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Encyclopedia > Year Without A Summer
Development of global average temperatures during the last thousand years. A significant drop shortly after 1800 is visible in the majority of concurrent reconstructions.
Development of global average temperatures during the last thousand years. A significant drop shortly after 1800 is visible in the majority of concurrent reconstructions.

The Year Without a Summer, also known as the Poverty Year or Eighteen hundred and froze to death, was 1816, in which severe summer climate abnormalities destroyed crops in Northern Europe, the American Northeast and eastern Canada.[1][2] Historian John D. Post has called this "the last great subsistence crisis in the Western world".[3] It appears to have been caused by a volcanic winter. Image File history File links // Description Expansion of the Instrumental Record Last 2000 years This image is a comparison of 10 different published reconstructions of mean temperature changes during the last 1000 years. ... Image File history File links // Description Expansion of the Instrumental Record Last 2000 years This image is a comparison of 10 different published reconstructions of mean temperature changes during the last 1000 years. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... A volcanic winter is the reduction in temperature caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun, usually after a volcanic eruption. ...

Contents

Description

The unusual climatic aberrations of 1816 had the greatest effect on the American northeast, New England, the Canadian Maritimes, Newfoundland, and northern Europe. Typically, the late spring and summer of the northeastern U.S. are relatively stable: temperatures (average of both day and night) average about 68–77 °F (20–25 °C), and rarely fall below 41 °F (5 °C). Summer snow is an extreme rarity, though May flurries sometimes occur. Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the Canadian region. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...


In May 1816,[4] however, frost killed off most of the crops that had been planted, and in June two large snowstorms in eastern Canada and New England resulted in many human deaths. Nearly a foot of snow was observed in Quebec City in early June, with consequent additional loss of crops—most summer growing plants have cell walls which rupture in a mild frost, let alone a snowstorm coating the soils. The result was widespread localized famines, and further deaths from those who, in a hunger-weakened state, then suffered disease as well in their less resistant condition. Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... A winter storm is a storm where the dominant forms of precipitation are forms that occur only at cold temperatures, such as snow or sleet, or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are cold enough to allow ice to form. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


In July and August, lake and river ice were observed as far south as Pennsylvania. Rapid, dramatic temperature swings were common, with temperatures sometimes reverting from normal or above-normal summer temperatures as high as 95 °F (35 °C) to near-freezing within hours. Even though farmers south of New England did succeed in bringing some crops to maturity, maize (corn) and other grain prices rose dramatically. Oats, for example, rose from 12¢ a bushel the previous year to 92¢ a bushel—a nearly eightfold increase—and oats are a necessary staple for an economy dependent upon horses for primary transportation. Those areas suffering local crop failures then had to deal with the lack of roads in the early 19th century, preventing any easy importation of bulky food stuffs. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Grain redirects here. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... A table of weights from the secretaries of the different states, showing the no. ...


Causes

It is now generally thought that the aberrations occurred because of the 5 April15 April 1815 volcanic eruptions of Mount Tambora[5][6] on the island of Sumbawa in the Dutch East Indies (modern-day Indonesia) which ejected immense amounts of volcanic dust into the upper atmosphere. is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Other volcanoes were active during the same time frame:

These other eruptions had already built up a substantial amount of atmospheric dust. As is common following a massive volcanic eruption, temperatures fell worldwide because less sunlight passed through the atmosphere. La Soufrière is a volcano and the highest peak on the island of Saint Vincent in the West Indies. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Mayon Volcano is an active volcano in the Philippines on the island of Luzon, in the province of Albay in the Bicol Region. ...


Effects

As a consequence of the series of volcanic eruptions, crops in the above cited areas had been poor for several years; the final blow came in 1815 with the eruption of Tambora. In America, many historians cite the "Year Without a Summer" as a primary motivation for the western movement and rapid settlement of what is now western and central New York and the American Midwest. Many New Englanders were wiped out by the year, and tens of thousands struck out for the richer soil and better growing conditions of the Upper Midwest (then the Northwest Territory). This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ...


Europe, still recuperating from the Napoleonic Wars, suffered from food shortages. Food riots broke out in Britain and France and grain warehouses were looted. The violence was worst in landlocked Switzerland, where famine caused the government to declare a national emergency. Huge storms, abnormal rainfall with floodings of the major rivers of Europe (including the Rhine) are attributed to the event, as was the frost setting in during August 1816. A BBC documentary using figures compiled in Switzerland estimated that fatality rates in 1816 were twice that of average years, giving an approximate European fatality total of 200,000 deaths. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A waterfall on the Ova da Fedoz, Switzerland A river is a large natural waterway. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


The eruption of Tambora also caused Hungary to experience brown snow. Italy experienced something similar, with red snow falling throughout the year. The cause of this is believed to have been volcanic ash in the atmosphere.


In China, unusually low temperatures in summer and fall devastated rice production in Yunnan province in the southwest, resulting in widespread famine. Fort Shuangcheng, now in Heilongjiang province, reported fields disrupted by frost and conscripts deserting as a result. Summer snowfall was reported in various locations in Jiangxi and Anhui provinces, both in the south of the country. In Taiwan, which has a tropical climate, snow was reported in Hsinchu and Miaoli, while frost was reported in Changhua.[7] For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Yunan redirects here. ... Shuangcheng, 双城市, Heilongjiang, China a county level city along the railroad approxamately 42km south of Harbin, in Harbin prefecture. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal map spelling: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The main landmark of Hsinchu is its East Gate. ... Miaoli City (Chinese: 苗栗市; Pinyin: Miáolì Shì; Taiwanese POJ: Biâu-le̍k-chhÄ«) is the capital of Miaoli County, Taiwan. ... Changhua City (&#24432;&#21270;&#24066;) is the capital of Changhua County, Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. ...


Cultural effects

Hong Kong sunset c. 1992 after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo.
Hong Kong sunset c. 1992 after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo.

High levels of ash in the atmosphere led to unusually spectacular sunsets during this period, a feature celebrated in the paintings of J. M. W. Turner. It has been theorised that it was this that gave rise to the yellow tinge that is predominant in his paintings such as Chichester Canal circa 1828. A similar phenomenon was observed after the 1883 Krakatoa eruption, and on the West Coast of the United States following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1172x794, 971 KB) [edit] Other search terms rock, house, silhouette, tugboat, derrick, unloading [edit] See also Image:Lamma evening1turn. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1172x794, 971 KB) [edit] Other search terms rock, house, silhouette, tugboat, derrick, unloading [edit] See also Image:Lamma evening1turn. ... Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... For the 1969 film about the Krakatoa eruption, see Krakatoa, East of Java. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ...


The lack of oats to feed horses may have inspired the German inventor Karl Drais to research new ways of horseless transportation, which led to the invention of the Draisine or velocipede. This was the ancestor of the modern bicycle and a step towards mechanized personal transport.[8] Karl Drais ca 1820, then still a baron Karl Drais (April 29, 1785 – December 10, 1851) was a German inventor and invented the Laufmaschine (running machine), also later called the velocipede, draisine (English) or draisienne (French), or nick-named, dandy horse. ... dandy horse is the inspiration for the bicycle. ... The velocipede was the predecessor of the bicycle, a human-powered vehicle introduced in the Victorian age. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


In July 1816 "incessant rainfall" during that "wet, ungenial summer" forced Mary Shelley, John William Polidori and their friends to stay indoors for much of their Swiss holiday. They decided to have a contest, seeing who could write the scariest story, leading Shelley to write Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus and Polidori to write The Vampyre.[9] Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... John William Polidori (September 7, 1795 - August 24, 1821) is credited by some as the creator of the vampire genre of fantasy fiction. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... The Vampyre is a short novel written by John William Polidori and is a progenitor of the romantic vampire genre of fantasy fiction. ...


References in pop culture

The band Rasputina opened their Oh Perilous World album with a song about this period entitled "1816, The Year Without a Summer." Rasputina is a varying collection of cellists playing alternative rock. ... Oh Perilous World, the sixth full length album from chamber-rock trio Rasputina, was performed by the bands creator cellist/lead singer Melora Creager and drummer Jonathon TeBeest with second chair Sarah Bowman contributing additional vocals. ...


Comparable events

  • Climate changes of 535–536 have been linked to the effects of a volcanic eruption, possibly at Krakatoa.
  • Kuwae, a Pacific volcano, has been implicated in events surrounding the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
  • Laki, in Iceland, caused major fatalities in Europe, 1783–84.

Climate changes of 535–536 refers to several remarkable aberrations in world climate which took place In the years 535 and 536. ... For the 1969 film about the Krakatoa eruption, see Krakatoa, East of Java. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Laki (Icelandic: Lakagígar) is a volcanic fissure situated in the south of Iceland, not far from the canyon of Eldgjá and the small town Kirkjubæjarklaustur, in Skaftafell National Park. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://new-brunswick.net/Saint_John/timedate.html
  2. ^ http://dsp-psd.communication.gc.ca/Collection/En56-119-3-1997-1E.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.smithsonianmagazine.com/issues/2002/july/blast.php?page=2
  4. ^ http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/history/1816.htm
  5. ^ http://www.indodigest.com/indonesia-special-article-19.html
  6. ^ http://www.bellrock.org.uk/misc/misc_year.htm
  7. ^ http://www.igsnrr.ac.cn/lwzzImg/1161151232919.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/mg18524841.900.html
  9. ^ Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. Random House, XV-XVI. ISBN 0-679-60059-0. 

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ...

Additional reading

  • BBC Timewatch documentary: Year Without Summer, Cicada Films (BBC2, 27 May 2005)
  • Henry & Elizabeth Stommel: Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, the Year without a Summer, Seven Seas Press, Newport RI 1983 ISBN 0-915160-71-4
  • Hans-Erhard Lessing: Automobilitaet: Karl Drais und die unglaublichen Anfaenge, Leipzig 2003

is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Year Without a Summer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (817 words)
The Year Without a Summer, also known as the Poverty Year and Eighteen hundred and froze to death, was 1816, in which severe summer climate abnormalities destroyed crops in Northern Europe, the American Northeast and eastern Canada[1][2].
Oats, for example, rose from 12¢ a bushel the previous year to 92¢ a bushel.
In America, many historians cite the year without a summer as a primary motivation for the western movement and rapid settlement of what is now central and western New York and the American Midwest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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