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Encyclopedia > Yellow River
Yellow River (Huang He)
Course of the Yellow River with major cities
Origin Bayankala Mountains, Qinghai Province
Mouth Bohai Sea
Basin countries China
Length 5464 km (3398 mi)
Source elevation 4500 m (14,765 ft)
Avg. discharge 2,571 m³/s (90,808 ft³/s)
Basin area 752 000 km²

Yellow River or Huang He (traditional Chinese: 黃河; simplified Chinese: 黄河; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hélisten ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese, Mongolian: Hatan Gol) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the sixth longest in the world, at 5,464 km (3,398 mi) long.[1] Originating in the Bayankala Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea. The Yellow River basin has an east-west distance of 1900 km, and north-south distance of 1100 km. Total basin area is 752,443 km². The Yellow River is the name of several different rivers: The Huang He in China, called the Yellow River in English. ... Download high resolution version (2160x1100, 94 KB)Map of the Huang He and the location of major cities along its course. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... The Bayan Kara Ula, or Bayankala Mountains, is a mountain range in Qinghai province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: Qīnghǎi; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Image File history File links Zh-Huang_he. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... View of the Nile River, the longest in the world, from a cruiseboat, between Luxor and Aswan in Egypt. ... The Bayan Kara Ula, or Bayankala Mountains, is a mountain range in Qinghai province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ...


The Yellow River is called the "the cradle of Chinese civilization", as its basin is the birth-place of the northern Chinese civilizations and the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. But frequent devastating flooding, largely due to the elevated river bed in its lower course, has also earned it the unenviable distinction as "China's Sorrow".[2] This article is about the Chinese civilization. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... // Introduction China is one of the most victimized countries in the world by natural disasters. ... The bed of this stream is armored with rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ...

Contents

Name

Early Chinese literature refers to the Yellow River simply as He (河), or "River". The first appearance of the name "Yellow River" (黄河) is in the Book of Han (漢書) written in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 9). The name "Yellow River" describes the perennial ochre-yellow colour of the muddy water in the lower course of the river. (The yellow deposits are also known as loess) The Book of Han (Chinese: 漢書/汉书) is a classic Chinese historical writing covering the history of Western Han from 206 BC to 25. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


Sometimes the Yellow River is poetically called the "Muddy Flow" (Chinese: 濁流; pinyin: Zhuo Liu). The Chinese expression "when the Yellow River flows clear" is similar to the English expression "when hell freezes over." Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Characteristics

The Yellow River is notable for the large amount of silt it carries -- 1.6 billion tons annually at the point where it descends from the Loess Plateau. If it is running to the sea with sufficient volume, 1.4 billion tons are carried to the sea. For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


In modern times, since 1972 when it first dried, the river has dried in its lower reaches, from Jinan to the sea, in most years, in 1997 for 226 days. The low volume is due to increased demands for irrigation, by a factor of five since 1950. Water diverted from the river by 1999 served 140 million people and irrigated 74,000 km² of land. The highest volume occurs during the rainy season, from July to October, when 60% of the volume of the river flows. On the other hand, water for irrigation is needed between March and June. In order to capture excess water for use when needed and for flood control and electricity generation, several dams have been built, but due to the high silt load their life is expected to be limited. A proposed South-North Water Transfer Project involves several schemes to divert water from the Yangtze River, one in the western headwaters of the rivers where they are closest to one another, another from the upper reaches of the Han River, and a third using the route of the Grand Canal. For the South Korean county of the same name, see Jinan County. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The South-North Water Transfer Project (Chinese:南水北调工程) is a proposed scheme by the Peoples Republic of China to divert water from the Yangtze River to the Yellow River. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... The Han River (漢江; pinyin: Han Jiang) in China, was often referred to as Hanshui (漢水) in antiquity. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ...


Due to its heavy load of silt the Yellow River is a depositing stream: that is, it deposits part of its carried burden of soil in its bed in stretches where it is flowing slowly. These deposits elevate the riverbed which flows between natural levees in its lower reaches. Should a flood occur, the river may break out of the levees into the surrounding lower flood plain and adopt a new course. Historically this has occurred about once every hundred years. In modern times, considerable effort has been made to strengthen levees and control floods. River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial slope or wall, usually earthen and often parallels the course of a river. ...


The Yellow River Delta totals 8,000 square kilometers. However, since 1996 it has been reported to be shrinking slightly each year, through erosion.[3]


Geography

From its sources, Gyaring Lake and Ngoring Lake, high in the Bayankala Mountains in Qinghai Province in the far west of China, the Yellow River loops north, bends south, creating the "Great Bend", and then flows generally eastwards across northern China to the Gulf of Bohai, draining a basin of 752,443 km², which nourishes 120 million people. Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: Qīnghǎi; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ...


The river is commonly divided into three stages. However, different scholars have different opinions in how the three stages are divided. This article adopts the division by the Yellow River Conservancy Commission.[4]


Upper reaches

The Yellow River, near Xunhua, in Eastern Qinghai. Note the yellowish water, formed by loess.

The upper reaches of the Yellow River is a segment starting from the source in the Bayankala Mountains and ending at Hekou County of Inner Mongolia just before turning sharply to the north. This segment has a total length of 2160 km (3470 mi) and total basin area of 386,000 km² (51.3% of total basin area). Along this length, the elevation of the Yellow River drops 3496 metres, with an average drop of 1%. Image File history File links Yellow_river_-_A._Holdrinet. ... Image File history File links Yellow_river_-_A._Holdrinet. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N...


The upper reaches can be further divided into three sections: the source, valley, and alluvial plain section. The source section flows mainly through pastures, swamps, and knolls between the Bayankala Mountains and Anemaqen (Amne Machin) Mountains. The river water is clear and flows steadily. Crystal clear lakes are characteristics in this section. The two main lakes along this section are Lake bob (扎陵湖) and Lake Eling (鄂陵湖), having capacities of 4.7 billion and 10.8 billion m³, respectively. At elevations over 4260 m above sea level, they are the largest two plateau fresh water lakes in China. An alluvial plain is a relatively flat and gently sloping landform found at the base of a range of hills. ... The Bayan Kara Ula, or Bayankala Mountains, is a mountain range in Qinghai province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Amne Machin (or Anye Machin) is one of the highest peak of a mountain range named Amne Machin Shan (Anyêmaqên Shan) and located in west-central China (province of Qinghai). ...


The valley section stretches from Longyang Gorge in Qinghai to Qingtong Gorge in Gansu. Steep cliffs line both sides of the river. The water bed is narrow and the average drop is large, so the flow in this section is extremely turbulent and fast. There are 20 gorges in this section, the more famous of these being the Longyang, Jishi, Liujia, Bapan, and Qingtong Gorges. The flow conditions in this section makes it the best location to build hydroelectric plants. Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ...


After emerging from the Qingtong Gorge, the river comes into a section of vast alluvial plains, the Yinchuan Plain and Hetao Plain. In this section, the regions along the river are mostly deserts and grasslands, with very few tributaries. The flow is slow and on both sides of the river. The Hetao Plain has a length of 900 km and width of 30 to 50 km. It is historically the most important irrigation plain along the Yellow River. A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... An Inner Mongolia Grassland. ...


Middle reaches

Yellow River at Lanzhou
Yellow River at Lanzhou

The part of Yellow River between Hekou County in Inner Mongolia and Zhengzhou in Henan constitutes the middle reaches of the river. The middle reaches has a length of 1206 km long and basin area of 344,000 km² (45.7% of total), with a total elevation drop of 890 meters, and average drop of 0.074%. There are 30 large tributaries along the middle reaches, and the water flow is increased by 43.5% on this stage. The middle reaches contributes 92% of the river's silts. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 147 KB) 29/09/2005 en: en:Lanzhou is the capital of Gansu province, China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 147 KB) 29/09/2005 en: en:Lanzhou is the capital of Gansu province, China. ... Lanzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lan-chou; Postal map spelling: Lanchow) is the capital of and a prefecture-level city in the Gansu province, China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Zhengzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), formerly called Zhengxian (traditional form: Chengchow) , is a prefecture-level city and the capital of Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


The middle stream of the Yellow River passes through the Loess Plateau where substantial erosion takes place. The large amount of mud and sand discharged into the river makes the Yellow River the most sediment-laden river in the world. The highest recorded annual level of silts discharged into the Yellow River is 3.91 billion tons in 1933. The highest silt concentration level was recorded in 1977 at 920 kg/m³. These sediments later deposit in the slower lower reaches of the river, elevating the river bed and creating the famous "river above ground". In Kaifeng, Yellow River is 10 meters above the ground level.[5] This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The bed of this stream is armored with rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


From Hekou County to Yumenkou, the river passes through the longest series of continuous valleys on its main course, collectively called the Jinshan Valley. The abundant hydrodynamic resources stored in this section makes it the second most suitable area to build hydroelectric power plants. The famous Hukou Waterfall is in the lower part of this valley.


Lower reaches

In the lower reaches, from Zhengzhou to the sea, a distance of 786 km, the river is confined to a levee-lined course as it flows to the northeast across the North China Plain before emptying into the Bohai Sea. The basin area in this stage is only 23,000 km² (3% of total). The total drop in elevation of the lower reaches is 93.6 m, with an average drop of 0.012%. A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial slope or wall, usually earthen and often parallels the course of a river. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ...


The silts received from the middle reaches form sediments here, elevating the river bed. During 2000 years of levee construction, excessive sediment deposits have raised the riverbed several meters above the surrounding ground. Few tributaries add to the flow in this stage; nearly all rivers to the south drain into the Huai River, whereas those to the north drain into the Hai River. Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... The Hai River basin The Hai River (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally sea river), previously called Bai He (Chinese: 白河; pinyin: Bái Hé; literally white river; Pei Ho in Western sources), is a river in China which flows through Beijing and Tianjin into Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea. ...


Tributaries of the Yellow River

  • White River (白河)
  • Black River (黑河)
  • Huang River (湟水)
  • Zuli River (祖厉河)
  • Qingshui River (清水河)
  • Dahei River (大黑河)
  • Kuye River (窟野河)
  • Wuding River (无定河)
  • Fen River (汾河)
  • Wei River (渭河)
  • Luo River (洛河)
  • Qin River (沁河)
  • Dawen River (大汶河)

The White River may refer to: The White River in Arkansas in the United States. ... Black River is a common name for streams and communities around the world, as well as the Spanish and Portuguese translation for Rio Negro. ... The Fen River is a river in Shanxi Province, the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Wei River (渭河, pinyin: Wei He; Wade-Giles: Wei Ho) is a river in central China. ...

Hydroelectric power dams on the Yellow River

Below is the list of hydroelectric power stations built on the Yellow River (in bracket is the year to start operation): Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...

  • Sanmen Gorge hydroelectric power station (1960)
  • Sanshenggong hydroelectric power station (1966)
  • Qingtong Gorge hydroelectric power station (1968)
  • Liujia Gorge hydroelectric power station (1974)
  • Yanguo Gorge hydroelectric power station (1975)
  • Tianqiao hydroelectric power station (1977)
  • Bapan Gorge hydroelectric power station (1980)
  • Longyang Gorge hydroelectric power station (1992)
  • Da Gorge hydroelectric power station (1998)
  • Li Gorge hydroelectric power station (1999)
  • Wanjiazhai hydroelectric power station (1999)
  • Xiaolangdi hydroelectric power station (2001)

Provinces and cities on the Yellow River

Originating in the Bayankala Mountains, the Yellow River now passes nine provinces, namely Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong. The mouth of the Yellow River is located at Dongying, Shandong. The Bayan Kara Ula, or Bayankala Mountains, is a mountain range in Qinghai province, Peoples Republic of China. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú ZìzhìqÅ«), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Dongying (东营) is a city of China, located in the Shandong province. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ...


The provinces of Hebei and Henan derive their names from the Huang He. Their names mean respectively "north" and "south of the (Yellow) River". Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


Major cities located along the Yellow River include (starting from the source): Lanzhou, Wuhai, Baotou, Kaifeng, and Jinan. Lanzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lan-chou; Postal map spelling: Lanchow) is the capital of and a prefecture-level city in the Gansu province, China. ... Wuhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Dark Sea) is a small prefecture-level city (since 1976) and regional center in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Peoples Republic of China. ... Baotou (Chinese: 包头; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city and the largest city in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Kāifēng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For the South Korean county of the same name, see Jinan County. ...


The river is extremely prone to flooding. It has flooded 1593 times in last 3000-4000 years, while its main course changed 18 times. Historical maps from the Qin Dynasty indicate the Yellow River was flowing considerably North to the present course. Those maps showed after the river has passed Luoyang, it flows along the border of Shanxi and Henan Provinces, and continuing along the border of Hebei and Shandong before emptying to Bohai Bay near the present-day Tianjin. A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Bohai Bay (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the three bays forming the Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea, in northeastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...


Beginning in 1194, the Yellow River flowing to the north changed its course southwards by running into the Huai River. Since then the course of the river changed back and forth between the route of the Huai River and the original route of the Yellow River several times over the next 700 years. The consequent built up of silt deposit was so heavy that the Huai River is unable to flow through its historic course, after the Yellow River reverted to its northerly course for the last time in 1897. Instead the water pools up into Hongze Lake, and then runs southwards towards the Yangtze River. Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ...


Floods of the river account for some of the deadliest natural disasters ever recorded. Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e. ...


Crossings

  • Binzhou Yellow River Highway Bridge
  • Sunkou Yellow River Highway Bridge
  • Zhongshan Bridge

Flooding and changing of course

Further information: List of natural disasters by death toll

The river is extremely prone to flooding. It has flooded 1593 times in last 3000-4000 years, while its main course changed 18 times. Historical maps from the Qin Dynasty indicate the Yellow River was flowing considerably North to the present course. Those maps showed after the river has passed Luoyang, it flows along the border of Shanxi and Henan Provinces, and continuing along the border of Hebei and Shandong before emptying to Bohai Bay near the present-day Tianjin. For man-made disasters see: List of wars and disasters by death toll A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Bohai Bay (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the three bays forming the Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea, in northeastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...


Beginning in 1194, the Yellow River flowing to the north changed its course southwards by running into the Huai River. Since then the course of the river changed back and forth between the route of the Huai River and the original route of the Yellow River several times over the next 700 years. The consequent built up of silt deposit was so heavy that the Huai River is unable to flow through its historic course, after the Yellow River reverted to its northerly course for the last time in 1897. Instead the water pools up into Hongze Lake, and then runs southwards towards the Yangtze River. Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ...


Floods of the river account for some of the deadliest natural disasters ever recorded in human history. The flatness of North China Plain contributes to the deadliness of the floods. A slight rise in water level would mean a large portion of land would be completely covered in water. If a flood occurs, a portion of the population would initially die from drowning, followed by the spread of diseases and ensuing famine. For man-made disasters see: List of wars and disasters by death toll A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ...

In 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Nationalist troops under the orders of Chiang Kai-Shek broke the dike holding back the Yellow River in order to stop the advancing Japanese troops. This resulted in the flooding of an area covering 54,000 km² and the death of 500,000-900,000 people. The Yellow River (Huang He) in China is prone to flooding, due to the broad expanse of largely flat land around it. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... The 1931 Yellow River flood (Huang He flood) is generally thought to be the deadliest natural disaster ever recorded, and almost certainly of the twentieth century (when pandemics are discounted). ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... KMT might stand for: Kuomintang, is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... In June 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Kuomintang troops under Chiang Kai-Shek broke the levees holding back the Yellow River in order to stop advancing Imperial Japanese Army. ...


Several dams and flooding projects have been constructed along the Yellow River preventing any further floods of the river.


References and further reading

  1. ^ Chinese history recorded that Yellow River has changed its course 18 times
  2. ^ China's Sorrow." Times Past: Pausing to Remember
  3. ^ "Yellow River Delta Shrinking 7.6 Square Kilometers Annually", China Daily February 1, 2005, retrieved 14 September 2006 from http://china.org.cn/english/2005/Feb/119497.htm
  4. ^ Yellow River Conservancy Commission
  5. ^ Yellow River: Geographic and Historical Settings
  • Sinclair, Kevin. 1987. The Yellow River: A 5000 Year Journey Through China. (Based on the television documentary). Child & Associates Publishing, Chatswood, Sydney, Australia. ISBN 0-86777-347-2

China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...

See also

Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... NASA composite satellite photo The geography of China stretches some 5,026 kilometers across the East Asian landmass bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam in a changing configuration of broad plains, expansive deserts, and lofty mountain ranges, including... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... Zhongyuan redirects here. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... These are the major rivers of Asia. ... This is a list of rivers which are at least partially located in China and their termini: Amur (Heilongjiang) (黑龙江)- Sea of Japan Songhua River (松花江) Brahmaputra - Bay of Bengal (joins the Ganges) Yangtze (Chang Jiang) (长江) - East China Sea Jialing (嘉陵江) Bailong (白龙江) Baishui (白水) Qujiang (渠江) Fujiang (涪 江) Min (Sichuan) (岷江) Wu (乌江) Gan (赣江) Zhang (章江) Gongshui (貢水) Mian Xiang... The Water resources of China include 2,711. ... ... Creating & influence During Second Sino-Japanese War, in November 1938, when Chinese Wuhan city was occupied by Japanese troops, Guang Weiran(aka. ... In June 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Kuomintang troops under Chiang Kai-Shek broke the levees holding back the Yellow River in order to stop advancing Imperial Japanese Army. ...

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Coordinates: 34°55′19″N, 97°30′43″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The University of Massachusetts Dartmouth is a multi-college university, part of the state wide university system of the University of Massachusetts, located in North Dartmouth, Massachusetts, not to be confused with Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. ... Creating & influence During Second Sino-Japanese War, in November 1938, when Chinese Wuhan city was occupied by Japanese troops, Guang Weiran(aka. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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