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Encyclopedia > Year of the four emperors
Year of the Four Emperors - 69
Galba
Otho
Vitellius
Vespasian
Year of the Four Emperors
Placentia - Locus Castrorum - 1st Bedriacum - 2nd Bedriacum - Castra Vetera - Augusta Treverorum

The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. These four emperors were Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius all serve as emperor for a short time each before Vespasian takes over. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Locus Castorum was a village that existed in the 1st century Roman Empire roughly 12 miles from Cremonia. ... The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the four emperors (69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about twenty miles from the town of Cremona in northern Italy. ... who sleeps in the bed room across from me? ... Xanten (IPA: ) is a town in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany, located in the district of Wesel. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius all serve as emperor for a short time each before Vespasian takes over. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68, was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC. Between June of 68 and December of 69, Rome witnessed the successive rise and fall of Galba, Otho and Vitellius until the final accession of Vespasian, first ruler of the Flavian Dynasty. This period of civil war has become emblematic of the cyclic political disturbances in the history of the Roman Empire. The military and political anarchy created by this civil war had serious implications, such as the outbreak of the Batavian rebellion. Forced suicide is a method of execution where the victim is given the choice of committing suicide or facing an alternative they perceive as worse, such as suffering torture; having friends or family members imprisoned, tortured or killed; or losing honor, position or means. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Octavian becomes Roman Consul for the fourth time. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... This article, Batavian rebellion, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Contents

Succession

Nero to Galba

In 65, the Pisonian conspiracy attempted to restore the Republic, but failed. A number of executions followed leaving Nero with few political allies left in the Senate. In late 67 or early 68, Caius Julius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis rebelled against Nero's tax policy, with the purpose of substituting Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis for Nero. Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ... The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso (65 CE) represented one of the major turning points in the reign of Nero (54-68 CE). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Gaius Julius Vindex was a Roman governor in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis (modern Brittany, Normandy and the area around Paris) who rebelled against the Emperor Nero in 67 AD. Although he was defeated and killed by the loyal general Lucius Verginius Rufus in 68, Vindex rebellion was the start... Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis, 120 AD Gallia Lugdunensis was a province of the Roman Empire roughly encompassing the regions of Brittany, Normandy and the area around Lutetia Parisiorum (Paris) in what is now the modern country of France. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. ...


Vindex's revolt in Gaul was unsuccessful. The legions stationed at the border to Germania marched to meet Vindex and confront him as a traitor. Led by Lucius Verginius Rufus, the Rhine army defeated Vindex in battle and Vindex killed himself. Galba was at first declared a public enemy by the Senate. Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Lucius Verginius Rufus was a Roman commander of upper Germany during the late 1st century. ...


By June of 68, the Senate took the initiative to rid itself of Nero, declaring him a public enemy and Galba emperor. Nymphidius Sabinus, desiring to become emperor himself, bribed the praetorian guard to betray Nero. Nero committed suicide. Galba was recognized as emperor and welcomed into the city at the head of his legions. Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Nymphidius Sabinus (d. ...

Galba's legions: VI Victrix, I Macriana liberatrix, I Adiutrix, III Augusta and VII Gemina.

The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Legio VI Victrix (Victorious) was a Roman legion founded by Octavian in 41 BC. It was the twin legion of VI Ferrata and perhaps held veterans of that legion, and some soldiers kept to the traditions of the Caesarian legion. ... Legio I Macriana liberatrix (the liberators of Macer) was a Roman legion levied in Africa by the governor Lucius Clodius Macer in 68 AD. The purpose of the legion was to join forces with Legio III Augusta in a rebellion against emperor Nero. ... Legio I Adiutrix (assistant), was a Roman legion formed in 68 AD, possibly by Galba under orders of Nero. ... Legio III Augusta was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 43 BC. Activity of this legion in the African Roman provinces, its principal theatre of operations, is still mentioned in late 4th century, early 5th century. ... Legio VII Gemina (Twin) was a Roman legion. ...

Galba to Otho

This turn of events gave the German legions not the reward for loyalty that they had expected, but rather accusations of having obstructed Galba's path to the throne. Their commander, Rufus, was immediately replaced by the new emperor. Aulus Vitellius was appointed governor of the province of Germania Inferior. The loss of political confidence in Germania's loyalty also resulted in the dismissal of the Imperial Batavian Bodyguards and rebellion. Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24 AD 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had been consul and governor of... The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... This article, Batavian rebellion, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Galba did not remain popular for long. On his march to Rome, he either destroyed or took enormous fines from towns that did not accept him immediately. In Rome, Galba cancelled all the reforms of Nero, including benefits for many important persons. Like his predecessor, Galba had a fear of conspirators and executed many senators and equites without trial. The army was not happy either. After his safe arrival to Rome, Galba refused to pay the rewards he had promised to soldiers who had supported him. Moreover, in the start of the civil year of 69 in January 1, the legions of Germania Inferior refused to swear allegiance and obedience to the new emperor. On the following day, the legions acclaimed Vitellius, their governor, as emperor. An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ...


Hearing the news of the loss of the Rhine legions, Galba panicked. He adopted a young senator, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus, as his successor. By doing this he offended many people, and above all Marcus Salvius Otho, an influential and ambitious man who desired the honour for himself. Otho bribed the Praetorian Guard, already very unhappy with the emperor, to his side. When Galba heard about the coup d'etat he went to the streets in an attempt to normalize the situation. It proved a mistake, because he could attract no supporters. Shortly afterwards, the Praetorian Guard killed him in the Forum. Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus was deputy Roman Emperor from January 10 to January 15, 69. ... Emperor Otho. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Sempronius Densus was a centurion in the Praetorian Guard in the first century. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ...

Otho's legions: XIII Gemina and I Adiutrix

Sestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. ... Legio I Adiutrix (assistant), was a Roman legion formed in 68 AD, possibly by Galba under orders of Nero. ...

Otho to Vitellius

Otho was recognised as emperor by the Senate that same day. The new emperor was saluted with relief. Although ambitious and greedy, Otho did not have a record for tyranny or cruelty and was expected to be a fair emperor. However, trouble in the form of Vitellius was marching down on Italy from Germany.


Vitellius had behind him the finest elite legions of the empire, composed of veterans of the Germanic Wars, such as I Germanica and XXI Rapax. These would prove to be his best arguments to gain power. Otho was not keen to begin another civil war and sent emissaries to propose a peace and inviting Vitellius to be his son-in-law. It was too late to reason; Vitellius' generals had half of his army heading to Italy. After a series of minor victories, Otho was defeated in the Battle of Bedriacum. Rather than flee and attempt a counter-attack, Otho decided to put an end to the anarchy and committed suicide. He had been emperor for a little more than three months. The Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of Wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 439 AD1. ... Legio I Germanica, the German legion, was a Roman legion, possibly levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. ... Legio XXI Rapax, the predator, was a Roman legion levied in 31 BC by Augustus, probably from men previously enlisted in other legions. ... In the Year of the four emperors (69 C.E.), Marcus Salvius Otho, with the support and aid of the Praetorian Guard, had his predecessor Galba murdered in January and claimed the throne for himself. ...

Vitellius' legions: I Germanica, V Alaudae, I Italica, XV Primigenia, I Macriana liberatrix, III Augusta, and XXI Rapax
Otho legions: I Adiutrix

Legio I Germanica, the German legion, was a Roman legion, possibly levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. ... Legio V Alaudae, the larks, sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls. ... Legio I Italica (the Italian legion) was a Roman legion levied by emperor Nero on September 22, 66 AD (the date is attested by an inscription), for a campaign in Armenia that never took place. ... Legio XV Primigenia was originally levied by the emperor Caligula in 39 AD, for the Germanic campaigns. ... Legio I Macriana liberatrix (the liberators of Macer) was a Roman legion levied in Africa by the governor Lucius Clodius Macer in 68 AD. The purpose of the legion was to join forces with Legio III Augusta in a rebellion against emperor Nero. ... Legio III Augusta was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 43 BC. Activity of this legion in the African Roman provinces, its principal theatre of operations, is still mentioned in late 4th century, early 5th century. ... Legio XXI Rapax, the predator, was a Roman legion levied in 31 BC by Augustus, probably from men previously enlisted in other legions. ... Legio I Adiutrix (assistant), was a Roman legion formed in 68 AD, possibly by Galba under orders of Nero. ...

Vitellius to Vespasian

On the news of Otho's suicide, Vitellius was recognised as emperor by the Senate. Granted this recognition, Vitellius set out for Rome. However, the start of his reign was not auspicious. The city was left very skeptical when Vitellius chose the anniversary of the Battle of the Allia (in 390 BC), a day of bad auspices to the superstitious Roman mind, to accede to the office of Pontifex Maximus. Combatants Roman Republic Gauls Commanders Quintus Sulpicius Brennus Strength 40,000 70,000 The Battle of the Allia was a battle of the first Gallic invasion of Italy. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ...


Events would seemingly prove them right. With the throne tightly secured, Vitellius engaged in a series of feasts, banquets (Suetonius refers to three a day: morning, afternoon and night) and triumphal parades that drove the imperial treasury close to bankruptcy. Debts were quickly accrued and money-lenders started to demand repayment. Vitellius showed his violent nature by ordering the torture and execution of those who dared to make such demands. With financial affairs in a state of calamity, Vitellius took the initiative of killing citizens who named him as their heir, often together with any co-heirs. Moreover, he engaged in a pursuit of every possible rival, inviting them to the palace with promises of power only to have them assassinated. The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


Meanwhile, the legions stationed in Aegyptus (Roman province) and the Middle East provinces of Iudaea and Syria had acclaimed Vespasian as emperor. Vespasian had been given a special command in Iudaea by Nero in 67 with the task of putting down the Great Jewish Revolt. He gained the support of the governor of Syria, Gaius Licinius Mucianus. A strong force drawn from the Judaean and Syrian legions marched on Rome under the command of Mucianus. Vespasian himself travelled to Alexandria where he had been acclaimed Emperor on July 1, thereby gaining control of the vital grain supplies from Egypt. Vespasian's son Titus remained in Judaea to deal with the Jewish rebellion. Before the eastern legions could reach Rome, the Danubian legions of the provinces of Raetia and Moesia also acclaimed Vespasian as Emperor in August, and led by Marcus Antonius Primus invaded Italy. In October, the forces led by Primus won a crushing victory over Vitellius' army at the Second Battle of Bedriacum. Anthem Bilady, Bilady, Bilady Capital (and largest city) Cairo Official languages Arabic1 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Hosni Mubarak  -  Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif Establishment  -  First Dynasty c. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... Gaius Licinius Mucianus (fl. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The megalopolis of ancient Rome could never be fed entirely from its own surrounding countryside. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Marcus Antonius Primus, Roman general, was born at Tolosa in Gaul (nowadays Toulouse in south-west France) about A.D. 30-35. ... In the Year of the four emperors (69 C.E.), Marcus Salvius Otho, with the support and aid of the Praetorian Guard, had his predecessor Galba murdered in January and claimed the throne for himself. ...


Surrounded by enemies, Vitellius made a last attempt to win the city to his side, distributing bribes and promises of power where needed. He tried to levy by force several allied tribes, such as the Batavians, only to be refused. The Danube army was now very near Rome. Realising the immediate threat, Vitellius made a last attempt to gain time and sent emissaries, accompanied by Vestal Virgins, to negotiate a truce and start peace talks. The following day, messengers arrived with news that the enemy was at the gates of the city. Vitellius went into hiding and prepared to flee, but decided on a last visit to the palace. There he was caught by Vespasian's men and killed. In seizing the capital, they burned down the temple of Jupiter. In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Temple of Jupiter on Capitoline Hill, 6th–1st century BC See Temple of Jupiter for temples to him in other places. ...


The Senate acknowledged Vespasian as emperor on the following day. It was the 21st of December of 69, the year that had begun with Galba on the throne. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Vitellius legions: XV Primigenia
Vespasian legions: III Augusta, I Macriana liberatrix

Legio XV Primigenia was originally levied by the emperor Caligula in 39 AD, for the Germanic campaigns. ... Legio III Augusta was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 43 BC. Activity of this legion in the African Roman provinces, its principal theatre of operations, is still mentioned in late 4th century, early 5th century. ... Legio I Macriana liberatrix (the liberators of Macer) was a Roman legion levied in Africa by the governor Lucius Clodius Macer in 68 AD. The purpose of the legion was to join forces with Legio III Augusta in a rebellion against emperor Nero. ...

Aftermath

Vespasian did not meet any direct threat to his imperial power after the death of Vitellius. He became the founder of the stable Flavian dynasty that succeeded the Julio-Claudians and died of natural causes as emperor in 79, with the famous words "vae, puto deus fio" ("Dear me, I must be turning into a god ...") The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the series of the first five Roman Emperors. ...


Chronology

68

  • April – Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis rebel against Nero
  • May – The Rhine legions defeat and kill Vindex in Gaul
  • June – Nero is declared a public enemy (hostis) by the senate (June 8) and commits suicide (June 9); on that same day, Galba is recognized emperor.
  • November – Vitellius nominated governor of Germania Inferior

Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. ... Gaius Julius Vindex was a Roman governor in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis (modern Brittany, Normandy and the area around Paris) who rebelled against the Emperor Nero in 67 AD. Although he was defeated and killed by the loyal general Lucius Verginius Rufus in 68, Vindex rebellion was the start... Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis, 120 AD Gallia Lugdunensis was a province of the Roman Empire roughly encompassing the regions of Brittany, Normandy and the area around Lutetia Parisiorum (Paris) in what is now the modern country of France. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ...

69

  • January 1 – The Rhine legions refuse to swear loyalty to Galba
  • January 2 – Vitellius acclaimed emperor by the Rhine
  • January 15 – Galba killed by the Praetorian Guard; in the same day, the senate recognizes Otho as emperor
  • April 14 – Vitellius defeats Otho
  • April 16 – Otho commits suicide; Vitellius recognized emperor
  • July 1Vespasian, commander of the Roman army in Judaea, proclaimed emperor by the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander
  • August – The Danubian legions announce support to Vespasian (in Syria) and invade Italy in September on his behalf
  • October – The Danube army defeats Vitellius and Vespasian occupies Egypt
  • December 20 –Vitellius killed by soldiers in the Imperial Palace
  • December 21 – Vespasian recognized emperor

January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Emperor Otho. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... Tiberius Julius Alexander ( 1st century AD) was a prominent equestrian governor and general of the Roman Empire. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Histories (Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ... The Year of the Five Emperors refers to 193, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. ... The Year of the Six Emperors refers to AD192-193, in which there were six claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. ...

References

  • Roman Warfare, Adrian Goldsworthy
  • The Twelve Caesars, Suetonius, available from Project Gutenberg: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Complete
  • The year of the four emperors, Peter Greenhalgh (1975)
Roman Emperors by Epoch
see also: List of Roman Emperors · Concise list of Roman Emperors · Roman Empire
Principate Crisis of the 3rd century Dominate Division Successors





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