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Encyclopedia > Year zero

A year zero has not been defined for the Gregorian calendar, which is widely used, nor for its predecessor, the Julian calendar. However, it has been defined for the calendar ISO 8601:2004 and for astronomical year numbering (where it coincides with the Gregorian year 1 BC) as well as in all Buddhist and Hindu calendars. The term Year Zero, applied to the takeover of Cambodia in 1975 by the Khmer Rouge, is an analogy to the Year One of the French Revolutionary Calendar. ... Year Zero (also known as Halo 24) is the sixth Nine Inch Nails studio album, released on April 16, 2007 in Europe, April 17 in the United States, and April 25, 2007 in Japan. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ...

Contents

Julian and Gregorian calendars

The Roman numeral system has no symbol for null (zero), but instead the Latin words nulla and nihil, which in normal speech meant nothing, were used. Nulla was used whenever zero was a member of a series of numbers, whether the other numbers were Roman numerals or Latin words. Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...


Dionysius Exiguus (c.470–c.544) used the Latin zero in the very same table wherein he introduced his anno Domini era, but in a neighboring column—it was the first epact of the 19-year cycle used to calculate Easter (see the nineteen year cycle of Dionysius). Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... Events Euric, king of the Visigoths, defeats an attempted invasion of Gaul by the Celtic magnate Riothamus. ... Events Belisarius is sent back to Italy to once more fight the Ostrogoths who have been making reconquests in the area. ... The epact (from Greek: epaktai hèmerai = added days) is, as the second Canon of the Gregorian Calendar reform puts it, nothing else than the number of days which the common solar year of 365 days surpasses the common lunar year of 354 days (Latin: Epacta nihil aliud est quam... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


Bede (c.672735) was the first historian to use a BC year, and hence the first one to choose 1 as the origin of the BC era, thus 1 BC, in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Ecclesiastical history of the English people, 731). Previous Christian histories used anno mundi ("in the year of the world"), or anno Adami ("in the year of Adam", beginning five days later, used by Africanus), or anno Abrahami ("in the year of Abraham", beginning 3,412 years later according to the Septuagint, used by Eusebius), all of which assigned "one" to the year beginning at Creation, or the creation of Adam, or the birth of Abraham, respectively. All began with year 1, the most frequent origin for counting sets. Bede did not sequentially number any other calendar entities. (days of the month, weeks of the year, or months of the year — but he was aware of the Jewish days of the week which were numbered as based on counting origin 1. It is often argued that Bede did not use a year zero because he did not know about the number zero. Although the Arabic numeral (symbol) for zero (0) did not enter Europe until the eleventh century, Bede and Dionysius were well aware of the concept of zero; two words for zero, the Latin words nulla and nihil, were normal in Latin speech, meaning nothing. Nulla was used whenever zero was a member of a series of numbers, whether the other numbers were Roman numerals or Latin words. The first documented use of zero in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system occurred towards the end of the 9th century. However, the Arabic numerals were totally unknown in Europe until about the end of the first millennium and were not generally used before Renaissance time. For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Events Abkhazia becomes independent, and will remain such until the 15th century Births Alcuin, missionary and bishop (approximate date) Deaths May 25 - Bede, English Historian and monk Categories: 735 ... Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman... Events Bede completes his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum February 11 - Pope Gregory III succeeds Gregory II Deaths February 11 - Pope Gregory II See also Unit 731 Categories: 731 ... Anno Mundi (AM, in the year of the world) refers to a Calendar era counting from the creation of the world. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Cultures throughout history have believed the world formed or was formed at some time in the past, so methods of dating Creation have involved analysing scriptures and some physical data. ... For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ... “Abram” redirects here. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about days of the week. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


The first extensive use (hundreds of times) of 'BC' occurred in Fasciculus Temporum by Werner Rolevinck in 1474, alongside years of the world (anno mundi). Werner Rolevinck (1425-1502) was a Carthusian monk and wrote important chronicles on the history of westphalia and the world. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ...


The anno Domini nomenclature was not widely used in Western Europe until the 9th century, and the 1 January to 31 December historical year was not uniform throughout Western Europe until 1752. The terms anno Domini, Dionysian era, Christian era, vulgar era, and common era were used interchangeably between the Renaissance and the 19th century, at least in Latin. But vulgar era was suppressed in English at the beginning of the twentieth century after vulgar acquired the meaning of "offensively coarse", replacing its original meaning of "common" or "ordinary". Consequently, historians regard all these eras as equal. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Historians

Since Bede, historians have not counted with a year zero. This means that between, for example, 500 BC, January 1 and AD 500, January 1 there are 999 years: 500 for the time taking place BC, and 499 for the part of AD. common usage Anno Domini 1 is preceded by the year 1 BC, without an intervening year zero.[1] Thus the year "2006" actually signifies "the 2006th year". Neither the choice of calendar system (whether Julian or Gregorian) nor the era (Anno Domini or Common Era) determines whether a year zero will be used. If writers do not use the convention of their group (historians or astronomers), they must explicitly state whether they include a year 0 in their count of years, otherwise their historical dates will be misunderstood. No historian includes a year 0 when numbering years in the current standard era. Thus, regardless of the appellation or calendar employed (Julian or Gregorian), 1 BC always immediately precedes AD 1. Historians even refuse to use a year 0 when using negative years before our positive era, hence their −1 immediately precedes 1 (for example, V. Grumel, La chronologie (1958), page 30). For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... AD redirects here. ... Ante Christum Natum (Latin for Before Christ (was) Born), usually abbreviated to A.C.N., a. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... AD redirects here. ...


Astronomical year numbering

Astronomers

Astronomers, for whom ease of mathematical calculation is more important, have used for several centuries a defined leap year zero equal to BC 1 of the traditional Christian era. The first use of an astronomical year 0 is traditionally attributed to Jacques Cassini whose stated reasons for including a year zero were: An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Jacques Cassini (February 8, 1677 - April 18, 1756) was a French astronomer, son of Giovanni Domenico Cassini Cassini was born at the Paris Observatory. ...

The year 0 is that in which one supposes that Jesus Christ was born, which several chronologists mark 1 before the birth of Jesus Christ and which we marked 0, so that the sum of the years before and after Jesus Christ gives the interval which is between these years, and where numbers divisible by 4 mark the leap years as so many before or after Jesus Christ.

Jacques Cassini, Tables astronomiques (Astronomical Tables), 1740, p. 5, translated from French

But Philippe de La Hire had used a year zero earlier in 1702 in his Tabulæ Astronomicæ (Astronomical Tables) in the form Christum o. ("Christ 0"), without explanation. Both Cassini and La Hire used BC years before their year 0 and AD years thereafter (hence the sequence 1 BC, 0, AD 1). That is why Cassini stated that their sum yielded the interval. For example, 1 + 1 = 2. Beginning in the 19th century, some astronomers began to use negative years before their year 0, while other astronomers continued to use BC years before their year 0. By the mid 20th century, all astronomers were using negative years before year 0 (hence the sequence −1, 0, 1). Thus modern astronomers would state that the years' difference yields the interval, just as it does if the years are both positive or both negative. For example, 1 − (−1) = 2, and 2000 − 1999 = 1. Although 'AD' is omitted from later years, leaving a bare number, a positive sign (+) is sometimes prefixed to the number. Because of possible confusion with the earlier use of an astronomical BC, only in the modern version can it be said that astronomical year 0 equals the historical year 1 BC. Philippe de La Hire (or Lahire or Phillipe de La Hire) (March 18, 1640 — April 21, 1719), was a French mathematician and astronomer. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


ISO 8601

ISO 8601:2004 (and previously ISO 8601:2000, but not ISO 8601:1988) explicitly uses astronomical year numbering in its date reference systems. Because it also specifies the use of the proleptic Gregorian calendar for all years before 1582, some readers incorrectly assume that a year zero is also included in that proleptic calendar, whereas that is unusual. The "basic" format for year 0 is the four-digit form 0000, which equals the historical year 1 BC. Several "expanded" formats are possible: -0000 and +0000, as well as five- and six-digit versions. Earlier years are also negative four-, five- or six-digit years, which have an absolute value one less than the equivalent BC year, hence -0001 = 2 BC. Because only ISO 646 (7-bit ASCII) characters are allowed by ISO 8601, the minus sign is represented by a hyphen-minus. ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian Calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... In mathematics, the absolute value (or modulus[1]) of a real number is its numerical value without regard to its sign. ... ISO 646 is an ISO standard that specifies a 7 bit character code from which several national standards are derived, the best known of which is ASCII. Since the portion of ISO 646 shared by all countries specified only the letters used in the English alphabet, other countries using the... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The Hyphen-minus is the character at position 2DHEX in ASCII and standards that derive from it. ...


Other year zero traditions

South Asian Moon calendars

All eras used with Hindu and Buddhist calendars, such as the Saka era or the Kali Yuga, begin with the year 0. All these calendars show elapsed, expired, or complete years, in contrast with most other calendars which use current years. A complete year had not yet elapsed for any date in the initial year of the epoch, thus the number 1 cannot be used. Instead, during the first year the indication of 0 years (elapsed) is given in order to show that the epoch is less than 1 year old. This is similar to the Western method of stating a person's age — people do not reach age one until one year has elapsed since birth (but their age during the year beginning at birth is specified in months or fractional years, not as age zero; however if ages were specified in years and months, such a person would be said to be, for example, 0 years and 6 months or 0.5 years old. This is analogous to the way time is shown on the clock: during the first hour of a day, the time elapsed is 0 hours, xx minutes. A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ... Kali Yuga is also the title of a book by Roland Charles Wagner. ...


Maya historians

Many Maya historians, but not all, assume (or used to assume) that a year 0 exists in the modern calendar and thus specify that the epoch of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar occurred in 3113 BC rather than 3114 BC. This would require the sequence 1 BC, 0, AD 1 as in early astronomical years. This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Detail showing three columns of glyphs from 2nd century AD La Mojarra Stela 1. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ...


Numerical explanation

Historians use ordinal numbers (e.g. first, second, third, ...) to label years, centuries, and millennia, whereas astronomical year numbering, Hindu and Buddhist calendars all use cardinal numbers (e.g. 1, 2, 3, ...), which measure the elapsed time from a starting point. Ordinal numbers, or ordinals for short, are numbers used to denote the position in an ordered sequence: first, second, third, fourth, etc. ... Alternative meaning: number of pitch classes in a set. ...

Ordinal numbers give a position in a sequence (e.g. first, second, third, ...). When using ordinal numbers to label years, the first year after the starting point necessarily comes immediately after the first year before the starting point. Thus 1 AD comes immediately after 1 BC.
Cardinal numbers mark the integer positions on a continuous scale, in this case a time axis. When using cardinal numbers to measure elapsed time year 1 begins exactly one year after the starting point. Thus, with cardinal numbers, the first year is year 0 (meaning that zero years have elapsed since the starting point).

Normally there is no confusion between ordinal and cardinal numbers, but if one uses the numeral 1 to stand for the first in a sequence, and "2" for the second, and so forth, then ambiguity can result. There is no way to tell whether "year 1" is ordinal (using 1 to mean "first"), or cardinal (using 1 to mean one year after the starting point).


A similar distinction occurs in numbering the floors of a building, and the exits of a highway. See Floor numbering and Exit 0. Elevator plate with floor numbering. ... There are several places with a highway interchange labeled as Exit 0 (zero). ...


Third millennium

The 3rd millennium of the Gregorian calendar began on 1 January 2001 (rather than the popularly-celebrated 1 January 2000). This is a direct consequence of the absence of a year zero in the Common Era. Had there been a year zero, which might be considered part of the first millennium, then 1 January 2000 would indeed mark 2000 years since the year numbering datum and be the start of the third millennium. The third millennium (so called because it is the third period of 1000 years in the Common Era) is a period of time which began on (depending on your beliefs) 1 January 2001 and will end on 31 December 3000 or 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2999. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... “BCE” redirects here. ...


In popular culture

  • In the movie Back to the Future, Dr. Emmett Brown, the inventor of a time machine, enters the input date of the "birth of Christ" on a keypad as December 25, 0000, implying that he uses the astronomical year numbering (and ignoring questions of whether Jesus was actually born on that year or date). It should be noted that the DVD commentary clearly points out that the date was a joke.
  • In the movie, The Beach, Leonardo DiCaprio is, during his mental instability, crazed about the term Year 0.
  • 30 Seconds to Mars have a song entitled "Year Zero" on their debut album.
  • The sixth studio album from Nine Inch Nails is also named "Year Zero". It follows a viral marketing campaign, part of the Year Zero Alternate Reality Game.
  • The fictitious theologian Franz Bibfeldt's most famous work relates to the year 0: a 1927 dissertation submission to the University of Worms entitled "The Problem of the Year 0".
  • Jeff Long wrote a fiction book entitled Year Zero.
  • The Zork timeline included with the comedy game Zork Grand Inquisitor features the year 0 GUE with the annotation: "As the year zero begins, people feel fairly confident that something big is about to happen."

This article is about the first film in the Back to the Future trilogy. ... Doctor Emmett Lathrop Doc Brown is a fictional character, one of the lead characters in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actor Christopher Lloyd in the three films and the live action sequences of the animated series. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Beach is a 2000 film by the Trainspotting team of writer John Hodge and director Danny Boyle based on the 1996 novel of the same name by Alex Garland. ... 30 Seconds to Mars (or Thirty Seconds to Mars) is an alternative rock band from Los Angeles, California, featuring actor Jared Leto as the lead vocalist. ... “NIN” redirects here. ... Year Zero (also known as Halo 24) is the sixth Nine Inch Nails studio album, released on April 16, 2007 in Europe, April 17 in the United States, and April 25, 2007 in Japan. ... Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness, through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. ... Year Zero is an alternate reality game based on the Nine Inch Nails concept album of the same name, its expected follow-up, and a possible accompanying movie project. ... Franz Bibfeldt is a famous, ficticious theologian and in-joke among American academic theologians. ... Jeff Long is NY State DECA President. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I • Zork II • Zork III Beyond Zork • Zork Zero Enchanter trilogy Enchanter • Sorcerer • Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer • Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis • Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters • Kings • Creatures Timeline • Magic • Calendar Zorkmid... Zork universe Zork games Zork trilogy Zork I Zork II Zork III Enchanter trilogy Enchanter Sorcerer Spellbreaker Wishbringer Beyond Zork Zork Zero Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis Zork Grand Inquisitor Encyclopedia Encyclopedia Frobozzica Miscellaneous Timeline   Calendar   Magic Double Fanucci Companies Infocom   Activision In the Zork series of interactive fiction computer... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar...

Notes

  1. ^ While it is increasingly common to place AD after a date by analogy to the use of BC, formal English usage adheres to the traditional practice of placing the abbreviation before the year as in Latin (e.g., 100 BC, but AD 100).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Year zero - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1898 words)
Dionysius used the Latin zero in the very same table wherein he introduced his anno Domini era, but in a neighboring column—it was the first epact of the 19-year cycle used to calculate Easter (see the nineteen year cycle of Dionysius).
Had there been a year zero, which might be considered part of the first millennium, then 1 January 2000 would indeed mark 2000 years since the year numbering datum and be the start of the third millennium.
Use of Astronomical year numbering cannot be used to support year 2000 as the first year of the 3rd millennium because the year zero (which corresponds to 1 BC) is still not considered part of the first millennium AD.
Year Zero (political notion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (156 words)
The term Year Zero, applied to the takeover of Cambodia in 1975 by the Khmer Rouge, is an analogy to the Year One of the French Revolutionary Calendar.
During the French Revolution, after the abolition of the French monarchy (September 20, 1792), the National Convention instituted a new calendar and declared the beginning of the Year I. The Khmer Rouge takeover of Phnom Penh was rapidly followed by a series of drastic revolutionary policies vastly exceeding those of the French Reign of Terror.
Naomi Klein argues that the U.S. policies subsequent to the 2003 invasion of Iraq constitute a "year zero" strategy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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