FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Location Wyoming, Montana and Idaho, U.S.
Nearest city West Yellowstone, Montana Gardiner, Montana and Jackson, Wyoming
Coordinates 44°36′0″N 110°30′0″W / 44.6, -110.5
Area 2,219,789 acres (898,317 ha)[1]
Established March 1, 1872
Visitors 2,870,295[2] (in 2006)
Governing body National Park Service
World Heritage Site September 8, 1978
Historical poster of Yellowstone from 1938
Historical poster of Yellowstone from 1938

Yellowstone National Park, set aside as a national park on March 1, 1872, is located mostly in the U.S. state of Wyoming, though it also extends into Montana and Idaho. The park was the first of its kind, and is known for its wildlife and geothermal features, especially Old Faithful Geyser, one of the most popular areas in the park.[1] Yellowstone may refer to: Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone County, Montana Yellowstone Lake Yellowstone River Yellowstone Falls Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone Lake State Park, Wisconsin Boeing Yellowstone Project 2-8-8-4, a locomotive type nicknamed Yellowstone Yellowstone (film), a 1936 film Category: ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... This article is about national parks. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... West Yellowstone is a town in Gallatin County, Montana, adjacent to Yellowstone National Park. ... The Roosevelt Arch is located in Gardiner, Montana at the North Entrance. ... Jackson is a town located in the Jackson Hole valley of Teton County, Wyoming. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about national parks. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ... Old Faithful redirects here. ...


Aboriginal Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. The region was bypassed during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in the early 1800s. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early to mid-1800s, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. The U.S. Army was commissioned to oversee the park just after its establishment. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, which had been created the previous year. Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, and researchers have examined more than 1,000 archaeological sites. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Lewis and Clark redirects here. ... Liver-Eating Johnson The Mountain Men is also the name of a 1980 movie starring Charlton Heston. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,472 square miles (8,987 km²), comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges.[1] Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-altitude lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. The caldera is considered an active volcano; it has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism.[3] Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone. The park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining, nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone.[4] For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Yellowstone Lake is the largest body of water in Yellowstone National Park, The lake is 7,732 feet (2,376 m) above sea level and covers 136 square miles (352 km²) with 110 miles (177 km) of shoreline. ... North American redirects here. ... The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ... A supervolcano is a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Greater Yellowstone is the last large, nearly intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone of the Earth and is partly located in Yellowstone National Park. ...


Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened.[1] The vast forests and grasslands also include unique species of plants. Grizzlies, wolves, and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in the park. Forest fires occur in the park each year; in the large forest fires of 1988, nearly one third of the park burned. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, camping, boating, fishing and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors often access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobile. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Fires approach the Old Faithful Complex on September 7, 1988. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ... // Boating, the leisurely activity of traveling by boat typically refers to the recreational use of boats whether power boats, sail boats, or yachts (large vessels), focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... A Snow Coach is a specialized passenger transport vehicle, designed to operate over snow or ice. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ...

Contents

Early history

The park is located at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River, from which it takes its historical name. In the eighteenth century, French Trappers named the river "Roche Jaune," which is probably a translation of the Minnetaree name "Mi tsi a-da-zi" (Rock Yellow River). Later, American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone." Although it is commonly believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is not clear.[5] The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when aboriginal Americans first began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from approximately 11,000 years ago.[6] These Paleo-indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make such cutting tools and weapons. Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east.[7] By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce, Crow and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members were informed of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it.[7] Yellowstone River, Fishing Bridge, July 1959. ... A coureur de bois was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone downstream from Upper Fall The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is a large canyon of the Yellowstone River that is located in Yellowstone National Park in the United States of America. ... The Roosevelt Arch is located in Gardiner, Montana at the North Entrance. ... The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture[1]) is a prehistoric Paleoindian culture that first appears in the archaeological record of North America around 11,500 rcbp radiocarbon years ago, at the end of the last glacial period. ... Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arrowhead (disambiguation). ... Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge 16,200 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin Lake Itasca Mouth Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ... Whites redirects here. ... Explorer redirects here. ... Lewis and Clark redirects here. ... The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana, and the current chairman of the tribal council is Carl Venne. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...


In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers. After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what later became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area in the northeastern section of the park, near Tower Falls.[8] After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, he gave a description of a place of "fire and brimstone" that was dismissed by most people as delirium. The supposedly imaginary place was nicknamed "Colter's Hell." Over the next forty years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers and petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth.[9] Private John Colter (1774–1813), a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, was the first white American to enter what is now known as Yellowstone National Park, descend into Jackson Hole and see the Grand Teton mountains, in 1808. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Tower Falls Tower Falls is a waterfall in the northeastern region of Yellowstone National Park, in the U.S. state of Wyoming. ... For other uses, see Blackfoot (disambiguation). ... Colters Hell is a volcanic area at the Shoshone River near Cody in the US state of Wyoming. ... Petrified wood In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material is converted into stone or a similar substance. ...


After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, and a mountain of glass and yellow rock. These reports were largely ignored because Bridger was known for being a "spinner of yarns". His stories did arouse the interest of explorer and geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, who, in 1859, started a two-year survey of the upper Missouri River region. Bridger and United States Army surveyor W.F. Raynolds acted as guides. After exploring the Black Hills region in what is now the state of South Dakota, the party neared the Yellowstone River, but heavy snows forced them to turn back. The American Civil War hampered further organized explorations until the late 1860s.[10] Jim Bridger Jim Bridger (right) is honored along with Pony Express founder Alexander Majors (left) and Kansas City founder John Calvin McCoy at Pioneer Square in Westport in Kansas City. ... Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (September 7, 1829 - December 22, 1887) was an American geologist noted for his pioneering surveying expeditions of Rocky Mountains in the late 19th century. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The first detailed expedition to the Yellowstone area was the Folsom Expedition of 1869, which consisted of three privately funded explorers. The Folsom party followed the Yellowstone River to Yellowstone Lake.[11] The members of the Folsom party kept a journal and based on the information it reported, a party of Montana residents organized the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition in 1870. It was headed by the surveyor-general of Montana Henry Washburn, and included Nathaniel P. Langford (who later became known as "National Park" Langford) and a U.S. Army detachment commanded by Lt. Gustavus Doane. The expedition spent about a month exploring the region, collecting specimens, and naming sites of interest. A Montana writer and lawyer named Cornelius Hedges, who had been a member of the Washburn expedition, proposed that the region should be set aside and protected as a National Park; he wrote a number of detailed articles about his observations for the Helena Herald newspaper between 1870 and 1871. Hedges essentially restated comments made in October 1865 by acting Montana Territorial Governor Thomas Francis Meagher, who had previously commented that the region should be protected.[12] Others made similar suggestions. In an 1871 letter from Jay Cooke to Ferdinand Hayden, Cooke wrote that his friend, Senator William D. Kelley had also suggested "Congress pass a bill reserving the Great Geyser Basin as a public park forever".[13] The Folsom Expedition of 1869 was the first organized expedition to explore the region that became Yellowstone National Park. ... The Washburn Expedition of 1870, explored the region of northwestern Wyoming that a couple years later became Yellowstone National Park. ... Nathaniel P. Langford (1832 - 1911), also known as National Park Langford, was the first superintendent of Yellowstone National Park and was a member of the 1870 Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition to explore the park and was an advocate to preserve the Yellowstone region. ... Thomas Francis Meagher aka: OMeagher, or Meagher of the Sword (August 3, 1823 – July 1, 1867) was an Irish revolutionary, who also served in the United States Army as a Brigadier General during the American Civil War. ... Jay Cooke (August 10, 1821-February 8, 1905), American financier, was born at Sandusky, Ohio, the son of Eleutheros Cooke (1787-1864), a pioneer Ohio lawyer, and Whig member of Congress from that state in 1831-1833. ... William D. Kelley (April 12, 1814 - January 9, 1890) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Park creation and later history

In this 1871 painting by William Henry Jackson, the Hayden Survey is depicted exploring a lake in Yellowstone
In this 1871 painting by William Henry Jackson, the Hayden Survey is depicted exploring a lake in Yellowstone

In 1871, eleven years after his failed first effort, F.V. Hayden was finally able to make another attempt to explore the region. With government sponsorship, Hayden returned to Yellowstone with a second, larger expedition. He compiled a comprehensive report on Yellowstone, which included large-format photographs by William Henry Jackson, as well as paintings by Thomas Moran. His report helped to convince the U.S. Congress to withdraw this region from public auction; on March 1, 1872, President Ulysses S. Grant signed a bill into law that created Yellowstone National Park.[14] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 499 pixel Image in higher resolution (1999 × 1248 pixel, file size: 437 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Painting by Wuilliam Henry Jackson of the Hayden Expedition, Yellowstone National Park, 1871. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 499 pixel Image in higher resolution (1999 × 1248 pixel, file size: 437 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Painting by Wuilliam Henry Jackson of the Hayden Expedition, Yellowstone National Park, 1871. ... William Henry Jackson, 1862 William Henry Jackson (April 4, 1843 - June 30, 1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer famous for his images of the American West. ... A noon meal in Ferdinand V. Haydens camp of the U.& Geological Survey. ... William Henry Jackson, 1862 William Henry Jackson (April 4, 1843 - June 30, 1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer famous for his images of the American West. ... Thomas Moran. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...

(1870) Portrait of Nathaniel P. Langford, the first superintendent of the park.
(1870) Portrait of Nathaniel P. Langford, the first superintendent of the park.[15]

Nathaniel Langford was appointed as the park's first superintendent in 1872. He served for five years but was denied a salary, funding, and staff. Langford lacked the means to improve the land or properly protect the park, and without formal policy or regulations, he had few legal methods to enforce such protection. This left Yellowstone vulnerable to poachers, vandals, and others seeking to raid its resources. In 1875, Colonel William Ludlow, who had previously explored areas of Montana under the command of George Armstrong Custer, was assigned to organize and lead an expedition to Montana and the newly established Yellowstone Park. Observations about the lawlessness and exploitation of park resources were included in Ludlow's Report of a Reconnaissance to the Yellowstone Nation Park. The report included letters and attachments by other expedition members, including naturalist and mineralogist George Bird Grinnell. Grinnell documented the poaching of buffalo, deer, elk and antelope for hides. "It is estimated that during the winter of 1874–1875, not less than 3,000 Buffalo and mule deer suffer even more severely than the elk, and the antelope nearly as much."[16] Brigadier General William Ludlow, c. ... Custer redirects here. ... George Bird Grinnell (1849 – 1938) was an American anthropologist, historian, naturalist, and writer. ...


As a result, Langford was forced to step down in 1877.[17][18] Having traveled through Yellowstone and witnessed land management problems first hand, Philetus Norris volunteered for the position following Langford's exit. Congress finally saw fit to implement a salary for the position, as well as to provide a minimal funding to operate the park. Norris used these funds to expand access to the park, building numerous crude roads and facilities.[18] Norris hired Harry Yount to control poaching and vandalism in the park. Today, Harry Yount is considered the first national park ranger.[19] However, these measures still proved to be insufficient in protecting the park, as neither Norris, nor the three superintendents who followed, were given sufficient manpower or resources. Philetus W. Norris was the second superintendent of Yellowstone National Park and was the first person to be paid for that position. ... Harry Yount,1837-1924, nicknamed Rocky Mountain Harry, is considered to be Yellowstone National Parks first ranger. ...

Fort Yellowstone, formerly a U.S. Army base, now serves as park headquarters
Fort Yellowstone, formerly a U.S. Army base, now serves as park headquarters

The Northern Pacific Railroad built a train station in Livingston, Montana, connecting to the northern entrance in the early 1880s, which helped to increase visitation from 300 in 1872 to 5,000 in 1883.[20] Visitors in these early years were faced with poor roads and limited services, and most access into the park was on horse or via stagecoach. By 1908 visitation increased enough to also attract a Union Pacific Railroad connection to West Yellowstone, though rail visitation fell off considerably by World War II and ceased around the 1960s. Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Northern Pacific Railway Categories: Stub | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Idaho railroads | Minnesota railroads | Montana railroads | North Dakota railroads | Oregon railroads | Washington railroads | Wisconsin railroads ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... Livingston is a city located in Park County, Montana, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 6,851. ... Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... Union Pacific redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Ongoing poaching and destruction of natural resources continued unabated until the U.S. Army arrived at Mammoth Hot Springs in 1886 and built Camp Sheridan. Over the next 22 years the army constructed permanent structures, and Camp Sheridan was renamed Fort Yellowstone.[21] With the funding and manpower necessary to keep a diligent watch, the army developed their own policies and regulations that permitted public access while protecting park wildlife and natural resources. When the National Park Service was created in 1916, many of the management principles developed by the army were adopted by the new agency.[21] The army turned control over to the National Park Service on October 31, 1918.[22] The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ... An undated historical photo of Fort Yellowstone. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


By 1915, 1,000 automobiles per year were entering the park, resulting in conflicts with horses and horse driven transportation. In subsequent years horse travel on roads was eventually prohibited.[23] Between 1933 and 1941, the Civilian Conservation Corps built the majority of the early visitor centers, campgrounds and the current system of park roads. During World War II, staffing and visitation both decreased, and many facilities fell into disrepair.[24] By the 1950s, visitation increased tremendously in Yellowstone and other national parks. To accommodate the increased visitation, park officials implemented Mission 66, an effort to modernize and expand park service facilities. Planned to be completed by 1966, in honor of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the National Park Service, Mission 66 construction diverged from the traditional log cabin style with design features of a modern style.[25] During the late 1980s, most construction styles in Yellowstone reverted back to the more traditional designs. After the enormous forest fires of 1988 damaged much of Grant Village, structures there were rebuilt in the traditional style. The visitor center at Canyon Village, which opened in 2006, incorporates a more traditional design as well.[26] CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families, established on March 19, 1933 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mission 66 was a US National Park Service ten-year program that was intended to dramatically expand NPS visitor services by 1966, in time for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Park Service. ...

The Roosevelt Arch is located in Montana at the North Entrance. The arch's cornerstone was laid by Theodore Roosevelt. The placard reads "For the Benefit and Enjoyment of the People."

The 1959 Yellowstone earthquake just west of Yellowstone at Hebgen Lake damaged roads and some structures in the park. In the northwest section of the park, new geysers were found, and many existing hot springs became turbid.[27] It was the most powerful earthquake to hit the region in recorded history. Image File history File linksMetadata Yellowstonenorth. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Yellowstonenorth. ... The Roosevelt Arch is the north entrance to Yellowstone National Park in Gardiner, Montana. ... The Roosevelt Arch is located in Gardiner, Montana at the North Entrance. ... Look up cornerstone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Hebgen Lake is a lake located in Montana. ...


The wildfires during the summer of 1988 were the largest in the history of the park. Approximately 793,880 acres (1,240 sq mi/321,272 ha) or 36% of the parkland was impacted by the fires, leading to a systematic reevaluation of fire management policies. The fire season of 1988 was considered normal until a combination of drought and heat by mid-July contributed to an extreme fire danger. On "Black Saturday," August 20, 1988, strong winds expanded the fires rapidly, and more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha/230 sq mi) were consumed.[28] For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


The expansive cultural history of the park has been documented by the 1,000 archeological sites that have been discovered. The park has 1,106 historic structures and features, and of these Obsidian Cliff and five buildings have been designated National Historic Landmarks.[1] Yellowstone was designated an International Biosphere Reserve on October 26, 1976, and a United Nations World Heritage Site on September 8, 1978. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The USS Arizona Memorial. ... A Biosphere Reserve is an international conservation designation for reserves designated by UNESCO under the MaB (Man and the Biosphere) Programme. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Geography

Yellowstone Lake on an autumn morning

Approximately 96% of the land area of Yellowstone National Park is located within the state of Wyoming. Another 3% is within Montana, with the remaining 1% in Idaho. The park is 63 miles (102 km) north to south, and 54 miles (87 km) west to east by air. At 2,219,789 acres (898,317 ha/3,468.420 sq mi), Yellowstone is larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware combined. Rivers and lakes cover 5% of the land area, with the largest water body being Yellowstone Lake at 87,040 acres (35,220 ha/136.00 sq mi). Yellowstone Lake is up to 400 feet (122 m) deep and has 110 miles (177 km) of shoreline. Sitting at an elevation of 7,733 feet (2,357 m) above sea level, Yellowstone Lake is the largest high altitude lake in North America. Forests comprise 80% of the land area of the park; most of the rest is grassland.[1] Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 158 KB)full size picture of Lake Yellowstone File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 158 KB)full size picture of Lake Yellowstone File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ...


The Continental Divide of North America runs diagonally through the southwestern part of the park. The divide is a topographic feature that separates Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean water drainages. About one third of the park lies on the west side of the divide. The origins of the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers are near each other but on opposite sides of the divide. As a result, the waters of the Snake River flow to the Pacific Ocean, while those of the Yellowstone find their way to the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico. A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... For other uses, see Snake River (disambiguation). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...

Lewis Falls on the Lewis River
Lewis Falls on the Lewis River

The park sits on the Yellowstone Plateau, at an average altitude of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level. The plateau is bounded on nearly all sides by mountain ranges of the Middle Rocky Mountains, which range from 9,000 to 11,000 feet (2,743 to 3,352 m) in elevation. The highest point in the park is atop Eagle Peak (11,358 ft/3,462 m) and the lowest is along Reese Creek (5,282 ft/1,610 m).[1] Nearby mountain ranges include the Gallatin Range to the northwest, the Beartooth Mountains in the north, the Absaroka Range to the east, and the Teton Range and the Madison Range to the southwest and west. The most prominent summit on the Yellowstone Plateau is Mount Washburn at 10,243 feet (3,122 m). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 586 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lewis Falls, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S. File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 586 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lewis Falls, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S. File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field developed through three volcanic cycles spanning two million years that included some of the worlds largest known eruptions. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Eagle Peak (11,358 ft / 3,462 m) is situated in the Absaroka Range in the U.S. state of Wyoming, and is the tallest mountain in Yellowstone National Park. ... The Gallatin Range is located in the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming and includes more than 10 mountains over 10,000 feet (3,048 m). ... The Bears Tooth in the Beartooth Mountains The Beartooth Mountains are located in south central Montana, U.S. and are part of the 900,000 acre (3,600 km²) Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, within Custer and Gallatin National Forests. ... The Absaroka Range is shown highlighted on a map of North America The Absaroka Range is a mountain range, a sub-range on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains stretching for about 150 mi (240 km) across the Montana-Wyoming border, and forming the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National... The Teton Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America. ... Mount Washburn is a 10,243 foot (3,122 m) mountain located in Yellowstone National Park. ...


Yellowstone National Park has one of the world's largest petrified forests, trees which were long ago buried by ash and soil and transformed from wood to mineral materials. There are 290 waterfalls of at least 15 feet (4.5 m) in the park, the highest being the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River at 308 feet (94 m).[1] For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River Upper falls of the Yellowstone River Yellowstone Falls consist of two major waterfalls on the Yellowstone River, within Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States. ...


Two deep canyons are located in the park, cut through the volcanic tuff of the Yellowstone Plateau by rivers over the last 640,000 years. The Lewis River flows through Lewis Canyon in the south, and the Yellowstone River has carved the colorful Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone in its journey north. The Lewis River is a tributary of the Snake River. ... Yellowstone River, Fishing Bridge, July 1959. ... Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone downstream from Upper Fall The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is a large canyon of the Yellowstone River that is located in Yellowstone National Park in the United States of America. ...


Geology

Columnar basalt near Tower Falls. Large floods of basalt and other lava types preceded mega-eruptions of superheated ash and pumice.
Columnar basalt near Tower Falls. Large floods of basalt and other lava types preceded mega-eruptions of superheated ash and pumice.

Yellowstone is at the northeastern end of the Snake River Plain, a great U-shaped arc through the mountains that extends from Boise, Idaho some 400 miles (640 km) to the west. This feature traces the route of the North American Plate over the last 17 million years as it was transported by plate tectonics across a stationary mantle hotspot. The landscape of present-day Yellowstone National Park is the most recent manifestation of this hotspot below the crust of the Earth.[29] The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ... The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ... A supervolcano is a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... Image File history File links Columnar_basalt_closeup_near_Tower_Fall_in_Yellowstone. ... Image File history File links Columnar_basalt_closeup_near_Tower_Fall_in_Yellowstone. ... Big Southern Buttes Prominence on Snake River Plain The Snake River Plain is a geological feature of (primarily) the American state of Idaho. ... Boise redirects here. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ...


The Yellowstone Caldera is the largest volcanic system in North America. It has been termed a "supervolcano" because the caldera was formed by exceptionally large explosive eruptions. The current caldera was created by a cataclysmic eruption that occurred 640,000 years ago, which released 240 cubic miles (1,000 km³) of ash, rock and pyroclastic materials. This eruption was 1,000 times larger than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.[30] It produced a crater nearly a two thirds of a mile (1 km) deep and 52 by 28 miles (85 by 45 km) in area and deposited the Lava Creek Tuff, a welded tuff geologic formation. The most violent known eruption, which occurred 2.1 million years ago, ejected 588 cubic miles (2,450 km³) of volcanic material and created the rock formation known as the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff.[31] A smaller eruption ejected 67 cubic miles (280 km³) of material 1.2 million years ago, forming the Island Park Caldera and depositing the Mesa Falls Tuff.[30] The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ... A supervolcano is a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... Tephra is a generic term for air fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... The 1980 eruption of Mount St. ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ... Tuff Cliff showing the Lava Creek Tuff formation. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... A geologic formation is a formally named rock stratum or geological unit. ... The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff is a tuff formation created by the Huckleberry Ridge eruption of a massive caldera encompassing what is now the Yellowstone Caldera. ... The Island Park Caldera is a large caldera located in eastern Idaho just to the southwest of the Yellowstone Caldera. ...

Wooden walkways allow visitors to closely approach the Grand Prismatic Spring
Wooden walkways allow visitors to closely approach the Grand Prismatic Spring

Each of the three climax eruptions released vast amounts of ash that blanketed much of central North America falling many hundreds of miles away. The amount of ash and gases released into the atmosphere probably caused significant impacts to world weather patterns and led to the extinction of many species, primarily in North America.[32] Image File history File links Aerial view of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park Image by NPS Photo - http://www. ... Image File history File links Aerial view of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park Image by NPS Photo - http://www. ... Grand Prismatic Spring. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


A subsequent minor climax eruption occurred 160,000 years ago. It formed the relatively small caldera that contains the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. Later, two smaller eruptive cycles, the last one ending about 70,000 years ago, buried much of the caldera under thick lava flows.[31]


Each eruption is in fact a part of an eruptive cycle that climaxes with the collapse of the roof of a partially emptied magma chamber. This creates a crater, called a caldera, and releases vast amounts of volcanic material, usually through fissures that ring the caldera. The time between the last three cataclysmic eruptions in the Yellowstone area has ranged from 600,000 to 900,000 years, but the small number of such climax eruptions cannot be used to make a prediction for future volcanic events.[33] A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ...

Morning Glory Pool
Morning Glory Pool

Between 630,000 and 700,000 years ago, Yellowstone Caldera was nearly filled in with periodic eruptions of rhyolitic lavas such as those that can be seen at Obsidian Cliffs and basaltic lavas which can be viewed at Sheepeaters Cliff. Lava strata are most easily seen at the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, where the Yellowstone River continues to carve into the ancient lava flows. The canyon is a classic V-shaped valley, indicative of river-type erosion rather than erosion caused by glaciation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x473, 253 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x473, 253 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Morning Glory Pool Morning Glory Pool is a hot spring in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ... This page is about a volcanic rock. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... The term V-shaped is used in Geography to characterize the form of steep eroded valleys. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ...


The most famous geyser in the park, and perhaps the world, is Old Faithful Geyser, located in Upper Geyser Basin; the park also contains the largest active geyser in the world—Steamboat Geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin. There are 300 geysers in Yellowstone and a total of at least 10,000 geothermal features altogether. Half the geothermal features and two-thirds of the world's geysers are concentrated in Yellowstone.[34] Old Faithful redirects here. ... The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ... Major eruption, Steamboat Geyser, circa 1960s. ... The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ...


In May 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah created the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership for long-term monitoring of the geological processes of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, for disseminating information concerning the potential hazards of this geologically active region.[35] The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ...

Old Faithful Geyser erupts approximately every 91 minutes.
Old Faithful Geyser erupts approximately every 91 minutes.

In 2003, changes at the Norris Geyser Basin resulted in the temporary closure of some trails in the basin. New fumaroles were observed, and several geysers showed enhanced activity and increasing water temperatures. Several geysers became so hot that they were transformed into purely steaming features; the water had become superheated and they could no longer erupt normally.[36] This coincided with the release of reports of a multiple year United States Geological Survey research project which mapped the bottom of Yellowstone Lake and identified a structural dome that had uplifted at some time in the past. Research indicated that these uplifts posed no immediate threat of a volcanic eruption, since they may have developed long ago, and there had been no temperature increase found near the uplifts.[37] On March 10, 2004, a biologist discovered 5 dead bison which apparently had inhaled toxic geothermal gases trapped in the Norris Geyser Basin by a seasonal atmospheric inversion. This was closely followed by an upsurge of earthquake activity in April 2004.[38] In 2006, it was reported that the Mallard Lake Dome and the Sour Creek Dome— areas that have long been known to show significant changes in their ground movement— had risen at a rate of 1.5 to 2.4 inches (4 to 6 cm) per year from mid–2004 through 2006. As of late 2007, the uplift has continued at a reduced rate.[39][40] These events inspired a great deal of media attention and speculation about the geologic future of the region. Experts responded to the conjecture by informing the public that there was no increased risk of a volcanic eruption in the near future.[41] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 2064 KB) Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park Photo was taken on July 28, 2005 and I am gifting it to the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 2064 KB) Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park Photo was taken on July 28, 2005 and I am gifting it to the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Old Faithful redirects here. ... “Solfatara” redirects here. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Castle Geyser eruption.
Castle Geyser eruption.

Yellowstone experiences thousands of small earthquakes every year, virtually all of which are undetectable to people. There have been six earthquakes with at least magnitude 6 or greater in historical times, including a 7.5 magnitude quake that struck just outside the northwest boundary of the park in 1959. This quake triggered a huge landslide, which caused a partial dam collapse on Hebgen Lake; immediately downstream, the sediment from the landslide dammed the river and created a new lake, known as Earthquake Lake. Twenty-eight people were killed, and property damage was extensive in the immediate region. The earthquake caused some geysers in the northwestern section of the park to erupt, large cracks in the ground formed and emitted steam, and some hot springs' normally clear water turned muddy.[27] A 6.1 magnitude earthquake struck inside the park on June 30, 1975, but damage was minimal. For three months in 1985, 3,000 minor earthquakes were detected in the northwestern section of the park, during what has been referred to as an earthquake swarm, and has been attributed to minor subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera.[30] Beginning on April 30, 2007, sixteen small earthquakes with magnitudes up to 2.7 occurred in the Yellowstone Caldera for several days. These swarms of earthquakes are common, and there have been 70 such swarms between 1983 and 2006.[42] Seismic activity continues as evidenced by the magnitude 4.2 quake occurring on March 25, 2008.[43] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1333 × 2000 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1333 × 2000 pixels, file size: 1. ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... Hebgen Lake is a lake located in Montana. ... Quake Lake (also known as Earthquake Lake) was created after a massive earthquake struck southwestern Montana, United States on August 17, 1959. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Biology and ecology

Pronghorn are commonly found on the grasslands in the park
Pronghorn are commonly found on the grasslands in the park

Yellowstone National Park is the centerpiece of the 20 million acre/31,250 square-mile (8,093,712 ha/80,937 km²) Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region that includes Grand Teton National Park, adjacent National Forests and expansive wilderness areas in those forests. The ecosystem is the largest remaining continuous stretch of mostly undeveloped pristine land in the United States outside of Alaska and is considered to be the world's largest intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone.[4] With the successful wolf reintroduction program, which began in the 1990s, virtually all the original faunal species known to inhabit the region when white explorers first entered the area can still be found there. Greater Yellowstone is the last large, nearly intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone of the Earth and is partly located in Yellowstone National Park. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (775x650, 415 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yellowstone National Park ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (775x650, 415 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yellowstone National Park ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ... Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park Wolf reintroduction involves the artificial reestablishment of a population of wolves into areas where they had been previously extirpated. ...


Flora

1,700 species of trees, plants, lichens and other vascular plants are native to the park. Another 170 species are considered to be exotic species and are non-native. Of the eight conifer tree species documented, Lodgepole pine forests cover 80% of the total forested areas.[1] Other conifers, such as the douglas fir and whitebark pine, are found in scattered groves throughout the park. As of 2007, the whitebark pine is threatened by a fungus known as white pine blister rust; however, this is mostly confined to forests well to the north and west. In Yellowstone, about seven percent of the whitebark pine species have been impacted with the fungus, compared to nearly complete infestations in northwestern Montana.[44] Aspen and willow are the most common species of deciduous trees. The aspen forests have declined significantly since the early 20th century, but scientists at Oregon State University attribute recent recovery of the aspen to the reintroduction of wolves which has changed the grazing habits of local elk.[45] Sweet clover (Melilotus sp. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Binomial name Pinus contorta Douglas Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) is a common tree in western North America. ... Species See text Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous trees of the genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. ... Binomial name Pinus albicaulis Engelm. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Binomial name Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch. ... For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ...


There are dozens of species of flowering plants that have been identified, most of which bloom between the months of May and September.[46] The Yellowstone Sand Verbena is a rare flowering plant found only in Yellowstone. It is closely related to species usually found in much warmer climates, making the sand verbena an enigma. The estimated 8,000 examples of this rare flowering plant all make their home in the sandy soils on the shores of Yellowstone Lake, well above the waterline.[47]


In Yellowstone's hot waters, bacteria form mats of bizarre shapes consisting of trillions of individuals. These bacteria are some of the most primitive lifeforms on earth. Flies and other arthropods live on the mats, even in the middle of the bitterly cold winters. Initially, scientists thought that microbes there gained sustenance only from sulfur. In 2005, researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder discovered that the sustenance for at least some of the diverse hyperthermophilic species is molecular hydrogen.[48] Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU-Boulder, UCB officially[3]; Colorado and CU colloquially) is the flagship university of the University of Colorado System in Boulder, Colorado. ... Hyperthermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments — that is, hotter than around 60 °C. The optimal temperatures are between 80 °C and 110°C; in fact, the recently-discovered Strain 121 [1... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...


Thermus aquaticus is a bacterium found in the Yellowstone hot springs produces an important enzyme that is easily replicated in the lab and is useful in replicating DNA as part of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The retrieval of these bacteria can be achieved with no impact to the ecosystem. Other bacteria in the Yellowstone hot springs may also prove useful to scientists who are searching for cures for various diseases.[49] Binomial name Thermophilus aquaticus Brock & Freeze, 1969 Thermophilus aquaticus is a species of bacterium that can tolerate high temperatures; it is the source of the heat-resistant enzyme Taq DNA Polymerase, one of the most important enzymes in molecular biology because of its use in the polymerase chain reaction. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


Non-native plants sometimes threaten native species by using up nutrient resources. Though exotic species are most commonly found in areas with the greatest human visitation, such as near roads and at major tourist areas, they have also spread into the backcountry. Generally, most exotic species are controlled by pulling the plants out of the soil or by spraying, both of which are time consuming and expensive.[50]


Fauna

Bison graze near a hot spring
Bison graze near a hot spring

Yellowstone is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the lower 48 states. There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the endangered gray wolf, the threatened lynx, and grizzly bears.[1] Other large mammals include the bison (buffalo), black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep and mountain lion. Yellowstone National Park in the northwest United States is the home of many different animals that also migrate within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. ... A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park Wolf reintroduction involves the artificial reestablishment of a population of wolves into areas where they had been previously extirpated. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1080 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1080 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Rafinesque, 1817) The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. ... Rocky Mountain Goat and Mountain Goats redirect here. ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ... Binomial name Shaw, 1804 Synonyms Desmarest Cuvier[1] Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)[2] is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep, and the Siberian Snow sheep Ovis nivicola. ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) The puma (Puma concolor) is a type of large cat found in North, Central and South America. ...


The relatively large bison populations are a concern for ranchers, who fear that the species can transmit bovine diseases to their domesticated cousins. In fact, about half of Yellowstone's bison have been exposed to brucellosis, a bacterial disease that came to North America with European cattle that may cause cattle to miscarry. The disease has little effect on park bison, and no reported case of transmission from wild bison to domestic livestock has been filed. However, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has stated that Bison are the "likely source" of the spread of the disease in cattle in Wyoming and North Dakota. Elk also carry the disease and are believed to have transmitted the infection to horses and cattle.[51] Bison once numbered between 30 and 60 million individuals throughout North America, and Yellowstone remains one of their last strongholds. Their populations had increased from less than 50 in the park in 1902 to 4,000 by 2003.[52] The Yellowstone herd is believed to be one of only four free roaming and genetically pure herds on public lands in North America. The other three herds are in the Henry Mountains of Utah, Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota and on Elk Island in Alberta, Canada.[53] Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of about 24 medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is an operating unit of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... An image of peaks in the Henry mountains viewed from a high mountain road. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Wind Cave National Park is a United States national park 10 miles (18 km) north of the town of Hot Springs in western South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...


To combat the perceived threat, national park personnel regularly harass bison herds back into the park when they venture outside of the area's borders. During the winter of 1996–97, the bison herd was so large that 1,079 bison that had exited the park were shot or sent to slaughter.[51] Animal rights activists argue that this is a cruel practice and that the possibility for disease transmission is not as great as some ranchers maintain. Ecologists point out that the bison are merely traveling to seasonal grazing areas that lie within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem that have been converted to cattle grazing, some of which are within National Forests and are leased to private ranchers. APHIS has stated that with vaccinations and other means, brucellosis can be eliminated from the bison and elk herds throughout Yellowstone.[51] A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ...


After the wolves were extirpated from Yellowstone, the coyote then became the park's top canine predator. However, the coyote is not able to bring down large animals, and the result of this lack of a top predator on these populations was a marked increase in lame and sick megafauna. Starting in 1914, in an effort to protect elk populations, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds to be used for the purposes of "destroying wolves, prairie dogs, and other animals injurious to agriculture and animal husbandry" on public lands. Park Service hunters carried out these orders, and by 1926 they had killed 136 wolves, and wolves were virtually eliminated from Yellowstone.[54] Further exterminations continued until the National Park Service ended the practice in 1935. With the passing of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, the wolf was one of the first mammal species listed.[54] For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ...

A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park
A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park

By the 1990s, the Federal government had reversed its views on wolves. In a controversial decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (which oversees threatened and endangered species), Mackenzie Valley wolves, imported from Canada, were reintroduced into the park. Reintroduction efforts have been successful with populations remaining relatively stable. A survey conducted in 2005 reported that there were 13 wolf packs, totaling 118 individuals in Yellowstone and 326 in the entire ecosystem. These park figures were lower than those reported in 2004 but may be attributable to wolf migration to other nearby areas as suggested by the substantial increase in the Montana population during that interval.[55] Almost all the wolves documented were descended from the 66 wolves reintroduced in 1995–96.[55] The recovery of populations throughout the states of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho has been so successful that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed delisting the wolf as a threatened and endangered species.[56] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2999 × 1881 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2999 × 1881 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus occidentalis Mackenzie Valley wolf range The Mackenzie Valley Wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis) also known as the Rocky Mountain Wolf, Alaskan Timber Wolf or Canadian Timber Wolf is perhaps the largest subspecies of Gray Wolf in North America. ...


An estimated 600 grizzly bears live in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, with more than half of the population living within Yellowstone. The grizzly is currently listed as a threatened species, however the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has announced that they intend to take it off the endangered species list for the Yellowstone region but will likely keep it listed in areas where it has not yet recovered fully. Opponents of delisting the grizzly are concerned that states might once again allow hunting and that better conservation measures need to be implemented to ensure a sustainable population.[57]


Population figures for elk are in excess of 30,000—the largest population of any large mammal species in Yellowstone. The northern herd has decreased enormously since the mid-1990s, and this has been attributed to wolf predation and causal effects such as elk using more forested regions to evade predation, consequently making it harder for researchers to accurately count them.[58] The northern herd migrates west into southwestern Montana in the winter. The southern herd migrates southward, and the majority of these elk winter on the National Elk Refuge, immediately southeast of Grand Teton National Park. The southern herd migration is the largest mammalian migration remaining in the U.S. outside of Alaska. The National Elk Refuge, which was created in 1912 to promote the survival of the elk herd, lies northeast of the Town of Jackson, Wyoming. ...


In 2003, the tracks of one female lynx and her cub were spotted and followed for over 2 miles (3.2 km). Fecal material and other evidence obtained were tested and confirmed to be those of a lynx. No visual confirmation was made, however. Lynx have not been seen in Yellowstone since 1998, though DNA taken from hair samples obtained in 2001 confirmed that lynx were at least transient to the park.[59] Other less commonly seen mammals include the mountain lion and wolverine. The mountain lion has an estimated population of only 25 individuals parkwide.[60] The wolverine is another rare park mammal, and accurate population figures for this species are not known.[61] These uncommon and rare mammals provide insight into the health of protected lands such as Yellowstone and help managers make determinations as to how best to preserve habitats. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Wolverine (disambiguation). ...


Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone, including the core range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout—a fish highly sought by anglers.[1][62] The Yellowstone cutthroat trout has faced several threats since the 1980s, including the suspected illegal introduction into Yellowstone Lake of lake trout, an invasive species which consume the smaller cutthroat trout.[63] Although lake trout were established in Shoshone and Lewis lakes in the Snake River drainage from U.S. Government stocking operations in 1890, it was never officially introduced into the Yellowstone River drainage.[64] The cutthroat trout has also faced an ongoing drought, as well as the accidental introduction of a parasite—whirling disease—which causes a terminal nervous system disease in younger fish. Since 2001, all native sport fish species caught in Yellowstone waterways are subject to a catch and release law.[62] Yellowstone is also home to 6 species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle and western rattlesnake, and 4 species of amphibians, including the Boreal Chorus Frog.[65] Trinomial name Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883) Main article: Cutthroat Trout The Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) is a subspecies of the Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and is a freshwater fish in the salmon family (family Salmonidae) of order Salmoniformes. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... For the band, see Lake Trout (band). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Binomial name Myxobolus cerebralis Hofer, 1903 Synonyms Myxosoma cerebralis Triactinomyxon dubium Triactinomyxon gyrosalmo Myxobolus cerebralis is a myxosporean parasite of salmonids (salmon, trout, and their allies) that causes whirling disease in farmed salmon and trout and also in wild fish populations. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... For the summer camp, see The Painted Turtle. ... Species 27 species; see list of rattlesnake species and subspecies. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pseudacris maculata Agassiz, 1850 The Boreal Chrous Frog, (Pseudacris maculata) is a species of chorus frog native to Canada from the west of Lake Superior to western Alberta and north to the North West Territories. ...


311 species of birds have been reported, almost half of which nest in Yellowstone.[1] As of 1999, twenty-six pairs of nesting bald eagles have been documented. Extremely rare sightings of whooping cranes have been recorded, however only three examples of this species are known to live in the Rocky Mountains, out of 385 known worldwide.[66] Other birds, considered to be species of special concern because of their rarity in Yellowstone, include the common loon, harlequin duck, osprey, peregrine falcon and the trumpeter swan.[67] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 as of 2007 The Whooping Crane (Grus americana), named for its whooping call, is a very large and endangered crane. ... Binomial name Gavia immer (Brunnich, 1764) The Great Northern Diver, known in North America as the Common Loon (Gavia immer), is a large member of the loon, or diver, family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Ocyplonessa The Harlequin Duck is a small sea duck. ... For other uses, see Osprey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Tunstall, 1771 Global range Yellow: Breeding summer visitor Green: Breeding resident Blue: Winter visitor Light blue: Passage visitor Subspecies 17-19, see text Synonyms Falco atriceps Hume Falco kreyenborgi Kleinschmidt, 1929 Falco pelegrinoides madens Ripley & Watson, 1963 Rhynchodon peregrinus (Tunstall, 1771) and see text The Peregrine Falcon (Falco... Binomial name Cygnus buccinator Richardson, 1832 The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) is the largest native North American swan. ...


Forest fires

Main article: Yellowstone fires of 1988
Fire in Yellowstone National Park
Fire in Yellowstone National Park

Wildfire is a natural part of most ecosystems, and plants found in Yellowstone have adapted in a variety of ways. Douglas fir have a thick bark which protects the inner section of the tree from most fires. Lodgepole pines —the most common tree species in the park— generally have cones that are only opened by the heat of fire. Their seeds are held in place by a tough resin, and fire assists in melting the resin, allowing the seeds to disperse. Fire clears out dead and down wood, providing fewer obstacles for lodgepole pines to flourish. Whitebark pine and other species tend to grow in colder and moister areas, where fire is less likely to occur. Aspen trees sprout new growth from their roots, and even if a severe fire kills the tree above ground, the roots often survive unharmed because they are insulated from the heat by soil.[68] The National Park Service estimates that in natural conditions, grasslands in Yellowstone burned an average of every 20 to 25 years, while forests in the park would experience fire about every 300 years.[68] Fires approach the Old Faithful Complex on September 7, 1988. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x900, 866 KB) A fire in Yellowstone, Wyoming, United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x900, 866 KB) A fire in Yellowstone, Wyoming, United States. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... Species See text Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous trees of the genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. ... Binomial name Pinus contorta Douglas Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) is a common tree in western North America. ... Binomial name Pinus albicaulis Engelm. ...


About thirty-five natural forest fires are ignited each year by lightning, while another six to ten are started by people— in most cases by accident. Yellowstone National Park has three fire towers, each staffed by trained fire fighters. The easiest one to reach is atop Mount Washburn, though it is closed to the public. The park also monitors fire from the air and relies on visitor reports of smoke and or flames.[69] Fire towers are staffed almost continuously from late June to mid-September— the primary fire season. Fires burn with the greatest intensity in the late afternoon and evening. Few fires burn more than 100 acres (40 ha), and the vast majority of fires reach only a little over an acre (0.5 ha) before they burn themselves out.[70] Fire management focuses on monitoring dead and down wood quantities, soil and tree moisture, and the weather, to determine those areas most vulnerable to fire should one ignite. Current policy is to suppress all human caused fires and to evaluate natural fires, examining the benefit or detriment they may pose on the ecosystem. If a fire is considered to be an immediate threat to people and structures, or will burn out of control, then fire suppression is performed.[71] Not to be confused with lighting. ... A USFS fire lookout on Bald Mountain in Butte County, California. ...

Fire damage to trees giving way to new growth in Yellowstone.

In an effort to minimize the chances of out of control fires and threats to people and structures, park employees do more than just monitor the potential for fire. Controlled burns are prescribed fires which are deliberately started to remove dead timber under conditions which allow fire fighters an opportunity to carefully control where and how much wood is consumed. Natural fires are sometimes considered prescribed fires if they are left to burn. In Yellowstone, unlike some other parks, there have been very few fires deliberately started by employees as prescribed burns. However, over the last 30 years, over 300 natural fires have been allowed to burn naturally. In addition, fire fighters remove dead and down wood and other hazards from areas where they will be a potential fire threat to lives and property, reducing the chances of fire danger in these areas.[72] Fire monitors also regulate fire through educational services to the public and have been known to temporarily ban campfires from campgrounds during periods of high fire danger. The common notion in early United States land management policies was that all forest fires were bad. Fire was seen as a purely destructive force and there was little understanding that it was an integral part of the ecosystem. Consequently, until the 1970s, when a better understanding of wildfire was developed, all fires were suppressed. This led to an increase in dead and dying forests, which would later provide the fuel load for fires that would be much harder, and in some cases, impossible to control. Fire Management Plans were implemented, detailing that natural fires should be allowed to burn if they posed no immediate threat to lives and property. Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ...

A crown fire approaches the Old Faithful complex on September 7, 1988
A crown fire approaches the Old Faithful complex on September 7, 1988

After a wet spring in 1988, by summer, drought began to set in throughout the northern Rockies, creating the driest year on record to that point. Grasses and plants which grew well in the early summer from the abundant spring moisture produced plenty of grass, which soon turned to dry tinder. The National Park Service began firefighting efforts to keep the fires under control, but the extreme drought made suppression difficult. Between July 15 and July 21, 1988, fires quickly spread from 8,500 acres (3,400 ha/13.3 sq mi) throughout the entire Yellowstone region, which included areas outside the park, to 99,000 acres (40,000 ha/155 sq mi) on the park land alone. By the end of the month, the fires were out of control. Large fires burned together, and on August 20, 1988, the single worst day of the fires, more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha/230 sq mi) were consumed. Seven large fires were responsible for 95% of the 793,000 acres (321,000 ha/1,239 sq mi) that were burned over the next couple of months. A total of 25,000 firefighters and U.S. military forces participated in the suppression efforts, at a cost of 120 million dollars. By the time winter brought snow that helped extinguish the last flames, the fires had destroyed 67 structures and caused several million dollars in damage.[28] Though no civilian lives were lost, two personnel associated with the firefighting efforts were killed. is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Contrary to media reports and speculation at the time, the fires killed very few park animals— surveys indicated that only about 345 elk (of an estimated 40,000–50,000), 36 deer, 12 moose, 6 black bears, and 9 bison had perished. Changes in fire management policies were implemented by land management agencies throughout the U.S., based on knowledge gained from the 1988 fires and the evaluation of scientists and experts from various fields. By 1992, Yellowstone had adopted a new fire management plan which observed stricter guidelines for the management of natural fires.[28]


Climate

Winter scene in Yellowstone
Winter scene in Yellowstone

Yellowstone climate is greatly influenced by altitude, with lower elevations generally found to be warmer year round. The record high temperature was 98 °F (37 °C) in 1936, while the coldest temperature recorded is -66 °F (-54 °C) in 1933.[1] During the summer months of June through early September, daytime highs are normally in the 70 to 80 °F (20 to 25 °C) range, while nighttime lows can go to below freezing (0 °C)—especially at higher altitudes. Summer afternoons are frequently accompanied by thunderstorms. Spring and fall temperatures range between 30 and 60 °F (0 to 20 °C) with cold nights in the teens to single digits (-5 to -20 °C). Winter in Yellowstone is very cold with high temperatures usually between zero to 20 °F (-20 to -5C °C) and nighttime temperatures below zero °F (-20 °C) for most of the winter.[73] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1999 × 1328 pixel, file size: 764 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Winter in Yellowstone, Wyoming, United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1999 × 1328 pixel, file size: 764 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Winter in Yellowstone, Wyoming, United States. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ...


Precipitation in Yellowstone is highly variable and ranges from 15 inches (380 mm) annually near Mammoth Hot Springs, to 80 inches (2,000 mm) in the southwestern sections of the park. The precipitation of Yellowstone is greatly influenced by the moisture channel formed by the Snake River Plain to the west that was, in turn, formed by Yellowstone itself. Snow is possible in any month of the year, with averages of 150 inches (3,800 mm) annually around Yellowstone Lake, to twice that amount at higher elevations.[73] Big Southern Buttes Prominence on Snake River Plain The Snake River Plain is a geological feature of (primarily) the American state of Idaho. ...


Tornadoes in Yellowstone are rare; however, on July 21, 1987, the most powerful tornado recorded in Wyoming touched down in the Teton Wilderness of Bridger-Teton National Forest and hit Yellowstone National Park. The tornado was classified as an F4, with wind speeds estimated at between 207 and 260 mph (333 to 418 km/h). The tornado left a path of destruction 1 to 2 miles (1.6 to 3.2 km) wide, and 24 miles (38 km) long, and leveled 15,000 acres (6,100 ha/23 sq mi) of mature pine forest.[74] This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Teton Wilderness is located in Wyoming, United States. ... Bridger-Teton National Forest is located in western Wyoming, United States. ... F-scale redirects here. ...


Recreation

Main article: Angling in Yellowstone National Park
Orientation map of Yellowstone National Park showing many of the major tourist attractions.
Union Pacfic Railway Brochure Promoting Travel to Park (1921)
Union Pacfic Railway Brochure Promoting Travel to Park (1921)

Yellowstone is one of the most popular national parks in the United States. Since the mid-1960s, at least 2 million tourists have visited the park almost every year.[75] At peak summer levels, 3,700 employees work for Yellowstone National Park concessionaires. Concessionaires manage nine hotels and lodges, with a total of 2,238 hotel rooms and cabins available. They also oversee gas stations, stores and most of the campgrounds. Another 800 employees work either permanently or seasonally for the National Park Service.[1] Yellowstone National Park has over 1,100 miles (1,770 km)[1] of blazed and mapped hiking trails, including some which have been in use for hundreds of years. ... National Park Service map. ... National Park Service map. ... Union Pacific redirects here. ...


Park service roads lead to major features; however, road reconstruction has produced temporary road closures. Yellowstone is in the midst of a long term road reconstruction effort, which is hampered by a short repair season. In the winter, all roads aside from the one which enters from Gardiner, Montana, and extends to Cooke City, Montana, are closed to wheeled vehicles.[76] Park roads are closed to wheeled vehicles from early November to mid April, but some park roads remain closed until mid-May.[77] The park has 310 miles (499 km) of paved roads which can be accessed from 5 different entrances.[1] There is no public transportation available inside the park, but several tour companies can be contacted for guided motorized transport. In the winter, concessionaires operate guided snowmobile and snow coach tours.[78] Facilities in the Old Faithful, Canyon and Mammoth Hot Springs areas of the park are very busy during the summer months. Traffic jams created by road construction or by people observing wildlife can result in long delays. The Roosevelt Arch is located in Gardiner, Montana at the North Entrance. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ... A Snow Coach is a specialized passenger transport vehicle, designed to operate over snow or ice. ...

Old Faithful Inn.
Old Faithful Inn.

The National Park Service maintains 9 visitor centers and museums and is responsible for maintenance of historical structures and many of the other 2,000 buildings. These structures include National Historical Landmarks such as the Old Faithful Inn built in 1903–04 and the entire Fort Yellowstone - Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District. A historical tour is available at Fort Yellowstone which details the history of the National Park Service and the development of the park. Campfire programs, guided walks and other interpretive presentations are available at numerous locations in the summer, and on a limited basis during other seasons. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 888 KB) Summary My picture from summer 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 888 KB) Summary My picture from summer 2005. ... Old Faithful Inn (larger version) The interior contains four stories of balconies. ... An undated historical photo of Fort Yellowstone. ...


Camping is available at a dozen campgrounds with more than 2,000 campsites.[1] Camping is also available in surrounding National Forests, as well as in Grand Teton National Park to the south. Backcountry campsites are accessible only by foot or by horseback and require a permit. There are 1,100 miles (1,770 km) of hiking trails available.[79] The park is not considered to be a good destination for mountaineering because of the instability of volcanic rock which predominates. Visitors with pets are required to keep them on a leash at all times and are limited to areas near roadways and in "frontcountry" zones such as drive in campgrounds.[80] Around thermal features, wooden and paved trails have been constructed to ensure visitor safety, and most of these areas are handicapped accessible. The National Park Service maintains a year round clinic at Mammoth Hot Springs and provides emergency services throughout the year.[81] Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ... For the skiing style, see. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... An open crevasse. ...

Old photo of visitors feeding bears, defying warnings from park officials.
Old photo of visitors feeding bears, defying warnings from park officials.
Park Superintendent Horace M. Albright and dinner guests, 1922

Hunting is not permitted, though it is in the surrounding National Forests in season. Fishing is a popular activity, and a Yellowstone Park fishing license is required to fish in park waters.[82] Boating is prohibited on rivers and creeks except for a 5 mile (8 km) stretch of the Lewis River between Lewis and Shoshone Lakes, and it is open to non-motorized use only. Yellowstone Lake has a marina, and the lake is the most popular boating destination.[83] Image File history File links YellowstoneBears. ... Image File history File links YellowstoneBears. ... Horace M. Albright Horace Marden Albright (January 6, 1890 – March 2, 1987) was an American conservationist. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ...


Other protected lands in the region include Caribou-Targhee, Gallatin, Custer, Shoshone and Bridger-Teton National Forests. The National Park Service's John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway is to the south and leads to Grand Teton National Park. The famed Beartooth Highway provides access from the northeast and has spectacular high altitude scenery. Nearby communities include West Yellowstone, Montana; Cody, Wyoming; Red Lodge, Montana; Ashton, Idaho; and Gardiner, Montana. The closest air transport is available by way of Bozeman; Billings, Montana; Jackson; Cody, Wyoming or Idaho Falls, Idaho.[84] Salt Lake City, 320 miles (515 km) to the south, is the closest large metropolitan area. Caribou-Targhee National Forest is located in the states of Idaho and Wyoming, with a small section in Utah in the United States. ... Founded in 1899, Gallatin National Forest is located in south central Montana, United States. ... Custer National Forest is located primarily in the U.S. state of Montana but also has separate sections in South Dakota. ... Shoshone National Forest (pronounced sho-sho-nee [1]) is a national forest that spans nearly 2. ... John D. Rockefeller, Jr. ... Beartooth Pass in June 2004. ... West Yellowstone is a town in Gallatin County, Montana, adjacent to Yellowstone National Park. ... Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming and named after William Frederick Cody, primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Codys part in the creation of the original town. ... Main Street, Red Lodge, Montana, July 2000 Red Lodge is a city in Carbon County, Montana, United States. ... Ashton is a city in Fremont County, Idaho, United States. ... The Roosevelt Arch is located in Gardiner, Montana at the North Entrance. ... Bozeman is a city in southwestern Montana, USA. It is the county seat of Gallatin County. ... Motto: Star of the Big Sky Country Location in Montana Coordinates: , Country State County Yellowstone Founded 1877 Incorporated 1882 Government  - Mayor Ronald Tussing Area  - City  41 sq mi (106 km²)  - Land  33. ... Jackson is a town located in the Jackson Hole valley of Teton County, Wyoming. ... Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming and named after William Frederick Cody, primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Codys part in the creation of the original town. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Bonneville Founded 1864 Incorporated 1891 Government  - Mayor Jared Fuhriman Area  - City  17. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Yellowstone Fact Sheet. National Park Service (August 10, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  2. ^ History of total annual visits for Yellowstone NP. Park Vistation Report. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  3. ^ Geothermal Features and How They Work. National Park Service (February 17, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  4. ^ a b Schullery, Paul. The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Our Living Resources. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  5. ^ The Origin of the Name “Yellowstone” (PDF). Yellowstone A Brief History of the Park. U.S. Department of the Interior (February 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  6. ^ Lahren, Larry (2006). Homeland: An archaeologist's view of Yellowstone Country's past. Cayuse Press, p. 161. ISBN 0978925106. 
  7. ^ a b Janetski, Joel C. (1987). Indians in Yellowstone National Park. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-724-7. 
  8. ^ Haines, Aubrey L. (2000). The Lewis and Clark Era (1805–1814). Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  9. ^ Haines, Aubrey L. (2000). The Fur Trade Era (1818–42). Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  10. ^ Haines, Aubrey L. (1975). The Exploring Era (1851–63). Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  11. ^ Haines, Aubrey L. (2000). The Folsom Party (1869). Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  12. ^ Haines, Aubrey L. (2000). Cornelius Hedges. Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  13. ^ The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. American Studies at the University of Virginia. University of Virginia. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  14. ^ History & Culture. General Grant National Memorial. National Park Service (July 25, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  15. ^ Nathaniel P. Langford-The Vigilante, the Explorer, the Expounder and First Superintendent of the Yellowstone Park by Olin D. Wheeler 1912 text of speech to Montana Historical Society
  16. ^ Punke, Michael (2007). Last Stand: George Bird Grinnell, the Battle to Save the Buffalo, and the Birth of the New West. Smithsonian Books, 102. ISBN 9780060897826. 
  17. ^ Yellowstone National Park's First 130 Years. Yellowstone History. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  18. ^ a b Rydell, Kiki Leigh; Mary Shivers Culpin (July 5, 2006). The Administrations of Nathaniel Langford and Philetus Norris (PDF). A History of Administrative Development in Yellowstone National Park, 1872–1965. Yellowstone National Park. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  19. ^ Yellowstone National Park's First 130 Years. Yellowstone History. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  20. ^ Yellowstone National Park's First 130 Years. Yellowstone History. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  21. ^ a b Rydell, Kiki Leigh; Mary Shivers Culpin (July 5, 2006). The United States Army Takes Control of Yellowstone National Park 1886–1906 (PDF). A History of Administrative Development in Yellowstone National Park, 1872–1965. Yellowstone National Park. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  22. ^ Rydell, Kiki Leigh; Mary Shivers Culpin (July 5, 2006). The National Park Service in Yellowstone National Park 1917–1929 (PDF). A History of Administrative Development in Yellowstone National Park, 1872–1965. Yellowstone National Park. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  23. ^ Yellowstone National Park's First 130 Years. Yellowstone History. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  24. ^ Rydell, Kiki Leigh; Mary Shivers Culpin (July 5, 2006). Mission 66 in Yellowstone National Park 1941–1965 (PDF). A History of Administrative Development in Yellowstone National Park, 1872–1965. Yellowstone National Park. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  25. ^ Allaback, Sarah (2000). Mission 66 Visitor Centers. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  26. ^ Canyon Area NPS Visitor Facilities. U.S. Department of the Interior (August 22, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  27. ^ a b Largest Earthquake in Montana. Historic Earthquakes. U.S. Geological Survey (January 24, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  28. ^ a b c Wildland Fire in Yellowstone. National Park Service (July 26, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  29. ^ The Snake River Plain. U.S. Geological Survey (March 12, 2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  30. ^ a b c Tracking Changes in Yellowstone's Restless Volcanic System. U.S. Geological Survey (January 19, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  31. ^ a b Volcanic History of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. U.S. Geological Survey (February 2, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  32. ^ Bindeman, Ilya N. (June 2006). The Secrets of Supervolcanoes. Scientific American. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  33. ^ Questions About Future Volcanic Activity. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. U.S. Geological Survey (February 2, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  34. ^ Yellowstone National Park. World Heritage Sites. UNESCO World Heritage Centre (April 23, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  35. ^ Information about the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. U.S. Geological Survey (February 2, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  36. ^ Notable Changes in Thermal Activity at Norris Geyser Basin Provide Opportunity to Study Hydrothermal System. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. U.S. Geological Survey (March 16, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  37. ^ Frequently asked questions about recent findings at Yellowstone Lake. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  38. ^ Archive of Stories About the Yellowstone Volcanic System. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. U.S. Geological Survey (February 2, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  39. ^ Stark, Mike. "Yellowstone domes rising at 'really pronounced' pace", Billings Gazette, December 15, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-12. 
  40. ^ Smith, Robert B.; Wu-Lung Chang, Lee Siegel. "Yellowstone rising: Volcano inflating with molten rock at record rate", Press release, University of Utah Public Relations, EurekAlert! (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2007-11-08. Retrieved on 2007-11-09. 
  41. ^ Lowenstern, Jake (June 2005). "Truth, fiction and everything in between at Yellowstone". Geotimes. American Geologic Institute. Retrieved on 2007-03-12. 
  42. ^ "More Than A Dozen Earthquakes Shake Yellowstone", KUTV News, May 6, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  43. ^ USGS earthquake report
  44. ^ Kendall, Katherine. Whitebark Pine. Our Living Resources. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  45. ^ Presence Of Wolves Allows Aspen Recovery In Yellowstone. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  46. ^ Where Are the Bloomin' Wildflowers? (PDF). National Park Service (February 2004). Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  47. ^ Yellowstone Sand Verbena. Nature and Science. National Park Service (July 20, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  48. ^ Microbes In Colorful Yellowstone Hot Springs Fueled By Hydrogen, CU-Boulder Researchers Say. University of Colorado at Boulder (January 24, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  49. ^ The Yellowstone Thermophiles Conservation Project. World Foundation for Environment and Development (April 27, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  50. ^ Exotic Vegetation Management in Yellowstone National Park (PDF). Nature and Science. National Park Service (February 1, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  51. ^ a b c Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison. Brucellosis. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  52. ^ Frequently Asked Questions About Bison. Nature and Science. National Park Service (August 9, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  53. ^ Prettyman, Brett. "Moving Bison", Salt Lake Tribune, January 10, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-01-12. 
  54. ^ a b Defenders of Wildlife. A Yellowstone Chronology. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  55. ^ a b Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery 2005 Interagency Annual Report (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nez Perce Tribe, National Park Service, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, Idaho Fish and Game, and USDA Wildlife Services (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  56. ^ Service Announces Intent to remove the Rocky Mountain Population of Gray Wolves from Endangered Species List. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (February 2, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  57. ^ Mott, Maryann. "Bald Eagle, Grizzly: U.S. Icons Endangered No More?", National Geographic News, July 2, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. 
  58. ^ "2006–2007 Winter Count of Northern Yellowstone Elk", National Park Service, January 16, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. 
  59. ^ Potter, Tiffany (April 13, 2004). Reproduction of Canada Lynx Discovered in Yellowstone. Nature: Year in Review. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  60. ^ Mountain Lions. National Park Service (July 26, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  61. ^ Marquis, Amy Leinbach. Wolverines in Yellowstone. National Parks Conservation Association. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  62. ^ a b Fishing in Yellowstone National Park. National Park Service (April 4, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  63. ^ The Yellowstone Lake Crisis: Confronting a Lake Trout Invasion (PDF). National Park Service (1995). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  64. ^ Kendall, W. C. (1915). The Fishes of the Yellowstone National Park. Washington D.C.: Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries, 22–23. 
  65. ^ Vital Habitats: Wetlands and Wildlife (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  66. ^ Threatened and Endangered Species. National Park Service (July 26, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  67. ^ Species of Special Concern. National Park Service (July 28, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  68. ^ a b Fire Ecology. Yellowstone Wildland Fire. National Park Service (October 25, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  69. ^ Yellowstone Lookouts. Yellowstone Wildland Fire. National Park Service (October 25, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  70. ^ Fire Facts. Yellowstone Wildland Fire. National Park Service (October 25, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  71. ^ Fire Monitoring. Yellowstone Wildland Fire. National Park Service (October 25, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  72. ^ Prescribed Fire. Yellowstone Wildland Fire. National Park Service (October 25, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  73. ^ a b Weather. National Park Service (December 20, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  74. ^ Severe Weather. Wyoming Climate Office (March 14, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  75. ^ Historical Annual Visitation Statistics. Yellowstone National Park. U.S. Department of the Interior (August 10, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  76. ^ Road Construction Delays and Closures. National Park Service (April 9, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  77. ^ Operating Hours & Seasons. National Park Service (April 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  78. ^ Winter Services in Yellowstone. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  79. ^ Hiking in the Park. National Park Service (August 17, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  80. ^ Regulations Regarding Pets. National Park Service (July 12, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  81. ^ Information Every Visitor Needs to Know. National Park Service (March 6, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  82. ^ Fishing in Yellowstone National Park. National Park Service (April 4, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  83. ^ Boating in Yellowstone National Park. National Park Service (September 18, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  84. ^ Directions. National Park Service (January 4, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-01-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marquis of the Salt Lake Tribune on the Tribune Building in Downtown Salt Lake City The Salt Lake Tribune is Salt Lake City, Utahs largest-circulated local daily newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
:Category:Yellowstone National Park
Webcams

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m