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Encyclopedia > Yasukuni Shrine
Torii Gate at Yasukuni Shrine
The main building of Yasukuni Shrine
The main building of Yasukuni Shrine
Yasukuni Shrine 75th anniversary Stamp (1944)
Yasukuni Shrine 75th anniversary Stamp (1944)

Yasukuni Shrine (靖国神社 Yasukuni Jinja?) is a Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan. In October 2004, its Book of Souls listed the names of 2,466,532 men and women, including 27,863 Taiwanese and 21,181 Koreans, whose lives were dedicated to the service of Imperial Japan, particularly to those killed in wartime. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 629 KB) Yasukuni Shrine Tori Gate Tokyo, Japan Author: Leonard V Carlson User:Picturetokyo I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 629 KB) Yasukuni Shrine Tori Gate Tokyo, Japan Author: Leonard V Carlson User:Picturetokyo I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Multiple torii at Osaka shrine Torii are widespread in Japan, to the extent that modern architecture sometimes emulates their form. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2528x1636, 637 KB) Copyright © 2003 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Yasukuni Shrine ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2528x1636, 637 KB) Copyright © 2003 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Yasukuni Shrine ... Image File history File linksMetadata Yasukuni_75Th. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Yasukuni_75Th. ... A torii is a gate leading to a jinja. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... This article is about a military rank. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ...


The shrine is a source of considerable controversy. Included in the Book of Souls are 1,068 people convicted of war crimes by a post World War II court. A total of 12 convicted and 2 suspected Class A war criminals ("crime against peace") are enshrined at Yasukuni. [1] The shrine's history museum contains an account of Japan's actions in World War II, which is considered revisionist by some.[citation needed] Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ...


Visits to the shrine by cabinet members have been a cause of protest at home and abroad. China, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan have protested against various visits since 1985. Despite the controversy, the former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi made annual visits from 2001 to 2006. The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ...

Contents

History

The Yasukuni Shrine was originally constructed in June 1869 by order of the Meiji Emperor to commemorate the victims of the Boshin War. It was at that time one of several dozen such shrines built throughout Japan. Originally named Tōkyō Shōkonsha (東京招魂社), the shrine was renamed Yasukuni Jinja in 1879 and elevated to become one of the principal shrines associated with State Shinto and the primary national shrine for commemoration of Japan's war dead. The name Yasukuni, a quotation from Zuo Zhuan (a classical-era Chinese text), literally means "Pacifying the Nation" and was chosen by the Meiji Emperor.[1] The shrine has performed Shinto rites to house the kami (spirits) of all Japanese and former colonial subjects (Korean and Taiwanese) and civilians who died in the nation's conflicts until the end of World War II. Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... A torii at Itsukushima Shrine Shinto (神道 Shintō) (sometimes called Shintoism) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... The Zuo Zhuan (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tso Chuan) is the earliest Chinese work of narrative history and covers the period from 722 BCE to 468 BCE. It was traditionally attributed to Zuo Qiuming, as a commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, although many scholars believe it was an independent... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... “Megami” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


After Japan's defeat in World War II, the US-led Occupation Authorities ordered Yasukuni to either become a secular government institution, or a religious institution that is independent from the Japanese government. Yasukuni chose the latter. Since that time, Yasukuni has been privately funded. SCAP, short for Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... This article describes the structure of the Japanese Government. ...


Although new names are added to the shrine every year, no new deaths have qualified since Japan signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951. Therefore, the shrine does not include anyone who has died since 1951, including members of the Japanese Self-Defence Forces who have died on duty. Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ...


Controversy

An English-language sign at the shrine describing Roosevelt's strategy and the United States' entry into World War II
An English-language sign at the shrine describing Roosevelt's strategy and the United States' entry into World War II

The shrine enshrines and, according to Shinto beliefs, provides a permanent residence for the spirits of those who have fought on behalf of the emperor, regardless of whether they died in combat. About 1,000 of the enshrined kami were POWs convicted of some level of war crime after World War II. One sufficient criterion for enshrinement for war dead is that a person should be listed as having died while on duty (including death from illness or disease) in the war dead registry of the Japanese government. In the late 1950s-early 1960s, Tokyo decided to list all those convicted of any class of war crimes to ensure that the remaining family members can receive a pension. On October 17, 1978, 14 accused of Class A war crimes (according to the judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East), including Hideki Tojo, were quietly enshrined as "Martyrs of Shōwa" (昭和殉難者 Shōwa junnansha), ostensibly on the technicality that they were on the registry. They are listed below, according to their sentences: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... FDR redirects here. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... “Megami” redirects here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ...

This was revealed to the media on April 19, 1979, and a controversy started in 1985 which continues to this day. For China, North and South Korea, and other nations that were affected by Japanese aggression and intrusion, the shrine is a symbol of Japanese fascism and extreme aggression or the Yusuke. Liberal, socialist and communist groups in Japan also take issue with the shrine for similar reasons. Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Col. ... Heitaro Kimura graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1908, and from Japanese War College in 1916. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... General Iwane Matsui , July 27, 1878 - December 23, 1948) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army and the commander of the expeditionary forces sent to China. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Koki Hirota Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater... Osami Nagano ) (15 June 1880 – 5 January 1947) was a Fleet Admiral and General Staff in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. He essentially commanded the Imperial Japanese Navy as Chief of its General Staff. ... Yosuke Matsuoka Japans Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka (front middle), Japanese ambassador Hiroshi Oshima and Adolf Hitler in Berlin waving to the parade . Yosuke Matsuoka (松岡 洋右 Matsuoka Yōsuke, March 3, 1880 – June 26, 1946) was a prominent Japanese Foreign Minister shortly before World War II. Born in Japan in 1880... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... See also Extreme value, Extreme sports, Extremophile Extreme was an American funk metal / hair metal / hard rock band which achieved popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Yusuke Urameshi in the manga Yusuke Urameshi (浦飯幽助 Urameshi YÅ«suke) is a fictional character in the anime and manga series YuYu Hakusho. ...


Yasukuni Shrine also operates a museum of the history of Japan (the Yūshūkan, 遊就館) which some observers have criticized as presenting a revisionist interpretation. A documentary-style video shown to museum visitors portrays Japan's conquest of East Asia during the pre-World War II period as an effort to save the region from the imperial advances of Western powers. Displays portray Japan as a victim of foreign influence, especially Western pressure.[citation needed] The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century CE. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...


A pamphlet published by the shrine says: "War is a really tragic thing to happen, but it was necessary in order for us to protect the independence of Japan and to prosper together with our Asian neighbors." It also says that Japanese POWs executed for war crimes were "cruelly and unjustly tried" by a "sham-like tribunal of the Allied forces."[2] Their position is based on the WWII-era argument from the Japanese government that the country had never signed the Geneva Convention, and was not a signatory of any enforceable international war crimes agreement. Therefore, in their opinion, the convictions were labels placed upon them by an organization to which they did not belong. The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


The shrine's English-language website defends Japanese activities prior to and during World War II, by stating: "War is truly sorrowful. Yet to maintain the independence and peace of the nation and for the prosperity of all of Asia, Japan was forced into conflict." [3] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Emperor Hirohito refused to visit Yasukuni upon learning that it named class-A war criminals. His son, Emperor Akihito, has not visited the shrine since rising to the throne. Instead choosing to send a lesser member of the royal household in his stead, to which all Japanese Shinto shrines are entitled. Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Emperor Akihito reads the Speech from the Throne to the Japanese Diet His Imperial Majesty Akihito (明仁) (born December 23, 1933) is the current and 125th Emperor of Japan. ...


The political overtones of Yasukuni Shrine are attributed to two major factors. One is the ideology of State Shinto which regarded any wars waged in the name of the emperor as just and anyone who died fighting for the emperor as an eirei (英霊 hero spirit). But another more immediate factor is the influence of various support organizations, especially the Izokukai (遺族会), the largest organization representing the families of war dead from World War II. Though Yasukuni has become something of a mecca for various right-wing and ultra right-wing organizations, their influence on the Yasukuni priesthood is said to be marginal at best. On the other hand, Yasukuni Shrine considers the Izokukai as the de facto lay organization for the Shrine. The Izokukai was formerly known as the Izoku Kōsei Renmei (遺族厚生連盟 War-Dead-Family Welfare Union), established in 1947. The original purpose of the Izoku Kōsei Renmei was stated as follows: "With a view to pursuing the end of warfare, establishing global peace and world prosperity and contributing to the welfare of the humanity, we seek to provide relief and assistance to the families of those who died in the (Asia Pacific) war ". As can be seen, the main purpose of the organization was to provide assistance to the widows, orphans and aging parents of those who died in the Asia Pacific War as well as lobbying the government in the interests of the family. However, in 1953 the organization became a trust foundation and changed its name to the current Izokukai. More importantly, the main purpose of the organization was changed to, "In pursuit of the establishiment of a peaceful Japan, the cultivation of character, and the promotion of morality, we seek to praise eirei, to promote the welfare of the families of the war dead, and to seek recognition and compensation for civilian auxiliary units." The change, which included the elimination of international pacifism and insertion of a reference to eirei is regarded as giving a nationalist slant to the character of the organization. Chairmen of the organization have usually been members of the governing Liberal Democratic party and the organization is regarded as the informal pipeline between the LDP (hence the government) and the Yasukuni Shrine. In 1962 Okinori Kaya, a known LDP hawk and a convicted class A criminal in the Tokyo Trials was appointed chairman. The organization is regarded as having strong influence over the political overtones of the Yasukuni Shrine.


According to documents released on 28 March 2007 by the National Diet Library of Japan, Health and Welfare Ministry officials and Yasukuni representatives agreed during a meeting, on 31 January 1969, that Class-A war criminals judged at the Tokyo Trial were "able to be honored" and decided not to make public the idea that Yasukuni would enshrine those criminals.[2] Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Political impact

The controversial nature of the shrine has figured largely in both domestic Japanese politics and relations with other Asian countries. The controversy has been reignited nearly every year since 1975, when prime minister Miki Takeo visited the shrine as a private individual on August 15, the day that Japan commemorates the end of World War II. The next year, his successor Fukuda Takeo visited as a private individual yet signed the visitors' book as prime minister. Several other Japanese prime ministers have visited the shrine since 1979: Masayoshi Ohira in 1979; Zenko Suzuki in 1980, 1981 and 1982; Yasuhiro Nakasone in 1983 and 1985 (on the latter occasion, he offered flowers which had been paid-for with government money.); Kiichi Miyazawa in 1992, this visit was kept secret until 1996 (he had paid a visit in 1980 before becoming Prime Minister); Ryutaro Hashimoto in 1996; and Junichiro Koizumi, who has visited six times to date (2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006). Visits by Japanese prime ministers to the shrine have resulted in official condemnation by neighboring countries since 1985, as they see it as an attempt to legitimize Japan's past militarism. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Takeo Miki (三木 武夫 Miki Takeo March 17, 1907–November 4, 1988) was a Japanese politician and the 66th Prime Minister of Japan. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Fukuda traveled to Washington in 1977 to meet U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Masayoshi Ōhira (大平 正芳 Ōhira Masayoshi March 12, 1910–June 12, 1980) was a Japanese politician and the 68th and 69th Prime Minister of Japan from December 7, 1978 to June 12, 1980. ... Zenko Suzuki Zenkō Suzuki (鈴木 善幸 Suzuki Zenkō; January 11, 1911–July 19, 2004) was a Japanese politician and the 70th Prime Minister of Japan from July 17, 1980 to November 27, 1982. ... Yasuhiro Nakasone (中曽根 康弘 Nakasone Yasuhiro, b. ... Kiichi Miyazawa Kiichi Miyazawa (宮澤 喜一 Miyazawa Kiichi) (born 1919) is a Japanese politician and was the 78th Prime Minister from November 5, 1991 to August 9, 1993. ... Ryutaro Hashimoto (橋本龍太郎 Hashimoto RyÅ«tarō, July 29, 1937 - July 1, 2006) was a Japanese politician who served as the 82nd and 83rd Prime Minister of Japan from January 11, 1996 to July 30, 1998. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ...


Visits to the shrine are also controversial in the domestic debate over the proper role of religion in Japanese government. Some Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) politicians insist that visits are protected by the constitutional right to freedom of religion and that it is appropriate for legislators to pay their respects to those fallen in war. However, proposals for the construction of a secular memorial so that those wishing to honor Japan's military dead do not have to visit Yasukuni have thus far failed, ostensibly for technical details rather than the rejection of a secular memorial. The Japanese government conducts yearly memorial services to commemorate the War in Budokan (a secular building) which is near Yasukuni shrine so that the attendees can later visit Yasukuni Shrine privately if they so wish. The shrine itself objects to any proposal that a non-religious memorial be built, stating that "Yasukuni Shrine must be the one and only memorial for Japan's military dead." Koizumi has claimed that his visits are to ensure that there will be no further wars involving Japan, causing some to interpret them as an act of remembrance rather than reverence.[citation needed] This section needs to be updated. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


On his first visit to Japan since leaving office in February 2003, former South Korean President Kim Dae Jung openly criticized Japanese politicians' visits to the shrine, and proposed that the 14 Class A war criminals be moved to a different location. He said, "If that option is realized, I will not express opposition to visits to Yasukuni Shrine (by Koizumi or other Japanese leaders)". Kim noted that Koizumi promised at a meeting in Shanghai in 2001 to consider building a new memorial facility that could replace Yasukuni Shrine and enable anyone to worship there without hesitation. The President is head of state of South Korea. ... Kim Dae-jung (born January 6, 1926) is a former South Korean president and the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient, the first winner of a Nobel to hail from Korea [1]. A Roman Catholic since 1957, he has been called the Nelson Mandela of Asia [2] and was a symbol... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the seventh largest in the world. ...


The government of the People's Republic of China has been the most vocal critic of the shrine and some Japanese observers have suggested that the issue of Yasukuni Shrine is just as heavily tied to China's internal politics as it is to the historical conduct of Japan's military and the perceived degree of its remorse for its actions. They state that tolerance on the part of Communist Party of China authorities for large-scale public protests in mainland China against the shrine contrasts strongly with the authority exercised against any kind of domestic political dissent. This has been interpreted as an effort by the party to channel public frustrations away from their rule, and preserve their legitimacy by aligning themselves with popular nationalist sentiments. Many have commented on the cultural difference between Chinese and Japanese cultures. Japanese culture views one's crimes absolved after death.[citation needed] The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


Debate in Japan

Political visits to the shrine and the views expressed by foreign nations has met with various degrees of controversy domestically, with the population of Japan itself having different views.


Every kami in Yasukuni is termed an eirei, which some suggest glorifies not only the dead but the various conflicts themselves. The Yasukuni's explanation of the enshrinment of Class A war criminal is technical. They cite the fact that their names are all listed in official ministry of health list of war casualty which was compiled for the purpose of pension for family of war dead. However, the Yasukuni specifically excluded the class A criminal from the enshrinement when the list was initially compiled. This decision was later reversed. It is often understood that main reason for the enshrinement is Yasukuni and the right's political stance that Tokyo War Crime Tribunal is illegitimate and illegal under the international law, and therefore, there is no reason for those who are convicted to be excluded from enshrinement. A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


One commonly voiced argument is that visits to the shrine by the Prime Minister or Emperor are an internal political matter in which China and Korea have no right to interfere. Another line of argument points out the controversy is perhaps in part due to a misunderstanding of the religion. Shinto does not contain the concept of karma or heaven and hell seen in other religions. Though certain kami who die with unavenged grievances could become vengeful kami and require enshrinement to placate them, the process of enshrinement is noted for purging the spirits of all evil or wrongdoing. Some suggest, though, that since Yasukuni was once part of a state run religion, it is a symbol of government policy and that a religious argument should not apply. They also point out that Yasukuni Shrine does not merely house kami, but since it also has a nearby museum, it could be interpreted as praising their actions while alive. Souvenirs of items used during wartime, including wartime flags, can also be purchased at the museum gift shop immediately adjacent to the shrine. For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Inferno” redirects here. ... A souvenir stall in London, England A souvenir (from the French for memory) is an object that is treasured for the memories associated with it. ...


Another controversy is the constitutionality of visits by the Prime Minister. In the Japanese Constitution, the separation of state and religion is explicit, unlike the U.S. counterpart which is somewhat implicit [citation needed]. Because the clause was written for the express purpose of preventing the return of State Shintoism, many question the constitutionality of the Prime Minister visiting Yasukuni Shrine. Often the first question Japanese Prime Ministers are asked by journalists after a visit is, "Are you here as a private person or as Prime Minister?" In addition, whether the Prime Minister has signed the visitors' book indicating the position of signator as shijin (私人 private person) or shushō (首相 Prime Minister) is diligently reported. All Prime Ministers have so far stated that their visit was private. However, although some leave the signature section blank or sign it as shijin, others sign it as shushō. The issue is somewhat different than that of visits by the German Chancellor to the Holocaust Memorial, which are explicitly made in the context of a state visit. Prime Minister Koizumi recently gave a somewhat cryptic answer, stating that he visited the shrine as Junichiro Koizumi, the Prime Minister of Japan. Some consider such statement as a move towards making visits somewhat official; others consider that it is pointing out that the whole issue of shijin vs shushō is somewhat meaningless. Some journals and news reports, such as one made by Kyodo News Agency on August 15, 2006, question whether in the case of Koizumi's visits, which are consistently claimed by Koizumi to be private, can be considered individual in nature when they part of a campaign pledge, which in nature in political. Currently, most of the Japanese public and most jurists have agreed that there have as of yet been no constitutional violations. The present Constitution of Japan took effect on May 3, 1947, during the American occupation after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (1889–1947) The first constitution in Japan was enacted by the Emperor during the Meiji... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


The views expressed by Yasukuni Shrine through its museum and website and also controversial. Both sites make it clear that Yasukuni Shrine does not regard the conduct of Japan during the World War II as an act of aggression but rather matter of self defence and a heroic effort to repel European Imperialism. Defenders of (private) visits by the Prime Minister point out that, regardless, there is no other venue to pay respect to the fallen in Japan, so that Prime Minister as well as the large number of Japanese who visit the shrine have no choice. Moreover, most people (including the Prime Minister) who visit Yasukuni deliberately avoid entering the museum so that the visit remains religious rather than political. This is a list of former European colonies. ...


A number of proposals have been made to alleviate controversy. One is to somehow "remove" the controversial spirits and place them in a different location so that visits to Yasukuni Shrine would not be as politically charged. This proposal has been strongly pushed by China and Korea. The Japanese government cannot force Yasukuni Shrine to do so (due to the separation of church and state). Moreover, the shrine is adamant that once a kami has been housed at the shrine, it cannot be separated. The one method which is suggested as theologically valid is to abolish the entire enshrinement, then repeat the entire enshrinement rite of kami since the Boshin War without including the A class war criminals. Some argue that selective abolishment of enshrinement is technically possible, as there are several precedents of selective de-enshrinement in the Tokugawa era.


Another proposal is to create a separate secular memorial where the prime minister can make official state visits for memorial purposes. Critics point out that groups representing families of the war dead express no interest in such a memorial, preferring Yasukuni Shrine. Furthermore, the Japanese government already conducts yearly secular commemoration services at the Budokan for the families of soldiers killed in World War II. Afterwards, these families usually make private visits to Yasukuni Shrine, which is located within walking distance. Since the proposed memorial site is geographically distant, were the ceremony to be relocated to the proposed memorial site such visits would be made more difficult. A number of families of the names listed at the shrine have indicated that the controversy is disturbing the peaceful rest of their dead family members and that they wish to pay homage to them without controversy and media attention. The Nippon Budokan Hall is an arena in central Tokyo. ...


There is in fact a memorial to the Japanese war dead within walking distance of Yasukuni, called Chidorigafuchi Senbotsusha Boen (千鳥ヶ淵戦没者墓苑). This could be used as an alternative by Japanese politicians to pay their respects to those who died during the war. The Chidorigafuchi Senbotsusha Boen (千鳥ヶ淵戦没者墓苑) is the Japanese cemetary for war dead, near to the Imperial Palace and Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, Japan. ...


Some argue that no spirit should be separated because it would amount to condemnation, running counter to the theology of Shintoism which purges the spirits of evil/sin at time of housing.


Recent events

The shrine announced that its official website has been under a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack from a Chinese domain since September 2004. Therefore, users may find it difficult to access the website. A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users. ...


In May 2005, in the aftermath of anti-Japanese protests over the Japanese history textbooks controversy, Chinese Vice-Premier Wu Yi cut short her visit to Japan and flew home before a planned meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. This was widely interpreted as a reaction to a statement by Koizumi the day before Wu's arrival that foreign countries should not interfere in Japan's domestic affairs, including the Yasukuni issue. Wu's visit was meant to improve strained relations between the two countries following the textbook controversy, and she had planned to ask Koizumi to stop his visits to the shrine. The Anti-Japanese demonstrations of 2005 are demonstrations that happened in Spring, 2005 in China and Korea to protest against a Japanese history textbook called Atarashii Rekishi Kyokasho (新しい歴史教科書) or New History Textbook which downplays or whitewashes the nature of Japans military aggression in the First Sino-Japanese War, in... Chinese demonstrators in Beijing protesting Japanese textbook revisionism. ... Vice-premier Wu Yi Wú Yí (吴仪) (born 1938 in Wuhan, China) is one of four vice-premiers of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ...


In June 2005, a senior LDP member proposed moving the 14 Class A war criminals to a separate site. Shinto priests refused this proposal, quoting Japan's freedom of religion laws under the Japanese Constitution. A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The present Constitution of Japan took effect on May 3, 1947, during the American occupation after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (1889–1947) The first constitution in Japan was enacted by the Emperor during the Meiji...


Also in the same month, a group of Taiwanese aborigines led by aboriginal politician Kao-Chin Su-mei attempted to visit Yasukuni Shrine with the help of the Japan Catholic Council for Justice and Peace. They represented nine tribes from Taiwan whose ancestors are enshrined at Yasukuni and their intention was to peacefully request the removal of their relatives from the shrine, and to pray for the return of their ancestors' souls. Request to perform religious rites within the Yasukuni property were refused and they were blocked from entering Yasukuni by Japanese protesters and police. A demonstration was organized by a group of more than one hundred Japanese nationalists to block them from the shrine and prevent them from performing spirit-calling religious rituals within the property the Shrine objected. Japanese police allowed the protesters to remain on the grounds because their entrance to the shrine was not objected by the shrine however they blocked the Taiwanese from leaving their buses, citing measures to prevent clashes between the two groups. After about an hour and a half, the Taiwanese group gave up their attempt. Su-mei and her group reportedly received death threats related to their visit, prompting the Taiwanese government to request Japanese authorities ensure her safety while in Japan. [4] A Rukai village Chief visiting the Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


On June 27, 2005, the governor of Tokyo, Shintaro Ishihara, told Kyodo News, "If the prime minister does not pay a visit to Yasukuni Shrine this year, I think Japan would go rotten from the inside and collapse." is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shintaro Ishihara (right) in a typical election poster pose with local lawmaker Ichiro Akita (left). ... Kyodo News (共同通信社 Kyōdō Tsūshinsha) is a nonprofit cooperative news agency based in Minato-ku, Tokyo. ...


On October 12, 2005, Yasukuni Shrine returned the Bukgwan Victory Monument to South Korean authorities. The monument was erected in 1707 to commemorate Korean victory over Japanese forces in the Seven-Year War. It was subsequently moved to the shrine by Japan following the Russo-Japanese War of 1905 over Korea. South Korea returned it to North Korea in early 2006. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bukgwan Victory Monument (북관대첩비, Bukgwandaecheopbi in Korean: ) is a stone stela commemorating a series of Korean military victories between 1592 and 1594 against the invading army of Japan during the Seven-Year War. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty , China under the Ming Dynasty, Jurchen tribes Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: King Seonjo Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-Min† China... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of...


On October 17, 2005, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi visited the shrine for the fifth time since taking office. Although Koizumi claimed that his visit was a private affair, officials in the People's Republic of China responded by canceling a scheduled visit to China by Japanese Foreign Minister Nobutaka Machimura in protest. [5] is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan is the politician responsible for Japanese foreign policy. ... Nobutaka Machimura (町村信孝 Machimura Nobutaka, born 1944) is a Japanese politician. ...


On October 28, 2005, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) agreed to set up a cross-party "group for pushing forward the establishment of a national memorial facility" to bring about the foundation of a secular war memorial dedicated only to "ordinary" soldiers. This would replace Yasukuni Shrine as the home of Japan's war dead. The group was set to meet for the first time on November 9, 2005. is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This section needs to be updated. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 15 November 2005, Chinese Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing stirred controversy during the APEC summit in Busan, South Korea by rhetorically asking: "What would European people think if German leaders were to visit (memorials) related to Hitler and Nazis?" [6] is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Li Zhaoxing (born October 1940) is the foreign minister of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] (this is also a correct phonetic variant) is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ...


On 16 May 2006, Henry Hyde, the Republican chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on International Relations sent a letter to Koizumi expressing his "concerns about the efficacy of an invitation to the Japanese prime minister who continues to make controversial visits to the Yasukuni shrine." [7]. Hyde's letter underscored the offensive nature a shrine visit was to Americans who remember World War Two and Hyde didn't want to "dishonor the site in Congress where President Franklin D. Roosevelt made his "day of infamy" speech after the December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor." [8]. May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry John Hyde (born April 18, 1924), American politician, has been a philandering member of the United States House of Representatives since 1975, representing the 6th District of Illinois (map). ...


On 20 July 2006, Nihon Keizai Shimbun front-paged an article about the discovery of a memorandum detailing the reason Emperor Hirohito stopped visiting Yasukuni. The memorandum, kept by former chief of Imperial Household Agency Tomohiko Tomita, confirms for the first time the enshrinement of the 14 Class A War Criminals was the reason. Tomita wrote down the contents of his conversations with the emperor in his diaries and notebooks in detail. He left 12 diaries (1975-1986) and some 20 notebooks (1986-1997). According to the memorandum, the emperor expressed his strong displeasure in 1988 at the decision made by Yasukuni Shrine to include Class A war criminals in the list of war dead honored there by saying, "At some point, Class-A criminals became enshrined, including Matsuoka and Shiratori. I heard Tsukuba acted cautiously," Tsukuba is believed to refer to Fujimaro Tsukuba, the former chief Yasukuni priest at the time, who decided not to enshrine the war criminals despite receiving in 1966, the list of war dead compiled by the government containing their names. "What's on the mind of Matsudaira's son, who is the current head priest?". "Matsudaira had a strong wish for peace, but the child didn't know the parent's heart. That's why I have not visited the shrine since. This is my heart," Matsudaira is believed to refer to Yoshitami Matsudaira, who was the grand steward of Imperial Household immediately after the end of World War II. His son, Nagayoshi, succeeded Fujimaro Tukuba as the chief priest of Yasukuni and he decided to enshrine the war criminals in 1978. [9] Nagayoshi Matsudaira passed away a year ago, which is speculated as a reason for the release of the memo. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikkei headquarters in Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Nikkei offices in Osaka Nihon Keizai Shimbun lit. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Imperial Household Agency building on the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo The Imperial Household Agency ) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japans imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


For journalist Masanori Yamaguchi, who analyzed the "memo" and comments made by the emperor in his first ever press conference in 1975, his evasive and opaque attitude about his own responsibility for the war and the fact he said that the bombing of Hiroshima "could not be helped" [3] , could mean that he was afraid that the enshrinement would reignite the debate over his own responsibility for the war.[4]


Another commentater stated that there are three immediate impact of the memo. [10] Firstly, the explanation of the suspension of the imperial visit offered by the right is no longer sustainable. Those on the right of Japanese politics had attributed the reason for the emperor's suspension of visits to the emergence of controversy over constitutional validity of the visit by the prime minister or the emperor in regard to the separation of state and religion. This claim is no longer valid in the light of the revelation. Secondly, Yasukuni and its lay organisation, Izokukai probably have to make alterations to their stance somewhat. Both organisations have clearly expressed their wish for a visit by the current emperor. Recent rulings by the Supreme Court have also indicated that visits by the prime minister or the emperor are constitutional. However, it is now clear that the controversy over the enshrinement of class A war criminals has to be resolved. Moreover, though the emperor is the highest authority of Shinto, he does not exercise direct control of any Shinto shrine including Yasukuni. However, Yasukuni ideology is clearly in favour of the pre-war arrangement in which the emperor was the official head of Shinto. Thirdly, the revelation clearly shifts the focus of the controversy to the enshrinement of class A war criminals, meaning that the issue of the separation between the state and the church is no longer the main focus. The public opinion is split between those on the left who advocate the removal and those on the right who nonetheless object to the removal.


On 4 August 2006, Japanese media reported that Junichiro Koizumi's expected successor, Shinzo Abe, had visited the shrine in April. Chinese and South Korean governments expressed concern over Abe visit to Yasukuni.[11] However, Abe has remained vague as to whether he had visited or would visit the shrine and subsequent events have lead some to suggest that a compromise on the issue has been formed with China. [12] is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born September 21, 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on September 26, 2006. ...


Retiring Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi visited the shrine on 15 August 2006, the anniversary of Japan's official World War II surrender [13]. Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In June 2007, former Taiwanese president Lee Teng-hui visited the shrine to pay his respects to his elder brother Lee Teng-ching (李登欽, or Lí Teng-khim in Taiwanese POJ), also known as Iwasato Takenori (岩里武則?) in Japanese, who is among the 27,863 Taiwanese honored there. [5] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Lee Teng-hui (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) born January 15, 1923) is a politician of Taiwan. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Kami

As a general rule, those enshrined at the shrine are limited to those who died while serving Japan, so general civilian deaths due to war are not included apart from a handful of exceptions.


Those enshrined at Yasukuni Shrine are the following:

  • Military personnel, and civilians employed by the military, who were:
    • killed in action, or died as a result of wounds or illnesses sustained while on duty outside the Home Islands (and within the Home Islands after Sept 1931)
    • missing and presumed to have died as a result of wounds or illnesses sustained while on duty
    • died as a result of war crime tribunals which have been ratified by the San Francisco Peace Treaty
  • Civilians who participated in combat under the military and killed by resulting wounds or illnesses (includes residents of Okinawa)
  • Civilians who died, or are presumed to have died, in Soviet labour camps after the war
  • Civilians who were officially mobilized or volunteered (such as factory workers, mobilized students, Japanese Red Cross nurses and anti air-raid volunteers) who were killed while on duty
  • Crew who were killed aboard Merchant Navy vessels
  • Crew who were killed due to the sinking of exchange ships (i.e. Awa Maru)
  • Okinawan schoolchildren evacuees who were killed (i.e. the sinking of Tsushima Maru)
  • Officials of the governing bodies of Karafuto Prefecture, Kwantung Leased Territory, Governor-General of Korea and Governor-General of Taiwan

The following lists the number enshrined at Yasukuni Shrine from each war Japan has participated in since the shrine's founding. The Home Islands refers to the four main islands of Japan: Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and Hokkaido. ... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... The Japanese Red Cross Society (日本赤十字社 nihon sekijÅ«ji sha) is a humanitarian corporation established by the Japanese Red Cross Law of 1952. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Marine. ... Tsushima Maru (対馬丸), an evacuation ship for schoolchildren, was sunk by the submarine USS Bowfin on her way from Okinawa to Kagoshima 1944 August 21. ... Karafuto (樺太) is the Japanese name for the southern part of the island of Sakhalin or the entire island of Sakhalin. ... The Kwantung Leased Territory (Chinese: 关东州, Guandongzhou, Japanese: 関東州; Kantoushu) was a composite territory in historic Eastern Manchuria that existed in the first half of the 20th century, from 1898 through 1945. ... During the period between 1910 and 1948 there were various Governors of Korea. ... The position of Governor-General of Taiwan existed when Taiwan and the Pescadores were part of the Empire of Japan, from 1895 to 1945. ...

In regard to the Boshin War and the South West War, dead from Tokugawa Shogunate (particularly from the Aizu prefecture) and Satsuma province are not enshrined because they are considered enemies of the emperor. This exclusion is deeply resented in both prefectures, and includes the ancestors of current Chief Priest Nambu. Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Ryukyuan people (Japanese: 琉球民族, of which Okinawans, Miyako people, and Yaeyama people are subgroups), are the indigenous people of the Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, located between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán YÇ”) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100,000... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... European military alliances in 1914. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Jinan Incident (Japanese:済南事件) or May 3rd Incident (Traditional Chinese: 五三慘案 , Simplified Chinese: 五三惨案), or Tsinan Incident, was an armed conflict between the Japanese Army allied with Northern Chinese warlords against the Kuomintangs southern army in Jinan, the capital of Shandong in 1928 during the Kuomintangs Northern Expedition. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... For the South Korean county of the same name, see Jinan County. ... It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It should be noted that enshrinements are carried out unilaterally by the shrine. Some families, such as those from foreign or Christian backgrounds have requested that their relatives be delisted, but the Yasukuni priesthood has stated that once a kami is enshrined, it has been 'merged' and cannot be separated. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who...


Layout

A statue representing a kamikaze pilot, at the Yasukuni shrine.
A statue representing a kamikaze pilot, at the Yasukuni shrine.
Statue dedicated to widowed mothers, who raised their children after losing their husbands in the war
Statue dedicated to widowed mothers, who raised their children after losing their husbands in the war

There are a multitude of facilities within the grounds of the shrine. The following is a list of the main ones, in order from the main entrance: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 398 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Replaces Image:Stature of kamikaze pilot. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 398 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Replaces Image:Stature of kamikaze pilot. ... Torii Gate at Yasukuni Shrine The main building of Yasukuni Shrine Yasukuni Shrine 75th anniversary Stamp (1944) Yasukuni Shrine ) is a Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1368x1941, 1141 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yasukuni Shrine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1368x1941, 1141 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yasukuni Shrine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...

  • Ō-torii ("great torii"): Large steel torii gate at the entrance, approximately 25 metres tall and 34 metres wide.
  • Senseki no ishi - a collection of 51 stones from various battlefields.
  • Irei no izumi (spring of remembrance) - monument to dedicate water to those who died in battle while gasping for water.
  • Statue of Omura Masujiro - Japan's first western-style bronze statue, built in 1893.
  • Ō-tōrō ("great lanterns") - Two stone lanterns dating from 1935, the largest in Japan. One depicting the Navy and the other depicting the Army.
  • Dovecotes - facilities for breeding white doves, which are a symbol of peace.
  • 2nd torii
  • Shinmon - a 6-metre tall gatehouse made of hinoki cypress, with the gates adorned with the Chrysanthemum Crest.
  • Haiden - the main prayer hall, built in 1901. The white screens hanging off the ceiling are changed to purple ones on ceremonial occasions.
  • Honden - The main sanctuary, built in 1872 and refurbished in 1989, where rituals take place. Closed to the public.
  • Reijibo hōanden - Shrine archive, containing the names of all those enshrined in the main shrine. Built of quakeproof concrete in 1972 with a private donation from the Showa emperor, Hirohito.
  • Chinreisha - "Spirit Pacifying Shrine", to the south of the main sanctuary. A small shrine dedicated to those not enshrined in the main shrine, and to all those killed by wars worldwide, regardless of nationality. It has a festival on July 13th.
  • Statue of an army dog - to pacify the souls of dogs killed in the battlefield.
  • Statue of an army horse - to pacify the souls of army horses killed in the battlefield.
  • A memorial to pigeons - to pacify the souls of homing pigeons used by the military.
  • Statue of a mother - built in 1974 to thank all mothers who single-handedly raised children in the absence of fathers killed in war.
  • Yushukan - Originally built in 1882, a museum housing war relics, including a Zero Fighter plane and Kaiten suicide torpedo, to the north of the main hall. It glorifies sacrifice and bravery, while making little mention of human suffering on both sides. More controversially, it states that the Pacific War was a war fought by Japan in self-defense. The former prime minister, Junichiro Koizumi, has had to clarify in the Diet that Yushukan's interpretation of history differs to that of the government.
  • Shinchi Teien - A Japanese style garden with pond, refurbished in 1999.
  • Ceremonial sumo ring.

A famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Multiple torii at Osaka shrine Torii are widespread in Japan, to the extent that modern architecture sometimes emulates their form. ... Statue of Omura Masujiro, at Yasukuni Shrine. ... Binomial name Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc. ... The National and Imperial Seal of Japan was originally the Imperial Seal, and is called 菊の御紋 Kiku No Gomon in Japanese, which, literally, means Noble Symbol of Chrysanthemum or Imperial Seal of Chrysanthemum . The Imperial Seal is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. ... In Shinto shrines, the honden (本殿, main building) is the most sacred area, intended purely for the use of the kami. ... Chinreisha (鎮霊社), The Spirit Pacifying Shrine, is a small side shrine to the controversial shintoistic Yasukuni shrine in Chiyoda, Tokyo. ... The homing pigeon is a variety of domesticated Rock Dove (Columba livia) that has been selectively bred to be able to find their way home over extremely long distances. ... Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero Model 21 (cowling removed) The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Change the World or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... Combatants China Allies (entered 1941):  United States  United Kingdom  Australia Free France  Netherlands  New Zealand  Canada  Soviet Union (1945) Japan  Germany (from 1941)  Manchukuo Thailand (from 1942) Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill John Curtin Charles de Gaulle Hirohito Hideki Tojo Kuniaki Koiso Kantaro Suzuki Campaigns and... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ...

Further reading

  • Breen, John. "The dead and the living in the land of peace: a sociology of the Yasukuni shrine". Mortality 9, 1 (February 2004): 76-93.
  • Breen, John. "Yasukuni Shrine: Ritual and Memory", Japan Focus, June 3, 2005
  • Nelson, John. "Social Memory as Ritual Practice: Commemorating Spirits of the Military Dead at Yasukuni Shinto Shrine". Journal of Asian Studies 62, 2 (May 2003): 445-467.
  • Sturgeon, William Daniel (August 2006). Japan's Yasukuni Shrine: Place of Peace or Place of Conflict? Regional Politics of History and Memory in East Asia. Dissertation.com. ISBN 1-58112-334-5. 

The controversy

  • Ijiri, Hidenori. "Sino-Japanese Controversies since the 1972 Diplomatic Normalization". China Quarterly 124 (Dec 1990): 639-661.
  • Shibuichi, Daiki. "The Yasukuni Dispute and the Politics of Identity of Japan: Why All the Fuss?" Asian Survey 45, 2 (March-April 2005): 197-215.
  • Tamamoto, Masaru. "A Land Without Patriots: The Yasukuni Controversy and Japanese Nationalism". World Policy Journal 18, 3 (Fall 2001): 33-40.
  • Yang, Daqing. “Mirror for the future of the history card? Understanding the ‘history problem’” in Chinese-Japanese Relations in the Twenty-first Century: Complementarity and Conflict, edited by Marie Söderberg, 10-31. New York, NY: Routledge, 2002.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A Jinja (Japanese: 神社) is a Shinto shrine including its surrounding natural area but it is more common to refer to buildings as a jinja. ... This is a comprehensive list of major Shinto shrines by country. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

References

  1. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun: 基礎からわかる靖国神社問題】Q 戦前、戦後 どんな役割?. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  2. ^ The Japan Times (2007-03-29) Yasukuni, state in '69 OK'd war criminal inclusion (2007-06-01)
  3. ^ "-Does your majesty feel responsibility for the war itself, including the opening of hostilities ? -I can't answer that kind of question because I haven't thoroughly studied the literature in this field, and so I don't really appreciate the nuances of your words." H. Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 200, p.676
  4. ^ Yasukuni and a week that will live in infamy, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fd20060820pb.html
  5. ^ Taiwan ex-leader in shrine visit, BBC News (2007-06-07)
  • Breen, John. "Yasukuni Shrine: Ritual and Memory", Japan Focus, June 3, 2005
  • Nelson, John. "Social Memory as Ritual Practice: Commemorating Spirits of the Military Dead at Yasukuni Shinto Shrine". Journal of Asian Studies 62, 2 (May 2003): 445-467.
  • Pye, Michael: Religion and Conflict in Japan with Special Reference to Shinto and Yasukuni Shrine. In: Diogenes 50:3 (2003), S. 45-59.
  • Saaler, Sven: Politics, Memory and Public Opinion. München, iudicium, 2005.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Yasukuni Shrine official website (English)
  • Yūshūkan museum official website (English)
  • Official page of the Japanese Foreign Ministry on the Yasukuni visits of PM Koizumi
  • A feature from The Japan Times on the chief priest of Yasukuni and his views of PM visits
  • Japan's Memory Lapses article by Max Boot
  • Detailed unofficial website about the Yūshūkan museum
  • Yasukuni Jinja photos and slideshow on the 60th anniversary of Japan's surrender (2005)
  • Yasukuni Jinja Yūshūkan
  • Japanese 'oppose PM shrine trips'
  • 69% in favor of Koizumi's visit to Yasukuni Shrine
  • Discussion of the impact of Prime Ministerial visits to Yasukuni Shrine
  • Yasukuni Shrine and War Crimes(Japanese)
  • Audio/Video recordings of Professor Tetsuya Takahashi discussing his book Postwar Japan on the Brink: Militarism, Colonialism, Yasukuni Shrine at the University of Chicago

Coordinates: 35°41′39″N, 139°44′35″E Max Boot (born 1969 in Moscow, Soviet Union) is an American author, editorialist, lecturer and military historian. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yasukuni Shrine by Mike Rogers (2089 words)
Yasukuni Shrine (which literally translates into "peaceful nation shrine") was constructed in June 1869 to commemorate all victims of the Boshin war – as well as those who died in earlier wars since 1853.
Yasukuni Shrine, of course, stayed with being known as a religious institution that is privately funded.
The point that must be remembered is that Yasukuni Shrine is not a shrine glorifying Japanese militarism, it is a shrine to pray for the forgiveness and rest of the souls who died in war.
Yasukuni Shrine Visits (567 words)
In the postwar period, Yasukuni has been visited twice by prime ministers in their official capacitiesÑin 1985 by Nakasone Yasuhiro, and in 1996 by Hashimoto RyutaroÑwho held the post of chairman of JapanÕs major war dead association before ascending to the premiership.
The idea is to make the shrine into a public corporation rather than a religious organization, and to move to ÒsoulsÓ of the class A war criminals to a separate compound, which the ministers would not have to visit.
Yasukuni Shrine, which was initially built in 1869, was given its present name a decade later.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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