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Encyclopedia > Yeast
Yeasts
Yeast of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Yeast of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Typical divisions

Ascomycota (sac fungi) Image File history File links S_cerevisiae_under_DIC_microscopy. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores...

Basidiomycota (club fungi) Classes Saccharomycetes Saccharomycotina is an subphylum of the phylum Ascomycota, in the kingdom Fungi. ... Classes Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes Taphrinomycotina is a subdivision of the Ascomycota (fungi which form their spores in a sac-like ascus) and is more or less the same thing as the older taxon Archaeascomycetes. ... Orders Schizosaccharomycetales Schizosaccharomycetes is a class in the kingdom of fungi. ... Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ...

Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans.[2] Most reproduce asexually by budding, although a few do by binary fission. Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of a string of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae, or false hyphae as seen in most molds.[3] Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm.[4] Urediniomycetes is a diverse class of fungi that includes several important plant pathogens causing forms of fungal rust. ... Families Sporidiobolaceae Sporidiales is an order in the kingdom of Fungi. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Barm, a word derived from the old English for yeast, is the foam, or scum, formed on the top of liquor when fermenting. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ... Binary fission Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ...


The yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in baking and fermenting alcoholic beverages for thousands of years. It is also extremely important as a model organism in modern cell biology research, and is the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganism. Researchers have used it to gather information into the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology.[5] Other species of yeast, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infection in humans. Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells,[6] and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Some examples of baked food. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Binomial name Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout 1923 Synonyms Candida stellatoidea [1] Candida albicans is a diploid asexual fungus (a form of yeast), and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and vaginal infections in humans. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is probably the most common. ... A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a device in which micro-organisms oxidize compounds such as glucose, acetate or wastewater. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ...


Yeasts do not form a specific taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. At present it is estimated that only 1% of all yeast species have been described.[7] The term "yeast" is often taken as a synonym for S. cerevisiae,[8] however the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in both divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The budding yeasts ("true yeasts") are classified in the order Saccharomycetales.[9] For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Ascoideaceae Cephaloascaceae Dipodascaceae Endomycetaceae Eremotheciaceae Lipomycetaceae Metschnikowiaceae Phaffomycetaceae Saccharomycetaceae Saccharomycodaceae Saccharomycopsidaceae Saccharomycetales is an order in the kingdom of fungi that comprises the budding yeasts. ...

Contents

History

See also: History of wine and History of beer

The word "yeast " comes from the Old English language "gist", "gyst", and ultimately from the Indo-European root "yes-", meaning boil, foam, or bubble.[10] Yeast microbes are probably one of the earliest domesticated organisms. People have used yeast for fermentation and baking throughout history. Archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeasted bread, as well as drawings of 4,000-year-old bakeries and breweries.[11] In 1680 the Dutch naturalist Antoine van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms but rather globular structures.[12] In 1857 French microbiologist Louis Pasteur proved in the paper "Mémoire sur la fermentation alcoolique" that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst.[11][13] Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, but the fermentation inhibited - an observation later called the Pasteur effect. Yeast Infection Causes Yeast is a micro-organism that is used to make bread and beer. The history of wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of agriculture, cuisine, civilization and man himself. ... Alulu Tablet - a receipt for best beer from 2050 BC in the ancient Kingdom of Ur Beer is one of the oldest beverages humans have produced, dating back to at least the 5th millennium BC and recorded in the written history of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. ... Old English redirects here. ... See Pie (disambiguation) for other uses of PIE. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Anton von Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 _ August 26, 1723) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... Pasteur effect is an inhibiting effect of oxygen on fermentation process. ...


Growth and nutrition

Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs as they use organic compounds as a source of energy and do not require sunlight to grow. The main source of carbon is obtained by hexose sugars such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. Some species can metabolize pentose sugars, alcohols, and organic acids. Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration (obligate aerobes), or are anaerobic but also have aerobic methods of energy production (facultative anaerobes). Unlike bacteria, there are no known yeast species that grow only anaerobically (obligate anaerobes). Also, because they are adapted to them, yeasts grow best in a neutral pH environment. Chemoorganotrophs utilize organic compounds as their energy source. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An organic acid is an organic compound that is an acid. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ... A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ...


Yeasts will grow over a temperature range of 10°-37°C (50°-98.6°F), with an optimal temperature range of 30°-37°C (86°-98.6°F), depending on the type of species. S. cerevisiae works best at about 30°C. There is little activity in the range of 0°-10°C. Above 37°C yeast cells become stressed and will not divide properly. Most yeast cells die above 50°C (122°F). The cells can survive freezing under certain conditions, with viability decreasing over time.


Yeasts are ubiquitous in the environment, but are most frequently isolated from sugar-rich samples. Some good examples include fruits and berries (such as grapes, apples or peaches), and exudates from plants (such as plant saps or cacti). Some yeasts are found in association with soil and insects.[14][15] Yeast are generally grown in the laboratory on solid growth media or liquid broths. Common media used for the cultivation of yeasts include; potato dextrose agar (PDA) or potato dextrose broth, Wallerstien Laboratories Nutrient agar (WLN), Yeast Peptone Dextrose agar (YPD), and Yeast Mould agar or broth (YM). The antibiotic cycloheximide is sometimes added to yeast growth media to inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces yeasts and select for wild/indigenous yeast species. This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... An Agar Plate -- an example of a bacterial growth medium. ... Broth is a liquid in which bones, meat, fish, cereal grains, or vegetables have been simmered and strained out. ... Potato dextrose broth (abbreviated as PDB) and potato dextrose agar (abbreviated as PDA) are common microbiological media for culturing both yeast and mold, but usually not bacteria. ... Peptones or peptides are chains of amino acids formed by condensation of the a. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Cycloheximide (IUPAC designation 4-{(2R)-2-[(1S,3S,5S)-3,5-dimethyl-2-oxocyclohexyl]-2-hydroxyethyl}piperidine-2,6-dione) is an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms, produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. ...


Reproduction

The yeast cell's life cycle. 1. Budding 2. Conjugation 3. Spore
The yeast cell's life cycle.
1. Budding
2. Conjugation
3. Spore
See also: Mating of yeast

Yeasts have asexual and sexual reproductive cycles; however the most common mode of vegetative growth in yeast is asexual reproduction by budding or fission.[16] Here a small bud, or daughter cell, is formed on the parent cell. The nucleus of the parent cell splits into a daughter nucleus and migrates into the daughter cell. The bud continues to grow until it separates from the parent cell, forming a new cell.[17] The bud can develop on different parts of the parent cell depending on the genus of the yeast.Yeast needs the exact chemical form of sugar and cannot reproduce with sugar substitutes. However if the sugar substitute's chemical form is similar to sugar, yeast will reproduce a bit compared with many sugar substitutes where yeast will not reproduce at all. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ... Binary fission Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...


Under high stress conditions haploid cells will generally die, however under the same conditions diploid cells can undergo sporulation, entering sexual reproduction (meiosis) and producing a variety of haploid spores, which can go on to mate (conjugate), reforming the diploid.[18] Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ...


Yeast of the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe reproduce by binary fission instead of budding.[16] Binomial name Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called fission yeast, is a species of yeast. ... Binary fission Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. ...


Uses

The useful physiological properties of yeast have led to their use in the field of biotechnology. Fermentation of sugars by yeast is the oldest and largest application of this technology. Many types of yeasts are used for making many foods: Baker's yeast in bread production, brewer's yeast in beer fermentation, yeast in wine fermentation and for xylitol[19] production. Yeasts are also one of the most widely used model organisms for genetics and cell biology. The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ... A model organism is one that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the model organism will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ...


Alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverages are loosely defined as a beverage that contains ethanol (C2H6O). This ethanol is almost always produced by fermentation - the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of yeast. Beverages such as wine, beer, or distilled spirits all use yeast at some stage of their production. Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ...


Beer

A mixture of diatomaceous earth and yeast after filtering beer.
A mixture of diatomaceous earth and yeast after filtering beer.

Beer brewers classify yeasts as top-fermenting and bottom-fermenting. This distinction was introduced by the Dane Emil Christian Hansen. Top-fermenting yeasts are so called because they form a foam at the top of the wort during fermentation. They can produce higher alcohol concentrations and prefer higher temperatures, producing fruitier ale-type beers. An example of a top-fermenting yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known to brewers as ale yeast. Bottom-fermenting yeasts are used to produce lager-type beers. These yeasts ferment more sugars, leaving a crisper taste, and grow well at low temperatures. An example of a bottom-fermenting yeast is Saccharomyces pastorianus. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 508 KB) Summary A mixture of diatomaceous earth and yeast. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 508 KB) Summary A mixture of diatomaceous earth and yeast. ... A sample of diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous earth (IPA: , also known as DE, diatomite, diahydro, kieselguhr, kieselgur and Celite) is a naturally occurring, soft, chalk-like sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Emil Christian Hansen (May 8, 1842 - August 27, 1909) was a Danish fermentation physiologist. ... The exterior of the WORT studio building. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Lager is a well attenuated beer brewed in cool conditions using a slow-acting brewers yeast, known as a bottom-fermenting yeast, and then stored (or lagered) for a period in cool conditions to clear away particles and certain flavour compounds to produce a clean taste. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces pastorianus Nguyen & Gaillardin ex. ...


For both types, yeast is fully distributed through the beer while it is fermenting, and both equally flocculate (clump together and precipitate to the bottom of the vessel) when it is finished. By no means do all top-fermenting yeasts demonstrate this behaviour, but it features strongly in many English ale yeasts which may also exhibit chain forming (the failure of budded cells to break from the mother cell) which is technically different from true flocculation. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Lambic, a style of Belgian beer, is fermented spontaneously by wild yeasts primarily of the genus Brettanomyces. Traditional wooden Lambic barrels; the L on the barrel indicates the brewery. ... [[|Diversity]] Binomial name Trinomial name Type Species Species [[Image: ]] Synonyms Brettanomyces is a single-celled fungus that is important in brewing and winemaking as it is resistant to alcohol so can grow even after fermentation starts. ...

Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer.
Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer.

In industrial brewing, to ensure purity of strain, a 'clean' sample of the yeast is stored refrigerated in a laboratory. After a certain number of fermentation cycles, a full scale propagation is produced from this laboratory sample. Typically, it is grown up in about three or four stages using sterile brewing wort and oxygen. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1752x1168, 293 KB) Summary Modern fermenting tanks. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1752x1168, 293 KB) Summary Modern fermenting tanks. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... The exterior of the WORT studio building. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Root Beer and Sodas

Root beer and other sweet carbonated beverages can be produced using the same methods as beer, except that fermentation is stopped sooner, producing carbon dioxide, but only trace amounts of alcohol, and a significant amount of sugar is left in the drink.


Distilled beverages

A distilled beverage is a beverage that contains ethanol that has been purified by distillation. Carbohydrate-containing plant material is fermented by yeast, producing a dilute solution of ethanol in the process. Spirits such as whiskey and rum are prepared by distilling these dilute solutions of ethanol. Components other than ethanol are collected in the condensate, including water, esters, and other alcohols which account for the flavor of the beverage. A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Natural Gas Condensate (usually just condensate) is a by-product of natural gas. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ...


Wine

Fresh grapes
Fresh grapes
Main article: Fermentation (wine)

Yeast is used in winemaking where it converts the sugars present in grape juice or must into alcohol. Yeast is normally already invisibly present on the grapes. The fermentation can be done with this endogenous (or wild) yeast;[20] however, this may give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast species that are present. For this reason a pure yeast culture is generally added to the must, which rapidly predominates the fermentation as it proceeds. This represses the wild yeasts and ensures a reliable and predictable fermentation.[21] Most added wine yeasts are strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however not all strains of the species are suitable.[21] Different S. cerevisiae yeast strains have differing physiological and fermentative properties, therefore the actual strain of yeast selected can have a direct impact on the finished wine.[22] Significant research has been undertaken into the development of novel wine yeast strains that produce atypical flavour profiles or increased complexity in wines.[23][24] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x497, 247 KB)A photo of yeast on grapes from Flickr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x497, 247 KB)A photo of yeast on grapes from Flickr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fermenting must. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Concord grapes being cooked down into grape juice for use in making jelly. ... For must meaning compulsion, see wikt:must. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ...


The growth of some yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces and Brettanomyces in wine can result in wine faults and subsequent spoilage.[25] Brettanomyces produces an array of metabolites when growing in wine, some of which are volatile phenolic compounds. Together these compounds are often referred to as "Brettanomyces character", and are often described as antiseptic or "barnyard" type aromas. Brettanomyces is a significant contributor to wine faults within the wine industry.[26] Species Z. bailii Zygosaccharomyces is a genus of yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae. ... [[|Diversity]] Binomial name Trinomial name Type Species Species [[Image: ]] Synonyms Brettanomyces is a single-celled fungus that is important in brewing and winemaking as it is resistant to alcohol so can grow even after fermentation starts. ... A wine fault or defect is an unpleasant characteristic of a wine often resulting from poor wine making practices or storage conditions, and leading to wine spoilage. ... [[|Diversity]] Binomial name Trinomial name Type Species Species [[Image: ]] Synonyms Brettanomyces is a single-celled fungus that is important in brewing and winemaking as it is resistant to alcohol so can grow even after fermentation starts. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... A wine fault or defect is an unpleasant characteristic of a wine often resulting from poor wine making practices or storage conditions, and leading to wine spoilage. ...


Baking

Main article: Baker's yeast
Bread showing pockets left by carbon dioxide.

Yeast, most commonly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in baking as a leavening agent, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide. This causes the dough to expand or rise as the carbon dioxide forms pockets or bubbles. When the dough is baked it "sets" and the pockets remain, giving the baked product a soft and spongy texture. The use of potatoes, water from potato boiling, eggs, or sugar in a bread dough accelerates the growth of yeasts. Salt and fats such as butter slow down yeast growth. The majority of the yeast used in baking is of the same species common in alcoholic fermentation. Additionally, Saccharomyces exiguus (also known as S. minor) is a wild yeast found on plants, fruits, and grains that is occasionally used for baking. Sugar and vinegar are the best conditions for yeast to ferment. Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bread_rise. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bread_rise. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Some examples of baked food. ... A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Bubbles of air in a soft drink For specific types of bubbles, and metaphors of the word bubble, see Bubble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ...

A block of fresh yeast.
A block of fresh yeast.

It is not known when yeast was first used to bake bread. The first records that show this use came from Ancient Egypt.[27] Researchers speculate that a mixture of flour meal and water was left longer than usual on a warm day and the yeasts that occur in natural contaminants of the flour caused it to ferment before baking. The resulting bread would have been lighter and more tasty than the normal flat, hard cake. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,816 × 2,112 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,816 × 2,112 pixels, file size: 1. ...

Active dried yeast, a granulated form in which yeast is commercially sold.
Active dried yeast, a granulated form in which yeast is commercially sold.

Today there are several retailers of baker's yeast; one of the best-known is Fleischmann’s Yeast, which was developed in 1868. During World War II Fleischmann's developed a granulated active dry yeast, which did not require refrigeration and had a longer shelf life than fresh yeast. The company created yeast that would rise twice as fast, cutting down on baking time. Baker's yeast is also sold as a fresh yeast compressed into a square "cake". This form perishes quickly, and must be used soon after production in order to maintain viability. A weak solution of water and sugar can be used to determine if yeast is expired. When dissolved in the solution, active yeast will foam and bubble as it ferments the sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Some recipes refer to this as proofing the yeast as it gives proof of the viability of the yeast before the other ingredients are added. When using a sourdough starter, flour and water are added instead of sugar and this is referred to as proofing the sponge. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 188 KB) [edit] Skildring [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yeast Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 188 KB) [edit] Skildring [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yeast Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Viability can mean: In an environmental conservation context, viability indicates the ability of a conservation target to persist for many generations or over long time periods. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ...


When yeast is used for making bread, it is mixed with flour, salt, and warm water (or milk). The dough is kneaded until it is smooth, and then left to rise, sometimes until it has doubled in size. Some bread doughs are knocked back after one rising and left to rise again. A longer rising time gives a better flavour, but the yeast can fail to raise the bread in the final stages if it is left for too long initially. The dough is then shaped into loaves, left to rise until it is the correct size, and then baked. Dried yeast is always used for bread made in a bread machine. A bread machine, or bread maker A bread machine (more usually known in Australian and British English as a bread maker or breadmaker) is a home appliance for baking bread. ...


Bioremediation

Some yeasts can find potential application in the field of bioremediation. One such yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is known to degrade palm oil mill effluent,[28] TNT (an explosive material),[29] and other hydrocarbons such as alkanes, fatty acids, fats and oils.[30] Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... In the context of creating Plutonium at the Hanford Site, effluent refers to the cooling water that is discharged from a nuclear reactor that may or may not be radioactive. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as Paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ...


Industrial ethanol production

The ability of yeast to convert sugar into ethanol has been harnessed by the biotechnology industry, which has various uses including ethanol fuel. The process starts by milling a feedstock, such as sugar cane, sweetcorn, or cheap cereal grains, and then adding dilute sulfuric acid, or fungal alpha amylase enzymes, to break down the starches into complex sugars. A gluco amylase is then added to break the complex sugars down into simple sugars. After this, yeasts are added to convert the simple sugars to ethanol, which is then distilled off to obtain ethanol up to 96% in concentration.[31] Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Information on pump, California. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Husked sweetcorn Young sweetcorn The same rows of corn 41 days later at maturity. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...


Saccharomyces yeasts have been genetically engineered to ferment xylose, one of the major fermentable sugars present in cellulosic biomasses, such as agriculture residues, paper wastes, and wood chips.[32] Such a development means that ethanol can be efficiently produced from more inexpensive feedstocks, making cellulosic ethanol fuel a more competitively priced alternative to gasoline fuels.[33] Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Cellulosic ethanol is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Kombucha

A Kombucha culture fermenting in a jar
A Kombucha culture fermenting in a jar

Yeast in symbiosis with acetic acid bacteria is used in the preparation of Kombucha, a fermented sweetened tea. Species of yeast found in the tea can vary, and may include: Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii.[34] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x1298, 425 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kombucha Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x1298, 425 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kombucha Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This section contains a list of trivia items. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Genera Acetobacter Acidicaldus Acidiphilium Acidisphaera Acidocella Acidomonas Asaia Belnapia Craurococcus Gluconacetobacter Gluconobacter Kozakia Leahibacter Muricoccus Neoasaia Oleomonas Paracraurococcus Rhodopila Roseococcus Rubritepida Saccharibacter Stella Swaminathania Teichococcus Zavarzinia Acetic acid bacteria are bacteria that derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during respiration. ... This section contains a list of trivia items. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Brettanomyces bruxellensis Kufferath and von Laer Brettanomyces bruxellensis (the anamorph of Dekkera bruxellensis) is a spoilage yeast of the wine industry where it is often referred to as brett. ... Binomial name Candida stellata S.A. Mey. ... Binomial name Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called fission yeast, is a species of yeast. ... Torulaspora delbrueckii is a yeast strain related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used for brewing wheat beer. ... Binomial name Zygosaccharomyces bailii Lindner, 1895 Zygosaccharomyces bailii is the type species for the genus Zygosaccharomyces. ...


Nutritional supplements

Yeast is used in nutritional supplements popular with vegans and the health conscious, where it is often referred to as "nutritional yeast". It is a deactivated yeast, usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is an excellent source of protein and vitamins, especially the B-complex vitamins, whose functions are related to metabolism as well as other minerals and cofactors required for growth. It is also naturally low in fat and sodium. Some brands of nutritional yeast, though not all, are fortified with vitamin B12, which is produced separately from bacteria. Nutritional yeast, though it has a similar appearance to brewer's yeast, is very different and has a very different taste. Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... A cofactor is the following: In mathematics a cofactor is the minor of an element of a square matrix. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Nutritional yeast, similar to brewers yeast, is a nutritional supplement popular with vegans and the health conscious who use it as an ingredient in recipes or simply as a condiment. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Nutritional yeast has a nutty, cheesy, creamy flavor which makes it popular as an ingredient in cheese substitutes. It is often used by vegans in place of parmesan cheese. Another popular use is as a topping for popcorn. Some movie theaters are beginning to offer it along with salt or cayenne pepper as a popcorn condiment. It comes in the form of flakes, or as a yellow powder similar in texture to cornmeal, and can be found in the bulk aisle of most natural food stores. In Australia it is sometimes sold as "savory yeast flakes". Though "nutritional yeast" usually refers to commercial products, inadequately fed prisoners have used "home-grown" yeast to prevent vitamin deficiency.[35] Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Country of origin Italy Region, town Provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna (west of the Reno), Mantua (south of the Po) Source of milk Cows Pasteurised No Texture Hard Aging time Minimum: 12 months Vecchio: 18–24 months Stravecchio: 24–36 months Certification Italy: DOC 1955 EU: PDO 1992... For other uses, see Popcorn (disambiguation). ...


Probiotics

Some probiotic supplements use the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii to maintain and restore the natural flora in the large and small gastrointestinal tract. S. boulardii has been shown to reduce the symptoms of acute diarrhea in children,[36][37] prevent reinfection of Clostridium difficile,[38] reduce bowel movements in diarrhea predominant IBS patients,[39] and reduce the incidence of antibiotic,[40] traveler's,[41] and HIV/AIDS[42] associated diarrheas. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces boulardii Henri Boulard Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical strain of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Binomial name Hall & OToole, 1935 Clostridium difficile or CDF/cdf (commonly mistaken  , alternatively and correctly pronounced ) (also referred to as C. diff or C-diff) is a species of bacteria of the genus Clostridium which are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). ... In gastroenterology, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or spastic colon is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits which are not associated with any abnormalities seen on routine clinical testing. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Travelers diarrhea (TD) is the most common illness affecting travelers. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Science

Diagram showing a yeast cell
Diagram showing a yeast cell

Several yeasts, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been widely used in genetics and cell biology. This is largely because the cell cycle in a yeast cell is very similar to the cell cycle in humans, and therefore the basic cellular mechanics of DNA replication, recombination, cell division and metabolism are comparable.[9] Also many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its replication. ... This article is about modern humans. ... DNA replication. ... Recombination usually refers to the biological process of genetic recombination and meiosis, a genetic event that occurs during the formation of sperm and egg cells. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events in a eukaryotic cell between one cell division and the next. ... Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ...


On 24 April 1996 S. cerevisiae was announced to be the first eukaryote to have its genome, consisting of 12 million base pairs, fully sequenced as part of the Genome project.[43] At the time it was the most complex organism to have its full genome sequenced and took 7 years and the involvement of more than 100 laboratories to accomplish.[44] The second yeast species to have its genome sequenced was Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which was completed in 2002.[45] It was the 6th eukaryotic genome sequenced and consists of 13.8 million base pairs. is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus). ... Binomial name Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called fission yeast, is a species of yeast. ...


Yeast extract

Main article: Yeast extract
Marmite and Vegemite have a distinctive dark colour
Marmite and Vegemite have a distinctive dark colour
Vegemite and Marmite, products made from yeast extract
Vegemite and Marmite, products made from yeast extract

Yeast extract is the common name for various forms of processed yeast products that are used as food additives or flavours. They are often used in the same way that monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used, and like MSG, often contain free glutamic acids. The general method for making yeast extract for food products such as Vegemite and Marmite on a commercial scale is to add salt to a suspension of yeast making the solution hypertonic, which leads to the cells shrivelling up. This triggers autolysis, where the yeast's digestive enzymes break their own proteins down into simpler compounds, a process of self-destruction. The dying yeast cells are then heated to complete their breakdown, after which the husks (yeast with thick cell walls which would give poor texture) are separated. Yeast autolysates are used in Vegemite and Promite (Australia), Marmite and Bovril (the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and South Africa), Oxo (South Africa, United Kingdom, and Republic of Ireland), and Cenovis (Switzerland). Yeast extract is the common name for yeast autolysates, that is, concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds. ... Image File history File links Marmite. ... Image File history File links Marmite. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 350 KB)A photo of Vegemite and Marmite from [Flickr] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 350 KB)A photo of Vegemite and Marmite from [Flickr] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Vegemite on toast. ... A jar of the British version of Marmite Marmite is a British and New Zealand savoury spread made from yeast extract, a by-product of beer brewing. ... Yeast extract is the common name for yeast autolysates, that is, concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... This article is about flavor, the sensory impression. ... This article is about monosodium glutamate as a food additive. ... Glutamic acid (Glu, E), is the protonated form of glutamate (the anion). ... Vegemite on toast. ... A jar of the British version of Marmite Marmite is a British and New Zealand savoury spread made from yeast extract, a by-product of beer brewing. ... Autolysis is the process by which a cell self-destructs (if necessary) for the healthiness of the entire organism. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Vegemite on toast. ... Promite (IPA pronunciation: ) is the registered brand name for a dark brown, salty food paste mainly used as a spread on sandwiches and toast similar to the better known Vegemite and Marmite. ... A jar of the British version of Marmite Marmite is a British and New Zealand savoury spread made from yeast extract, a by-product of beer brewing. ... Bovril in a 250g jar Bovril is the trademarked name of a thick, salty beef extract, sold in a distinctive, bulbous jar. ... Various types of Oxo cube Oxo is a brand of stock cube manufactured by Campbell Soup UK in England. ... Tubbed Cenovis, as being sold by Cenovis S.A. Cenovis is a product based on yeast extract similar to Vegemite and Marmite, rich in vitamin B1. ...


Pathogenic yeasts

A photomicrograph of Candida albicans showing hyphal outgrowth and other morphological characteristics.
A photomicrograph of Candida albicans showing hyphal outgrowth and other morphological characteristics.

Some species of yeast are opportunistic pathogens where they can cause infection in people with compromised immune systems. Image File history File links C_albicans_en. ... Image File history File links C_albicans_en. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: gibberish, patent nonsense If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Binomial name Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout 1923 Synonyms Candida stellatoidea [1] Candida albicans is a diploid asexual fungus (a form of yeast), and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and vaginal infections in humans. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ...


Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant pathogen of immunocompromised people causing the disease termed Cryptococcosis. This disease occurs in about 7–8% of AIDS patients in the USA, and a slightly smaller percentage (3–6%) in western Europe.[46] The cells of the yeast are surrounded by a rigid polysaccharide capsule, which helps to prevent them from being recognised and engulfed by white blood cells in the human body. Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus that can live in both plants and animals. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ...


Yeasts of the Candida genus are another group of opportunistic pathogens which causes oral and vaginal infections in humans, known as Candidiasis. Candida is commonly found as a commensal yeast in the mucus membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals. However, sometimes these same strains can become pathogenic. Here the yeast cells sprout a hyphal outgrowth, which locally penetrates the mucosal membrane, causing irritation and shedding of the tissues.[46] The pathogenic yeasts of candidiasis in probable descending order of virulence for humans are: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. stellatoidea, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. viswanathii, C. lusitaniae and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.[47] Candida glabrata is the second most common Candida pathogen after C. albicans, causing infections of the urogenital tract, and of the bloodstream (Candidemia).[48] Species C. albicans C. dubliniensis C. glabrata C. guilliermondii C. kefyr C. krusei C. lusitaniae C. milleri C. oleophila C. parapsilosis C. tropicalis C. utilis Candida is a genus of yeasts. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Binomial name Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout 1923 Synonyms Candida stellatoidea [1] Candida albicans is a diploid asexual fungus (a form of yeast), and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and vaginal infections in humans. ... Binomial name Candida tropicalis Berkhout, 1923[1] Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida. ... Binomial name Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout 1923 Synonyms Candida stellatoidea [1] Candida albicans is a diploid sexual fungus (a form of yeast), and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and vaginal infections in humans. ... Binomial name Candida glabrata (Anderson) Meyer & Yarrow Candida glabrata is a haploid yeast of the genus Candida, previously known as Torulopsis glabrata. ... Binomial name Candida krusei (Castellani) Berkhout Candida krusei is a budding yeast (a species of fungus) involved in chocolate production. ... A fungal species (yeast family) that has become a significant cause of sepsis and of wound and tissue infections in immunocompromised patients. ... Binomial name Pichia guilliermondii Wick[1] Synonyms Candida guilliermondii Pichia guilliermondii is a species of yeast of the genus Pichia whose asexual or anamorphic form is known as Candida guilliermondii. ... Binomial name Candida viswanathii Sandu & H.S. Randhawa, 1962[1] Synonyms Candida lodderae Candida viswanathii is a species of yeast in the genus Candida. ... Binomial name Candida lusitaniae Synonyms Clavispora lusitaniae Candida lusitaniae is a species of yeast in the genus Candida. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Binomial name Candida glabrata (Anderson) Meyer & Yarrow Candida glabrata is a haploid yeast of the genus Candida, previously known as Torulopsis glabrata. ... In anatomy, the genitourinary system is the organ system of all the reproductive organs and the urinary system. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Fungemia (also known as Candidemia, Candedemia, and Invasive Candidiasis) is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood. ...


Non-pathogenic yeast such as S. cerevisiae are also implicated in disease; anti saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been found at relatively high frequencies in familial crohn's disease and at higher frequencies in other forms of colitis.[49] schematic representation of antibody. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ... Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon. ...


Food spoilage

Yeasts are able to grow in foods with a low pH, (5.0 or lower) and in the presence of sugars, organic acids and other easily metabolized carbon sources.[50] During their growth, yeasts metabolize some food components and produce metabolic end products. This causes the physical, chemical, and sensory properties of a food to change, and the food is spoiled.[51] The growth of yeast within food products is often seen on their surface, as in cheeses or meats, or by the fermentation of sugars in beverages, such as juices, and semi-liquid products, such as syrups and jams.[50] The yeast of the Zygosaccharomyces genus have had a long history as a spoilage yeast within the food industry. This is mainly due to the fact that these species can grow in the presence of high sucrose, ethanol, acetic acid, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and sulfur dioxide concentrations,[52] representing some of the commonly used food preservation methods. Methylene Blue is used to test for the presence of live yeast cells. Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Species Z. bailii Zygosaccharomyces is a genus of yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Chemical structure Sorbic acid (also known as trans, trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid) has the chemical formula C6H8O2. ... Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... Methylene blue is a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound with molecular formula: C16H18ClN3S. It has many uses in a range of different fields, such as biology or chemistry. ...


See also

Look up Yeast in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A bioaerosol is a biological aerosol. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ...

References

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Krishna Prasad is a Fijian politician of Indian descent, who held the Nadi Open Constituency in the House of Representatives for the Fiji Labour Party in the parliamentary election of 2001. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was a British commercial company formed on October 18, 1922 by British and American electrical companies doing business in the United Kingdom. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cook's Thesaurus: Yeast (2079 words)
Beer yeast and wine yeast are used to convert sugar into alcohol and, in the case of beer and champagne, bubbles.
Brewer's yeast and nutritional yeast, for example, are sold as nutritional supplements, and Australians are fond of yeast extracts--like Vegemite, Marmite, and Promite--which they spread like peanut butter on bread.
Nutritional yeast is very similar to brewer's yeast, which is also used as a nutritional supplement and is made from the same strain of yeast.
Brewer's Yeast: Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine (1072 words)
Brewer's yeast is an ingredient that is used to ferment sugars to alcohol in the brewing of beer.
Brewer's yeast is a good source of RNA, an immune-enhancing nucleic acid that may help in the prevention of degenerative diseases and slowing the aging process.
Brewer's yeast has been reported to help improve symptoms of diabetes and hypoglycemia, and may act to prevent diabetes from developing in persons with a family history of diabetes and in those who have problems with blood sugar metabolism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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