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Encyclopedia > Yenisei River
Yenisei River
The Yenisei basin, including Lake Baikal
Origin Mongolia
Mouth Arctic Ocean
Basin countries Russia
Length 5,550 km (3,449 mi)
Avg. discharge 19,600 m³/s (692,272 ft³/s)
Basin area 2,580,000 km² (996,138 mi²)

The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. It is slightly shorter but with 1.5 times the flow of the Mississippi-Missouri. Rising in Mongolia, it follows a northerly course to the Kara Sea, draining a large part of central Siberia, the longest stream following the Yenisei-Angara-Selenga-Ider being about 5500 km. Its watershed, which includes the world's largest (by volume)lake, Lake Baikal, holds more water than any other river system. Download high resolution version (514x699, 28 KB)The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk I used this online map creation tool to create the map, and then I manually edited out the waterways not on this map. ... Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal is the largest (by volume), deepest and oldest freshwater lake in the world. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... The Murray River in Australia. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Kara Sea (Russian: Ка́рское мо́ре) is part of the Arctic Ocean (in the area sometimes called the Arctic Mediterranean Sea) off northern Siberia, bound by the Kara Strait (West, connecting to the Barents Sea) and the Severnaya Zemlya Islands and the Northern Land Archipelago (East, and the Laptev Sea). ... Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal is the largest (by volume), deepest and oldest freshwater lake in the world. ...


The first team to navigate the Yenisei's entire length, including its violent upper tributary in Mongolia, was an Australian-Canadian effort completed in September 2001. Ben Kozel, Tim Cope, Colin Angus and Remy Quinter were on this team. Both Kozel and Angus wrote books detailing this expedition, and a documenary was produced for National Geographic Television. A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ... Ben Kozel of Australia is a best selling author and film maker. ... Canadian author and adventurer Colin Angus is best known for completing the first human-powered circumnavigation of the planet. ...


The upper reaches, subject to rapids and flooding, pass through sparsely populated areas. The middle section is controlled by a series of massive hydroelectric dams fuelling significant Russian primary industry. Partly built by gulag labor in Soviet times, industrial contamination remains a serious problem in an area hard to police. Moving on through sparsely-populated taiga, the Yenisei swells with numerous tributaries and finally reaches the Kara Sea in desolate tundra where it is icebound for more than half the year. As with other Siberian rivers, the flow has increased recently, believed to be related to global warming. A concern is that altered salinity in the Arctic may have a global impact on ocean currents. The primary sector of industry generally involves the conversion of natural resources into primary products. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, just below the tundra, and just above the steppes. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ...

Contents


Upper Yenisei

The Yenisei rises in two major headstreams: the Bolshoi (greater) Yenisei also known as the Bii-Khem (Бии-Хем) rises in the Tuva region on the S flank of the Eastern Sayan Mountains and north of the Tannu-Ola Mountains at 52°20′N 97°30′E; the Malyy (lesser) Yenisei also known as the Kaa-Khem (Каа-Хем) rises in the Darhat (rift) valley in Mongolia. Recent research has shown that the narrow exit to the Darhat Valley has regularly been blocked by ice producing a lake as large as neighbouring Lake Khuvsgul. When the glaciers retreated (the last time 9300 years BP) as much as 500 km³ of water would have escaped, possibly catastrophically. The Tuva Republic (Russian: ; Tuvan: Тыва Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Sayan Mountains (Russian, Sayanskiy Khrebet) is a mountain range in southern Siberia, Asia, forming the eastern continuation of the Sailughem or Altay range, stretching from 89° E to 106° E. Orographically they are the N border-ridge of the plateau of NW Mongolia, and separate that region from Siberia. ... The Tannu-Ola mountains, more properly called the Tangdy-Uula mountains (Tuvan Таңдь-Уула), are a range of mountains making the border between Tuva and Mongolia. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ... Lake Khuvsgul (Khuvsgul Nuur) is a freshwater lake in the north of Mongolia near the border with Russia. ...


These two headstreams flow west converging at Kyzyl, and on meeting the east-flowing Khemchik River head north through a canyon in the Western Sayan mountains. The Yenisei emerges from the mountains onto an area of steppe where its first control is the 30m dam at Mayna. This section is around 700 km. Music-Drama Theatre in Kyzyl Kyzyl (Tuvan and Russian: Кызы́л) is a city in Russia, capital of Tyva Republic. ...


Lake Baikal Headwaters

The 320 km (partly navigable) Upper Angara feeds into the northern end of Lake Baikal from the Buryat Republic but the largest inflow is from the Selenga which forms a delta on the south-eastern side. The longest tributaries rise on the eastern slopes of central Mongolia's Hangayn Nuruu mountains. Another tributary, the Tuul passes through the Mongolian capital, Ulaanbaatar while the Egiin drains Lake Khuvsgul. Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal is the largest (by volume), deepest and oldest freshwater lake in the world. ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Selengе or Selenga (Mongolian: Сэлэнгэ, Russian: Селенга́) is a river in Mongolia and Russia. ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [UlaÉ£an BaÉ£atar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ... Lake Khuvsgul (Khuvsgul Nuur) is a freshwater lake in the north of Mongolia near the border with Russia. ...

This satellite image is 800 km across. The green area towards the top-left, containing several small lakes and bordered by the snow-capped Eastern Sayan Mountains to the north, is the source of the Bolshoi Yenisei in Tuva. The dry Darhat Valley just west of Lake Khuvsgul in the center of the image is the source of the Malyy Yenisei. These two streams can be followed to their confluence at Kyzyl at the left of the image. Lake Baikal is at the right of the image and the Angara flowing north from Irkutsk can clearly be made out. It is already widening due to the dam at Bratsk 200 km further north. The Selenga, whose headwaters include Lake Khuvsgul, flows into Lake Baikal in a delta at the extreme edge of the image. The Lena River has its source in the top right of the image.
This satellite image is 800 km across. The green area towards the top-left, containing several small lakes and bordered by the snow-capped Eastern Sayan Mountains to the north, is the source of the Bolshoi Yenisei in Tuva. The dry Darhat Valley just west of Lake Khuvsgul in the center of the image is the source of the Malyy Yenisei. These two streams can be followed to their confluence at Kyzyl at the left of the image. Lake Baikal is at the right of the image and the Angara flowing north from Irkutsk can clearly be made out. It is already widening due to the dam at Bratsk 200 km further north. The Selenga, whose headwaters include Lake Khuvsgul, flows into Lake Baikal in a delta at the extreme edge of the image. The Lena River has its source in the top right of the image.

Just downstream from Mayna, the 242m Sayano-Shushenskaya dam at Sayansk powers Russia's largest hydroelectric plant completed in 1989 and producing 6400 MW for aluminium production. This is the same height and five times the power of the Hoover Dam. About 100 km downstream the Yenisei is swollen by the Abakan river and passes Abakan, capital of the Khakassia region, on the west bank and Minusinsk on the east bank. It passes within 10 km of the Chulym, a tributary of the Ob before reaching Krasnoyarsk after 300 km. This halt on the Trans-Siberian railway is the Yenisei's largest city. Krasnoyarsk is a major port. Not far away from Krasnoyarsk is Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (849x467, 87 KB)Satellite image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (849x467, 87 KB)Satellite image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Lena River ( Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... Hoover Dam Downstream from Hoover Dam, showing the river, power stations, and power lines. ... Abakan (Абака́н) a river of south-central Russia rising in the western Sayan Mountains and flowing about 514 km northeast to the Yenisei River. ... For the river Abakan, see Abakan River For the Abakan assault rifle, see AN-94 City coat of arms Abakan (Russian: ) is the capital of Khakassia in Russia, in South Siberia. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... Minusinsk (Минуси́нск) is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, on the Yenisei River. ... Ob (also Obi, Russian Обь) is a river in West Siberia, Russia, the countrys fourth longest. ... Flag Seal Location Location of Krasnoyarsk and Krai in Russia Coordinates , Government Krai Krasnoyarsk Mayor Pyotr Pimashkov Geographical characteristics Area     City 172 km²     Land   172 km²     Water   0 km² Population     City (2005) 917,200     Density   5,300/km² Elevation +135. ... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam The 119m Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam, located on the Yenisey river within 30 km upstream from Krasnoyarsk, was finished in 1964 and supplies 6000MW of power. ...


The closed city of Zheleznogorsk, 70km downstream, is a secret Soviet nuclear weapons and satellite facility missing from most maps. The exact state of the enormous nuclear waste dump is unclear, but some discharges continue to pollute the Yenisei. A further 200 km downstream comes the confluence with the Angara (whose final section is also known as the Upper [Verkhnyaya] Tunguska). A closed city (town) is a city/town with travel and residency restrictions in the former Soviet Union, or in a CIS country. ... Zheleznogorsk (Russian: ; approx. ...


Angara River

The Angara (Ангара́) river drains Lake Baikal and runs 1840 km from the regional capital Irkutsk to converge with the Yenisei at Strelka (58.101° N 92.998° E). It is dammed in four places to power local industry. The 44m dam at Irkutsk produces 650 MW. Bratsk lies 500 km downstream, where the 124 m dam built in the 1960s produces 4500 MW. The resultant reservoir is nicknamed Dragon Lake because of its outline. The tributary Oka and Iya rivers, which rise on the north slopes of the Eastern Sayan mountains, form the 'jaws' and 400 km of the Angara form the 'tail'. There are newer dams almost as large at Ust-Ilimsk 250 km downstream (also damming the tributary Ilim river) and Boguchany a further 400 km downstream (not operational). Further dams are planned but the environmental consequences of completely taming the Angara are leading to protests which may prevent funding. Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal is the largest (by volume), deepest and oldest freshwater lake in the world. ... Irkutsks location Irkutsk (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, one of the largest cities in Siberia. ... Strelka means little arrow in Russian and may refer to one of the following. ... Bratsk is a Russian city in the Irkutsk Oblast in eastern Siberia. ...


Angarsk, the center of the expanding Eastern Siberian oil industry and site of a huge Yukos-owned refinery, lies 50 km downstream of Irkutsk. A major pipeline takes oil west, and a new one is being built to carry oil east for supply to Japan from the Sea of Japan port of Nakhodka. The exact potential of Eastern Siberia is unknown, but two new major fields are the Kovyktinskoye field near Zhigalovo 200 km north of Irkutsk and the extremely remote Verkhnechonskoye field 500 km north of Irkutsk on the Central Siberian Plateau. Angarsky Prospekt Angarsk (Russian: Ангарск) is a city in the Irkutsk Oblast, South-East Siberia, Russia. ... Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ... Nakhodka is a port city in Primorsky Krai (Maritime Region) in the Far Eastern part of Russia, at 42°49′ N 132°53′ E The city has approximately 200,000 inhabitants. ... The Central Siberian Plateau (ru: Среднесиби́рское плоского́рье) is a part of Siberia. ...


Lower Yenisei

The Great Kaz joins the Yenisei 300 km downstream of the Strelka. It is noteworthy for its connection to the Ob via Ob-Yenisei canal and Ket River. The river starts to widen, its bed being littered with islands as numerous rivers augment its flow, in particular 1800 km Stony (Podkamennaya) Tunguska, and the 3000 km Lower (Nizhnyaya) Tunguska at Turukhansk draining the desolate central Siberian Plateau from the east. The remote Tunguska (Тунгуска) region is most famous for the 1908 meteorite impact, but is now being explored for oil. Beyond Turukhansk, the river enters tundra. Ob (also Obi, Russian Обь) is a river in West Siberia, Russia, the countrys fourth longest. ... Ob-Yenisei canal connects the Ket River, a tributary of the Ob River with the Great Kaz River, a tributary of the Yenisei River. ... Turukhansk is an urban-type settlement in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... Trees felled by the Tunguska blast. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


The river is icebound for more than half the year, and if unchecked ice could dam the river causing major flooding. Explosives are used to keep the water flowing. The final town is Dudinka which is connected to Krasnoyarsk by regular passenger boat. The river widens to a 50 km estuary for its final 250 km and the shipping lanes are kept open by icebreaker. Dudinka and Dikson on the Yenisei River estuary The Yenisei watershed, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Dudinka (Russian: ) is a town and the administrative center of Taymyria Autonomous District in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ...


During the ice age, the route to the arctic was blocked by ice. Though the exact details are unclear, the Yenisei is believed to have flowed into a huge lake filling much of western Siberia, eventually flowing into the Black Sea. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Map of the Black Sea. ...


External links

  • Information and a Map of the Yenisei's Watershed
  • Bratsk Dam and Angara Photos
  • Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam
  • Krasnoyarsk Dam
  • Yenisei Nature Photos (Krasnoyarsk Area)
  • Krasnoyarsk Photos

  Results from FactBites:
 
Yenisei (267 words)
It is formed at Kyzyl, Tuva Republic, by the junction of the Bolshoi Yenisei and Maly Yenisei rivers, which rise in the E Sayan Mts.
The Angara, Stony Tunguska, and Lower Tunguska rivers are the Yenisei's chief tributaries.
Igarka on the lower river is the region's chief lumber-loading port.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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