Aquifoliaceae is a small plant family with two genera, by far the best-known being Ilex, the hollies, a large genus with about 600 species distributed nearly world-wide, absent only from Australasia and western North America. ... This article is about the plant type. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Augustin François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire (1799-1853), French botanist and traveller, was born at Orleans on October 4, 1799. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plant. ... Genera  Ilex - Holly  Nemopanthus - Mountain holly Aquifoliaceae is a small plant family with two genera, by far the best-known being Ilex, the hollies, a large genus with about 600 species distributed nearly world-wide, absent only from Australasia and western North America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The yerba mate plant is a shrub or small tree growing up to 15 meters tall. The leaves are evergreen, 7–11 cm long and 3–5.5 cm wide, with a serrated margin. The flowers are small, greenish-white, with four petals. The fruit is a red berry 4–6 mm diameter. [2] A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ...

Contents

Infusion

The infusion called mate is prepared by steeping dry leaves (and twigs) of yerba mate in hot water, rather than in boiling water like black tea. It is a slightly less potent stimulant than coffee and much gentler on the stomach. Drinking mate with friends from a shared hollow gourd (also called a mate in Spanish, or cabaça or cuia in Portuguese) with a metal straw (a bombilla in Spanish, bomba or canudo in Portuguese) is an extremely common social practice in Argentina, [3][4] Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Chile, eastern Bolivia and Brazil [5] and also Syria and Lebanon. Mate Mate (pronounced ) is a caffeinated infusion prepared by steeping dried leaves of erva-mate (Portuguese) / yerba mate (Spanish) (Ilex paraguariensis) in hot water. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Binomial name (Molina) Standl. ...


The flavor of brewed yerba mate is strongly vegetal, herbal, and grassy, reminiscent of some varieties of green tea. Many consider the flavor to be very agreeable, but it is generally bitter if steeped in boiling water (as with coffee), so it is made using hot but not boiling water. Unlike most teas, it does not become bitter and astringent when steeped for extended periods, and the leaves may be infused several times. Additionally, one can purchase flavored mate in many varieties.


In Brazil, a toasted version of mate, known as chá mate or "mate tea", is sold in teabag and loose form, and served, sweetened, in specialized shops, either hot or iced with fruit juice or milk. An iced, sweetened version of toasted mate is sold as an uncarbonated soft drink, with or without fruit flavoring. The toasted variety of mate has less of a bitter flavor and more of a spicy fragrance. It is more popular in the coastal cities of Brazil, as opposed to the far southern states where it is consumed in the traditional way (green, drunk with a silver straw from a shared gourd). A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ...


Similarly, a form of mate is sold in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay in tea bags to be drunk in a similar way to tea. This is known in Spanish as mate cocido or cocido. In Argentina this is commonly drunk with breakfast or as part of merienda (roughly, afternoon tea), often with a selection of facturas (sweet pastries). It is also made by heating yerba in water and straining it as it cools.


In Paraguay, yerba mate is also drunk as a cold beverage. Usually drunk out of a cows horn in the countryside, terrerre as it is known in the guaraní language, is served with cold or iced water. Medicinal herbs mixed in a mortar and pestle are added to the water for taste or medicinal reasons.


Nomenclature

The pronunciation of yerba mate in standard Spanish is [ˈɟɛrβa ˈmate]. The Rioplatense dialect spoken in most of Argentina turns the first sound in yerba into a postalveolar fricative consonant, giving [ˈʃɛrβa] in regions closer to Buenos Aires, gradually blending into [ˈʒɛrβa] as one goes farther from the city, and eventually to [dʒɛrβa] around Mendoza. The word hierba is Spanish for grass or herb; yerba is a variant spelling of it which is quite common in Argentina. Mate is from the Quechua mati, meaning "cup". Yerba mate is therefore literally the "cup herb". Main urban centers of Rioplatense Spanish. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Monument dedicated to the Army of the Andes, on the summit of the Cerro de la Gloria. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ...


The (Brazilian) Portuguese name is erva-mate [ˈɛrva ˈmati] (also pronounced as [ˈɛrva ˈmate] in some regions) and is also used to prepare the drinks chimarrão (hot) or tereré (cold). While the tea is made with the toasted leaves, these drinks are made with green ones, and are very popular in the south of the country. The name given to the plant in Guaraní (Guarani, in Portuguese), language of the indigenous people who first cultivated and enjoyed erva-mate / yerba mate, is ka'a, which has the same meaning as erva/yerba. Chimarrão or cimarrón is a South American traditional beverage. ... A guampa containing tereré. A horn made Guampa. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ...


In English-speaking countries, the spelling used is yerba maté (with an accented é)[6][7][8][9]—where the acute accent indicates that the e is not silent, and thus that the word should not be pronounced as the English word mate. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ...


Cultivation

Yerba mate / Erva-mate
Yerba mate / Erva-mate

The plant is grown and processed mainly in South America, more specifically in Northern Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná). The Guaraní are reputed to be the first people who cultivated the plant; the first Europeans to do this were Jesuit missionaries, who spread the drinking habit as far as Ecuador.[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 2008 KB) Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yerba mate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 2008 KB) Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yerba mate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Corrientes is a province in northeast Argentina, in the Mesopotamia region. ... Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Capital Florianópolis Largest city Joinville Demonym catarinense or barriga-verde Government  -  Governor Luiz Henrique  -  Vice Governor Leonel Pavan Area  -  Total 95. ... Capital (and largest city) Curitiba Demonym Paranaense Government  -  Governor Roberto Requião  -  Vice Governor Orlando Pessuti Area  -  Total 281. ... For other uses, see Guaraní (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


When the yerba is harvested, the branches are dried sometimes with a wood fire, imparting a smoky flavor. Then the leaves and sometimes the twigs are broken up. A twig is a small terminal branch section that bears leaves, buds and usually the flowers and fruit of plants. ...


There are many brands and types of yerba, with and without twigs, some with low powder content. Some types are less strong in flavor (suave, "soft") and there are blends flavored with mint, orange and grapefruit skin, etc. “Mint” redirects here. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Binomial name Macfad. ...


Chemical composition and properties

Leaves of yerba mate / erva-mate
Yerba mate / erva-mate with stems
Yerba mate / erva-mate with stems

Mate contains xanthines, which are alkaloids in the same family as caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, well-known stimulants also found in coffee and chocolate. Mate also contains elements such as potassium, magnesium and manganese. [11] Caffeine content varies between 0.3% and 1.7% of dry weight (compare this to 2.5–4.5% for tea leaves, and 1.5% for ground coffee). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1567 KB) Leafs of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yerba mate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1567 KB) Leafs of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yerba mate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ...


Mate products are sometimes marketed as "caffeine-free" alternatives to coffee and tea, and said to have fewer negative effects. This is often based on a claim that the primary active xanthine in mate is "mateine", erroneously said to be a stereoisomer of caffeine (as it is not chemically possible for caffeine to have a stereoisomer). "Mateine" is an official synonym of caffeine in the chemical databases. [12] Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Mateine is another name for caffeine. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ...


Researchers at Florida International University in Miami have found that yerba mate does contain caffeine, but some people seem to tolerate a mate drink better than coffee or tea. This is expected since mate contains different chemicals (other than caffeine) from tea or coffee. Florida International University, commonly known as FIU, is a public research university whose main campus is located in University Park in metropolitan Miami, Florida, in the United States. ...


From reports of personal experience with mate, its physiological effects are similar to (yet distinct from) more widespread caffeinated beverages like coffee, tea, or guarana drinks. Users report a mental state of wakefulness, focus and alertness reminiscent of most stimulants, but often remark on mate's unique lack of the negative effects typically created by other such compounds, such as anxiety, diarrhea, "jitteriness", and heart palpitations. (The laxative effect of coffee derives from a substance that surrounds the raw bean, not the caffeine itself.[citation needed]) Binomial name Kunth Guarana (Brazillian name guaraná) (IPA: , or ), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ...


Reasons for mate's unique physiological attributes are beginning to emerge in scientific research. Studies of mate, though very limited, have shown preliminary evidence that the mate xanthine cocktail is different from other plants containing caffeine most significantly in its effects on muscle tissue, as opposed to those on the central nervous system, which are similar to those of other natural stimulants. Mate has been shown to have a relaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue, and a stimulating effect on myocardial (heart) tissue.[13] For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ...


Mate's negative effects are anecdotally claimed to be of a lesser degree than those of coffee, though no explanation for this is offered or even credibly postulated, except for its potential as a placebo effect. Many users report that drinking yerba mate does not prevent them from being able to fall asleep, as is often the case with some more common stimulating beverages, while still enhancing their energy and ability to remain awake at will. However, the net amount of caffeine in one preparation of yerba mate is typically quite high, in large part because the repeated filling of the mate with hot water is able to extract the highly-soluble xanthines extremely effectively. It is for this reason that one mate may be shared among several people and yet produce the desired stimulating effect in all of them.


In vivo and in vitro studies are showing yerba mate to exhibit significant cancer-fighting activity. Researchers at the University of Illinois (2005) found yerba mate to be "rich in phenolic constituents" and to "inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation". [14]


On the other hand, a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer showed a limited correlation between oral cancer and the drinking of hot mate (no data were collected on drinkers of cold mate). Given the influence of the temperature of water, as well as the lack of complete adjustment for age, alcohol consumption and smoking, the study concludes that mate is "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans". [15] Yerba mate consumption has been associated with increased incidence of bladder, esophageal, oral, squamous cell of the head and neck, and lung cancer. [16][17][18][19][20][21] It should be noted that the consumption of hot beverages itself is a risk factor for several kinds of cancer.


The pyrrolizidine alkaloids contained in mate tea are known to produce a rare condition of the liver, veno-occlusive disease, which produces liver failure due to progressive occlusion of the small venous channels in the liver. One fatal case has been reported in a young British woman who consumed very large quantities of mate tea from Paraguay. McGee, JO'D (1976). "A case of veno-occlusive disease of the liver in Britain associated with herbal tea consumption". J. clin. Path 29: 788-794. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.  Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


An August 11, 2005, United States patent application (documents #20050176777, #20030185908,[22] and #20020054926) cites yerba mate extract as an inhibitor of MAO activity; the maximal inhibition observed in vitro was 40–50%. A monoamine oxidase inhibitor is a type of antidepressant, so there is some data to suggest that yerba mate has a calming effect in this regard. MAOI redirects here. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ...


In addition, it has been noted by the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine that yerba mate can cause high blood pressure when used in conjunction with other MAO inhibitors (such as Nardil and Parnate). [23] Phenelzine is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the monoamine oxidase inhibitor class of drugs. ... Tranylcypromine is an antidepressant drug. ...


Emerging research also shows that Yerba Mate preparations can alter the concentration of members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) family, resulting in an elevated level of extracellular ATP,ADP, and AMP. This was found with chronic ingestion (15 days)of an aqueous Yerba extract, and can lead to a novel mechanism for manipulation of vascular regenerative factors, i.e., treating heart disease.[1].


Mate contains both caffeine and theobromine (which antagonize adenosine receptors) and reduces the body production of adenosine in the blood (prolongs half life of ATP, ADP, and AMP). These two processes will synergize to provide a much cleaner stimulation than a simple dose of caffeine (only blocking adenosine receptors).


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Mate Mate (pronounced ) is a caffeinated infusion prepared by steeping dried leaves of erva-mate (Portuguese) / yerba mate (Spanish) (Ilex paraguariensis) in hot water. ... Materva is a soft drink trademark that was originally produced in Cuba. ... Binomial name Ilex vomitoria Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria), also called cassina (a name shared with the Dahoon Holly), is an evergreen holly found in the southeast United States. ... 15th-century engraving of an Indian ceremony involving the black drink Black drink was the name given by colonists to a ritual beverage called Asi brewed by Native Americans in the Southeastern United States. ... Binomial name Ilex guayusa Ilex guayusa is a tree of the holly family, native to the Ecuadorian Amazon Rainforest. ... Chimarrão or cimarrón is a South American traditional beverage. ... A guampa containing tereré. A horn made Guampa. ... Ku Ding tea (苦釘茶; pinyin:kǔdīng chá; literally bitter nail/spike tea) or Kuding cha is a particularly bitter-tasting Chinese tisane which due to their similarities in appearance is derived from several plant species[1]. Two most common plants used to make Ku Ding tea, being the wax...

References

  1. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1998). Ilex paraguariensis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 09 May 2006.
  2. ^ Yerba mate — what? at Ushuaia.pl.
  3. ^ Yerba Mate: National Drink of Argentina?
  4. ^ Yerba mate in Argentina
  5. ^ Basic guide to yerba mate.
  6. ^ The New Oxford American Dictionary
  7. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary
  8. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
  9. ^ the Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary
  10. ^ Ross W. Jamieson "The Essence of Commodification: Caffeine dependencies in the early modern world", Journal of Social History, Winter 2001 http://www.yerba-mate.com/yerba_mate_history.htm
  11. ^ Mundo Matero - Chemical Features
  12. ^ Does Yerba Mate Contain Caffeine or Mateine?
  13. ^ RainTree Nutrition, Tropical Plant Database. Yerba mate.
  14. ^ Pixie Maté. Studies on Yerba mate healthy energy.
  15. ^ International Agency for Research on Cancer, Mate Research
  16. ^ Bates MN et al (2007). "EBladder cancer and mate consumption in Argentina: a case-control study.". Cancer Lett. 246(1-2): 268-73. 
  17. ^ De Stefani E et al (2007). "Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay.". BMC Cancer. 7: 57. 
  18. ^ Goldenberg D et al (2004). "Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 131(6): 986–93. 
  19. ^ Sewram V et al (2003). "Maté consumption and the risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer in uruguay.". Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 12(6): 508–13. 
  20. ^ Goldenberg D et al (2003). "The beverage maté: a risk factor for cancer of the head and neck.". Head Neck. 25(7): 595–601. 
  21. ^ Pintos J et al (1994). "Maté, coffee, and tea consumption and risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in southern Brazil.". Epidemiology. 5(6): 583–90. 
  22. ^ US Patent description of "Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and uses thereof"
  23. ^ Dietary supplemental fact sheet from the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Yerba mate - definition of Yerba mate in Encyclopedia (795 words)
Yerba mate (pronounced /yare-ba{ mah-tay/), Ilex paraguariensis, or hierba mate, or erva mate in Portuguese, sometimes called simply "mate", is a shrub in the holly family Aquifoliaceae, native to South America, used as a tea.
Mate contains xanthines, which are alkaloids in the same family as caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, well-known stimulants also found in coffee and chocolate.
Mate has been shown to have a relaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue, and a stimulating effect on myocardial (heart) tissue, though these effects are anecdotally claimed to be of a lesser degree than those of caffeine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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