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Encyclopedia > Yasser Arafat
ياسر عرفات
Yasser Arafat
(Yāsir `Arafāt)
Kunya: Abu `Ammar ( أبو عمّار; 'Abū `Ammār)
Yasser Arafat

In office
January 20, 1996 – November 11, 2004
Succeeded by Rawhi Fattouh (interim)
Mahmoud Abbas

Born August 4 or August 24, 1929
Cairo[1]
Died November 11, 2004,
Age 75
Paris
Nationality Palestinian
Political party Fatah
Spouse Suha Arafat

Mohammed Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (August 24, 1929November 11, 2004; Arabic: محمد عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني), popularly known as Yasser Arafat, was a Palestinian guerrilla soldier and diplomat. As Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization and President of the Palestinian National Authority,[2] Arafat engaged in continuous fighting with Israeli forces as well as attacks on Israeli civilians in the name of Palestinian self-determination. Arafat spent much of his life leading the Fatah organization, which he founded between 1958–1960.[3] Originally opposed to Israel's existence, he modified his position in 1988 when he accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242. Yasir Arafat Satti (born 12 March 1982 in Rawalpindi, Punjab) is a Pakistani cricketer. ... A kunya (Arabic: ) is an honorific widely used in place of given names through the Arab world. ... see http://commons. ... The President of the Palestinian National Authority is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rawhi Fattuh (روحي فتوح, also transliterated as Rauhi Fattouh) (born 1953) was the interim President of the Palestinian Authority, following the death of Yasser Arafat on November 11, 2004 until January 15, 2005. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Hillary Clinton kissing Suha Arafat Suha Daoud Arafat (Arabic: سهى داود عرفات), née Suha Daoud Tawil (سهى داود الطويل) (born 17 July 1963), is the widow of the late Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization is the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The President of the Palestinian Authority is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ...


Arafat was constantly surrounded by controversy, as in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when Fatah faced off with Jordan in a civil war. Forced out of Jordan and into Lebanon, Arafat and Fatah were the targets of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions of that country. Arafat was said to be a key planner of the Black September organization's murder of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. The majority of Palestinian, Arab and Islamic people – regardless of political ideology or faction – viewed him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people.[4] However, most Israelis have described him as an unrepentant terrorist.[5] A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Later in his career, Arafat engaged in a series of negotiations with the government of Israel to end the decades-long war between the two sides. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. His political rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government.[6] In 1994, Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo.[7] During this time, Hamas and other militant organizations rose to power and shook the foundation of authority claimed by Fatah and Arafat. The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... (Redirected from 2000 Camp David Summit) The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ...


In late 2004, after an extended period of confinement in his Ramallah compound at the behest of the Israeli government, Arafat became ill and fell into a coma. While the exact cause of death remains unknown, doctors spoke of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and cirrhosis. Rumors circulated – and continue to – that he had been poisoned or succumbed to HIV/AIDS. Arafat fortunately died on 11 November at the age of 75. Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of no known cause (idiopathic). ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early life

Birth & Childhood

Arafat was born in Cairo to Palestinian parents.[1][8] His father, Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini, was a Gazan with an Egyptian mother. He worked as a textile merchant in Cairo's culturally mixed Sakanini District. Arafat was the second-youngest of seven children and was (along with his younger brother Fathi) the only offspring born in Cairo. His mother, Zahwa Abul Saoud, died from a kidney ailment in 1933, when Arafat was five years of age. Arafat's first connection to Jerusalem came when his father, unable to raise seven children, sent him and his brother Fathi to their mother's family in the Old City. They lived there with their uncle Selim Abul Saoud for four years. In 1937 their father recalled them to be taken care of by their older sister Inam. Arafat had a deteriorating relationship with his father; when he died in 1952, Arafat did not attend the funeral. Neither did he visit his father's grave upon his return to Gaza.[8] Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Fathi Arafat Fathi Arafat (January 11, 1933 - December 1, 2004), born in Cairo, was a Palestinian physician and the founder and long-term chairman of the Palestine Red Crescent Society. ... The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1022x745, 114 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1022x745, 114 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Cairo University, the biggest in Africa Cairo University (formerly Fouad the First University) is an institute of higher education located in Giza, Egypt. ...

Education and 1948 Arab-Israeli War

In 1947, Arafat enrolled in the University of King Fuad I and graduated in 1950 with a passing grade. He later claimed to have sought a better understanding of Judaism and Zionism by engaging in discussions with Jews and reading publications by Theodor Herzl and other prominent Zionists.[9] However, during this period in his life he became an Arab nationalist and began procuring weapons to be smuggled into the former British Mandate of Palestine, for use by irregulars in the Arab Higher Committee and the Holy War Army militias.[10] During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Arafat left the University and, along with other Arabs, sought to enter Palestine to join Arab forces fighting in the name of Palestinian independence against Israeli troops. However, instead of joining the ranks of the Holy War Army, Arafat fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood, although he did not officially join the organization.[8] He took part in combat in the Gaza area (which was the main battleground of Egyptian forces during the conflict). In early 1949 the war was winding down in Israel's favor, and Arafat returned to Cairo from a lack of logistical support.[8] Cairo University, the biggest in Africa Cairo University (formerly Fouad the First University) is an institute of higher education located in Giza, Egypt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... The Army of the Holy War or Holy War Army (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) was a force of Palestinian irregulars in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War led by Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni and Hasan Salama. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... The armed forces of Egypt are the largest on the African continent and one of the biggest in the world (ranked 11th), consisting of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy, Egyptian Air Force and Egyptian Air Defense Command. ...


After returning to the University, Arafat served as president of the Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. During his first year as president of the union, the University was renamed Cairo University after a coup was carried out by the Free Officers Movement overthrowing King Farouk I. By that time, Arafat had graduated with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering and was called to duty to fight with Egyptian forces during the Suez Crisis; however, he never actually fought on the battlefield.[8] Later that year, at a conference in Prague, he donned a solid white keffiyeh – different from the checkered one he adopted later in Kuwait, which became his emblem.[11] In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement was founded by Colonel Gamal Abdul Nasser in the aftermath of Egypts sense of national disgrace from the War of 1948. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... An Iraqi man wearing a predominantly red keffiyeh in a Charraweyya (جراوية) style. ...


Name

Arafat's original full name was Mohammed Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini. Mohammed Abdel Rahman was his first name; Abdel Raouf was his father's name and Arafat his grandfather's. Al-Qudwa was the name of his family and al-Husseini was that of the clan to which the al-Quduas belonged.[8] It should be noted that Arafat's clan, al-Husseini was based in Gaza and should not be confused with the well-known but unrelated al-Husseini clan of Jerusalem. However, since the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husseini and the Palestinian nationalist fighter Abd al-Qadr al-Husseini belonged to this clan, he at times claimed to be related for the purpose of entwining his heritage with Palestinian political lore.[8] For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The title Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is predominantly used to refer to Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni (1907-1948) was a Palestinian nationalist and fighter who commanded the Arab Liberation Army in the war of 1948. ...


Since Arafat was raised in Cairo, the tradition of dropping the Mohammed or Ahmad portion of one's first name was common; notable Egyptians such as Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak did so. However, Arafat did not use the Abdel Rahman part of his name either, and it too was dropped. During the early 1950s Arafat adopted the name Yasser after Yasser bin Ammar, a celebrated Muslim warrior. (In the early years of Arafat's guerrilla career he assumed the nom de guerre of Abu Ammar for the same reason.) He dropped most of his other names but kept Arafat due to its significance in Islam.[8] Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad Ḥusnī Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك Ḥusnī Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ...


Formation of Fatah

As a result of the Suez Crisis in 1956, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, a leader of the Free Officers Movement, agreed to allow the United Nations Emergency Force to establish itself in the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip, causing the expulsion of all guerrilla or "fedayeen" forces there – including Arafat. He originally struggled to obtain a visa to Canada and later Saudi Arabia, but was unsuccessful in both attempts.[8][12] In 1957, he applied for a visa to Kuwait (at the time a British protectorate) and was approved, based on his work in civil engineering. There he encountered two Palestinian friends he had met in the Cairo University, Salah Khalaf (Abu Iyad) and Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad), both official members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. They became Arafat's right-hand men in future politics. Abu Iyad traveled with Arafat to Kuwait in late in 1957; Abu Jihad, also working as a teacher, had been living there.[3][13] In 1960, Abu Iyad helped Arafat obtain a temporary job as a schoolteacher. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956, and in large measure as a result of efforts by secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld and a proposal... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... Abu Iyad Salah Khalaf (Arabic صلاح خلف), also known as Abu Iyad (Arabic أبو إياد) (born 1933 – January 14, 1991) was deputy chief and head of intelligence for the Palestine Liberation Organization, and the second most senior official of Fatah after Yasser Arafat. ... Khalil Al-Wazir (October 10, 1935–April 16, 1988), better known by the kunya Abu Jihad (Arabic: father of the struggle) and Al-Wazir (the top minister), was a founder of the Palestinian group Fatah (which later formed the dominant part of the PLO), and later a top aide to... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political...

The Palestinian flag, adopted by the PLO in 1964
The Palestinian flag, adopted by the PLO in 1964

As Arafat began to develop friendships with other Palestinian refugees from Gaza (some of whom he also knew from his Cairo days), he gradually founded the group that became known as Fatah. There is no exact date of Fatah's establishment; however, in the years 1958–1960, the group began to emerge from a Palestinian nationalist magazine, Filastununa Nida al-Hayat (Our Palestine, The Call of Life), which was written and edited by the organization's founding members. FaTaH is a reverse acronym of the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini which translates into "The Palestinian National Liberation Movement".[3][14] Fatah is also a word which was used in early Islamic times to refer to "conquest".[3] Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Proportions 1:2 The Palestinian flag has been in use by Palestinians to represent their national aspirations since the middle of the 20th century. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Fatah dedicated itself to the liberation of Palestine and subsequent destruction of Israel by an armed struggle carried out by the Palestinians themselves. This differed from other Palestinian political and guerrilla organizations, most of which firmly believed in a united Arab response.[3][15] Arafat's organization never committed to the ideologies of major Arab national governments of the time, while other Palestinian factions formed satellites of nations such as Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria and others.[16]


In accordance with his own ideology, Arafat generally refused to accept donations to his organization from major Arab governments, in order to act independently of them. He did not want to alienate them, and sought their undivided support by avoiding alliances with groups loyal to other ideologies. He worked hard in Kuwait, however, to establish the groundwork for Fatah's future financial support by enlisting contributions from the many wealthy Palestinians working there and other Gulf States, such as Qatar (where he met Mahmoud Abbas in 1961).[17] These businessmen and oil workers contributed generously to the Fatah organization. Arafat continued this process in other Arab countries such as Libya and Syria.[3] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ...


During the 1962–1966 period, Arafat and his closest companions immigrated to Syria - a country sharing a border with Israel - which had recently seceded from a union with Nasser's Egypt. In Syria he was able to recruit members with a higher outcome and eventually commence his armed struggle against Israel. Before this time, Fatah had approximately three hundred members but no fighters.[3] Gradually, however, Fatah's manpower increased as a result of Arafat's decision to offer much higher salaries to members of the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA), a military branch of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which was created by the Arab League in the summer of 1964.[3] On December 31 of that same year, al-Assifa – the armed branch of Fatah at the time – attempted to infiltrate Israel, but they were intercepted and detained by Lebanese security forces. Several other successful and failed raids, many times personally led by Arafat himself, took place after this incident with Fatah's poorly-trained and badly-equipped fighters.[3] The Palestine Liberation Army, also known as the PLA, was a regular military force recruited from among Palestinians by the Syrians. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 13, 1966, Israel launched a major raid against the Jordanian-administered West Bank town of as-Samu, in response to a Fatah-implemented roadside bomb attack, which killed three members of the Israeli security forces near the southern Green Line border. The resulting skirmish had killed scores of Jordanian security forces and 125 homes were razed.[18] This raid was one of several factors that led to the 1967 Six Day War.[18] is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... as-Samu or es-Samu is a town in the Hebron Governorate of the West Bank, south of the city of Hebron. ... Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


Israel launched an preemptive air strike against Egypt's air force on June 5, 1967, commencing the Six Day War. The war ended in Arab defeat and Israel seizing several Arab territories, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Although Nasser and his Arab allies were defeated, Arafat and Fatah were in a way victorious, as the majority of Palestinians – once siding and sympathizing with individual Arab governments – began to agree with a "Palestinian" resolution to their dilemma.[19] Many primarily Palestinian political parties, including George Habash's Arab Nationalist Movement, Hajj Amin al-Husseini's Arab Higher Committee, the Islamic Liberation Front and several Syrian-backed groups, virtually crumbled after their sponsor governments' loss.[19] Just a week later, a disguised Arafat crossed the Jordan River into the West Bank and set up recruitment centers in Hebron, the Jerusalem area and Nablus, and began attracting fighters and financiers.[19] The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF (Arabic: , ), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian armed forces. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... George Habash (Arabic جورج حبش) (born August 2, 1926 in Lod), sometimes known by his nom de guerre Al-Hakim, الحكيم, meaning the doctor, is a Palestinian politician, formerly a militant, and the founder and former Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... The Arab Nationalist Movement (Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-Arab), also known as the Movement of Arab Nationalists and the Harakiyyin, was a pan-Arab nationalist organization influential in much of the Arab world, most famously so within the Palestinian movement. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ...


Nasser contacted Arafat through Mohammed Heikal (one of his advisers) and Arafat was declared by Nasser to be the leader of the Palestinians.[20] In December of that same year, Ahmad Shukeiri resigned his post as PLO Chairman. Yahya Hammuda took his place and invited Arafat to join the organization. Fatah was allocated 33 of 105 seats of the PLO Executive Committee while the remaining 57 were left for several other guerrilla factions.[19] Mohamed Hassanein Heikal (born 1923) is a leading Egyptian journalist. ... Ahmad Shukeiri Ahmad Shukeiri (1908 - 1980), also al-Shuqayri, or Shukeiry, was the first Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. ... The Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization is the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization. ... Yahya Hammuda was the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Executive Committee from 24 December 1967 to 2 February 1969. ... The Executive Committee (PLO EC) is the highest executive body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). ...


Battle of Karameh

Throughout 1968 Fatah and other Palestinian armed groups were the target of a major Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Jordanian village of Karameh, where the Fatah headquarters – as well as a mid-sized Palestinian refugee camp – were located. The town's name is the Arabic word for "dignity", which elevated its symbolism to the Arab people, especially after the Arab defeat in 1967.[19] The operation was in response to attacks against Israel, including rockets attacks from Fatah and other Palestinian militias into the occupied West Bank. Knowledge of the operation was available well ahead of time, and the government of Jordan (as well as a number of Fatah commandos) informed Arafat of Israel's large-scale military preparations. Upon hearing the news, many guerrilla groups in the area, including George Habash's newly formed group the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and Nayef Hawatmeh's breakaway organization the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), withdrew their forces from the town. Arafat was advised by a pro-Fatah Jordanian divisional commander to withdraw his men and headquarters to nearby hills, but Arafat refused,[19] stating, "We want to convince the world that there are those in the Arab world who will not withdraw or flee".[21] On Arafat's orders, Fatah remained, and the Jordanian Army agreed to back them if heavy fighting ensued.[19] The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... Al Karameh (or simply Karameh) is a town in Jordan, near the Allenby Bridge which spans the Jordan River, which defines the border with territory controlled by Israel. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinian Arabs call the Nakba (Arabic: , meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... George Habash (Arabic جورج حبش) (born August 2, 1926 in Lod), sometimes known by his nom de guerre Al-Hakim, الحكيم, meaning the doctor, is a Palestinian politician, formerly a militant, and the founder and former Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Naif Hawatmeh Nayef Hawatmeh (kunya Abu an-Nuf, b. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... Royal Jordanian Land Force is part of the Jordanian Armed forces (JAF). ...


On the night of March 21, the IDF attacked Karameh with heavy weaponry, armored vehicles and fighter jets.[19] Fatah held its ground, surprising the Israeli military. As Israel's forces intensified their campaign, the Jordanian Army became involved, causing the Israelis to retreat in order to avoid a full-scaled war.[22] By the end of the battle nearly 150 Fatah militants were killed, as well as twenty Jordanian soldiers and twenty-eight Israeli soldiers.[19] Despite the higher Arab death toll, Fatah considered themselves victorious because of the Israeli army's rapid withdrawal. Arafat himself was on the battlefield, but the details of his involvement are unclear. However, his allies – as well as Israeli intelligence – confirm that he urged his men throughout the battle to hold their ground and continue fighting.[23][19]


The battle was covered in detail by Time, and Arafat's face appeared on the cover of the December 13, 1968 issue, bringing his image to the world for the first time.[24] Amid the post-war environment, the profiles of Arafat and Fatah were raised by this important turning point, and he came to be regarded as a national hero who dared to confront Israel. With mass applause from the Arab world, financial donations increased significantly, and Fatah's weaponry and equipment improved. The group's numbers swelled as many young Arabs, including thousands of non-Palestinians, joined the ranks of Fatah.[25] Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Arab States” redirects here. ...


At the Palestinian National Council in Cairo on February 3, 1969, Yahya Hammuda ceded his duty as chairman of the PLO. Arafat took over, became commander-in-chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces two years later, and in 1973 he became the head of the PLO's political department.[19] The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Yahya Hammuda was the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Executive Committee from 24 December 1967 to 2 February 1969. ...


Jordan

See also: Black September in Jordan

In the 1960s, tensions between Palestinians and the Jordanian government increased greatly; heavily armed Arab resistance elements had created a virtual "state within a state" in Jordan, eventually controlling several strategic positions in that country. These included the oil refinery near az-Zarqa, as well as the bulk of the Palestinian refugee camps, several neighborhoods, and other areas in northern Jordanian cities such as Amman and Irbid. After their victory in the Battle of Karameh, Fatah and other Palestinian militias began taking control of civil life in Jordan. They set up roadblocks, publicly humiliated Jordanian police forces, molested women and levied illegal taxes – all of which Arafat either condoned or ignored.[21] King Hussein considered this a growing threat to his kingdom's sovereignty and security, and attempted to disarm the militias.[26] However, in order to avoid a military confrontation with opposition forces, Hussein dismissed several of his anti-PLO cabinet officials, including some of his own family members, and invited Arafat to become Prime Minister of Jordan.[26] Arafat refused, citing his ideology of a Palestinian state with Palestinian leadership.[26] Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Az Zarqa is the second city in Jordan according to its population after Amman. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Irbid in the spring Irbid (Arabic: إربد), the ancient Arabella, is Jordans second largest city located about 85 km north of Amman, situated at an equal distance from Pella and Umm Qais and 7 km to the north from Al Hisn. ... For other uses, see Roadblock (disambiguation). ... For the band, see The Police. ... Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ... Categories: Jordan | Prime Ministers of Jordan ...

A unit of fighters belonging to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in Jordan, 1969
A unit of fighters belonging to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in Jordan, 1969

Despite Hussein's intervention, militant actions in Jordan continued. On September 15, 1970, the PFLP hijacked five planes and landed three of them at Dawson's Field, located 30 miles (48 km) east of Amman. After the passengers were moved to other locations, three of the planes were blown up. This tarnished Arafat's image to many western nations, including the United States, who held him responsible for controlling Palestinian factions that belonged to the PLO.[27] Arafat, bowing to pressure from Arab governments, publicly condemned the hijackings and suspended the PFLP from any guerrilla actions for a few weeks. (He had taken the same action after the PFLP attacked Athens Airport.) The Jordanian government moved to regain control over its territory, and on September 16 King Hussein declared martial law.[26] On the same day, Arafat became supreme commander of the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA), the regular military force of the PLO. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2422x1639, 591 KB) Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Look Magazine Photograph Collection. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2422x1639, 591 KB) Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Look Magazine Photograph Collection. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Main article: Black September in Jordan The Dawsons Field hijacking occurred on September 6, 1970. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Athens International Airport, Eleftherios Venizelos (Greek: Διεθνής Αερολιμένας Αθηνών, Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος) or Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport (IATA: ATH, ICAO: LGAV) began operation in March 2001, serves the city of Athens in Greece. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Palestine Liberation Army, also known as the PLA, was a regular military force recruited from among Palestinians by the Syrians. ...


In the ensuing civil war, the PLO had the active support of Syrian President Salah Jadid, who authorized a contribution force of around 200 tanks into Jordan to aid Palestinian forces. However, the country's air force commander, Hafez al-Assad, who was at odds with Arafat, refused to aid the PLO with air support.[26] The fighting was primarily between the Jordanian army and PLA, but the U.S. Navy dispatched the Sixth Fleet to the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and Israel agreed to deploy troops to aid Hussein if necessary.[26] This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. ... Salah Jadid (1926? - 1993) was a Syrian general and political figure. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... USN redirects here. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Arafat with Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine leader, Nayef Hawatmeh and Palestinian writer Kamal Nasser at press confernce in Amman in the summer of 1970

As the conflict raged, other Arab governments attempted to negotiate a peaceful resolution. As part of this effort, Gamal Abdel Nasser led the first ever emergency Arab League summit,. in Cairo on September 21, 1970. Arafat's speech drew sympathy from attending Arab leaders; other heads of state took sides against Hussein, even mocking him and his father King Talal. The attempt to establish a peace agreement between the two sides failed. Nasser died of a massive heart attack hours after the summit.[26] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... Naif Hawatmeh Nayef Hawatmeh (kunya Abu an-Nuf, b. ... Writer; edited the militant newspaper Al-Jil al-Jadid (The New Era) in the 1960s; PLO spokesman in Beirut; killed by an Israeli raid in Beirut on April 10, 1973. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Talal I bin Abdullah, King of Jordan (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ...


By September 24, the Jordanian army achieved dominance, and the PLA agreed to a series of ceasefires.[28] The Jordanian army inflicted heavy casualties upon the Palestinians – including civilians – who suffered approximately 3,400 fatalities.[29] Arafat and a number of his Fatah forces, including two high commanders, Abu Iyad and Abu Jihad, were forced into the northern corner of Jordan. They relocated near the town of Jerash, which borders Syria and Israel. With the help of Munib Masri, a pro-Palestinian Jordanian cabinet member, and Fahd al-Khomeimi, the Saudi ambassador to Jordan, Arafat managed to enter Syria with nearly two thousand of his fighters. They crossed the border into Lebanon to join Fatah forces in that country, where they set up their new headquarters.[29] is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Abu Iyad(Arabic أبو إياد) (? - January 14, 1991)(born Salah Khalaf ( Arabic صلاح خلف)) was Palestine Liberation Organization deputy chief and intelligence chief, and at the time of his death was considered the second most senior official of Fatah after... Khalil Al-Wazir (October 10, 1935–April 16, 1988), better known by the kunya Abu Jihad (Arabic: father of the struggle) and Al-Wazir (the top minister), was a founder of the Palestinian group Fatah (which later formed the dominant part of the PLO), and later a top aide to... The oval Forum of Roman Jerash, and the South end of the Cardo Map of the Decapolis showing location of Gerasa (Jerash) // Jerash is the capital of Jerash Governorate (محافظة جرش) in Kingdom of Jordan. ...


Lebanon

Terrorist attacks in 1970s and official recognition

Because of Lebanon's weak central government, the PLO was able to operate virtually as an independent state. During this time in the 1970s, numerous leftist PLO groups appeared on the armed front against Israel, carrying out attacks against civilian targets both within Israel and outside of it. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


On May 8, 1972, the Black September group hijacked a Sabena flight en route to Vienna and forced it to land at the Ben Gurion Airport in Lod, Israel. On May 30 the PFLP, with the aid of the Japanese Red Army, carried out a shooting rampage known as the Lod Airport massacre which killed twenty-four civilians.[30][31] On July 9, Israel assassinated the PFLP spokesman, Ghassan Kanafani and his niece. Two days later, various PLO factions retaliated by bombing a bus station, killing eleven civilians.[32] is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... On May 8, 1972 a passenger aircraft of the Belgian airline company Sabena Boeing 707 that was in flight from Vienna to Tel Aviv was hijacked by four terrorists from the Palestinian terroristic group Black September organization and landed at the Tel Aviv airport near Lod. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Front view of Terminal 1 at Ben Gurion International Airport Ben Gurion International Airport or Ben Gurion Airport, (named for David Ben_Gurion), located near Lod and once known as Lod Airport, is 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv, and is the largest international airport in Israel. ... Downtown area of Lod Lod (Hebrew לוֹד; Arabic اَلْلُدّْ al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda, Tiberian Hebrew לֹד Lōḏ) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... On May 30, 1972 three members of the Japanese Red Army undertook a terrorist attack in Lod Airport in Tel Aviv on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ghassan Kanafani Ghassan Kanafani (غسان كنفاني, born April 9, 1936 in Acre, Palestine - died July 8, 1972 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian writer and a spokesman for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ...

A plaque in front of the Israeli athletes' quarters commemorating the victims of the Munich massacre

In September 1972, Black September kidnapped and killed eleven Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. A number of sources – including Mohammed Oudeh (Abu Daoud), one of the masterminds of the Munich massacre, and Benny Morris, a prominent Israeli historian – have stated that Black September was an armed branch of Fatah used for paramilitary operations. According to Abu Daoud's 1999 book, "Arafat was briefed on plans for the Munich hostage-taking."[33] The killings were internationally condemned. In 1973–4, Arafat closed Black September down, ordering the PLO to withdraw from acts of violence outside Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip.[34] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2128 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2128 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... Mohammad Oudeh, commonly known as Abu Daoud, is the leader of the Black September, the Palestine Liberation Organisation splinter group that carried out the 1972 Munich massacre. ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ...


On April 11, 1974, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC) carried out a shooting raid on the northern Israeli town of Qiryat Shemona resulting in the deaths of eighteen civilians.[35] On May 15, militants from the DFLP - disguised as Israeli soldiers - stormed a school in Ma'alot holding members of the student body hostage. Israel's Sayeret Matkal special forces group killed all of the militants but not before they had killed eighteen of their hostages.[36][35] Israel retaliated by bombing seven Palestinian refugee camps in Southern Lebanon killing twenty-seven civilians.[37] is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization, backed by Syria. ... Qiryat Shemona in the spring of 1978 Qiryat Shemona (Hebrew: ) is a city in the North District of Israel. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... The Maalot massacre was a school massacre in Maalot, Israel by Islamist members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, that occurred on May 15, 1974, the 26th anniversary of Israeli independence. ... Sayeret Matkal (Hebrew: סיירת מטכל, translation: General Staff Reconnaissance unit) is the elite special forces unit of the Israeli Defence Force (IDF). ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... Southern Lebanon is the geographical area of Lebanon composed of two Governates: the South Lebanon Governate and the Nabatiyeh Governate. ...


Also in 1974, the Palestinian National Council approved the Ten Point Program (drawn up by Arafat and his advisers), and proposed a compromise with the Israelis. It stated that there be a Palestinian national authority over every part of liberated Palestinian territory,[38] referring to areas captured by Arab forces in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War (present-day West Bank and Gaza Strip). This caused discontent among several of the PLO factions; the PFLP, DFLP and other parties formed a breakaway organization, the Rejectionist Front.[6] The Fatah movement continued to launch attacks against Israeli civilians and security forces from Lebanon. The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ...


Israel and the US also alleged that Arafat was involved in the Khartoum diplomatic assassinations, in which five diplomats and five others were killed. Arafat denied any involvement in the operation and insisted it was carried out independently by the Black September group. However, a 1973 United States Department of State document, declassified in 2006, concluded "The Khartoum operation was planned and carried out with the full knowledge and personal approval of Yasser Arafat."[39] One of the Black September terrorists on the balcony of the Saudi embassy during the hostage-taking of diplomatic offcials in Khartum, Sudan The Khartoum diplomatic assassinations took place between 1 March 1973 and 3 March 1973 in the capital city of Sudan, Khartoum and were executed by the Palestinian... “Department of State” redirects here. ...


Israel and the US claimed that Arafat was in ultimate control over these organizations, and therefore had not abandoned terrorism.[6][40]


In the same year, Arafat became the first representative of a non-governmental organization to address a plenary session of the UN General Assembly. In his UN address, Arafat condemned Zionism, but said, "Today I have come bearing an olive branch and a freedom fighter's gun. Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand."[41] His speech increased international support for the Palestinian cause. The PLO was admitted to full membership in the Arab League in 1976.[42] “NGO” redirects here. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...


Fatah involvement in Lebanese Civil War

See also: Lebanese Civil War

Although hesitant at first to take sides in the conflict, Arafat and Fatah played an important role in the Lebanese Civil War. Succumbing to pressure from PLO sub-groups such as the PFLP, DFLP and the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), Arafat aligned the PLO with the Lebanese Nasserist Sunni group al-Murabitun, and the primarily Druze Progressive Socialist Party (PSP). A major element of the Lebanese National Movement (LNM), the PSP was led by Kamal Jumblatt, who had a friendly relationship with Arafat. Although originally aligned with Arafat's Fatah group, Syrian President Hafez al-Assad feared a loss of influence in Lebanon and switched sides. He sent his army, along with Syrian backed PLO forces, as-Sa'iqa and the PFLP, to fight alongside the radical right-wing Maronite Christian Phalangists against Arafat's forces.[43] Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a militant Palestinian group which is designated by the United States and European Union [1] as a terrorist organization. ... President Gamal Abdel Nasser Nasserism is an Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of the former Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... al-Mourabitun symbol Movement of Independent Nasserists - al-Mourabitun (Arabic: ) is a Nasserist political organization and former militia group in Lebanon. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of... The Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (Arabic al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... Kamal Jumblatt (Arabic: كمال جنبلاط; (December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese politician. ... This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... As-Saiqa (Arabic: الصاعقة meaning thunderbolt) is a Palestinian political and military faction supported by Syria. ... Maronites (Arabic: , transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maroun in the early 5th century. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ...

Arafat in Palestinian refugee camp in southern Lebanon, 1978

PLO cross-border raids against Israel grew somewhat during the late 1970s. One of the most severe was the Coastal Road Massacre, which occurred on March 11, 1978. A force of nearly a dozen Fatah fighters landed their boats near a major coastal road connecting the city of Haifa with Tel Aviv-Yafo. There they hijacked a bus and sprayed gunfire inside and at passing vehicles, killing thirty-seven civilians.[35][44] In response, the IDF launched Operation Litani on March 14, with the goal of taking control of Southern Lebanon up to the Litani River. The IDF achieved this goal, and Arafat withdrew PLO forces north into Beirut. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dalal Al Mughrabi Dalal Mughrabi and Ehud Barak Charred remains of the hijacked bus Front end remains of the hijacked bus The Kamal Odwan Operation In 1970s the Israeli Mossad committed massacres inside and outside Palestine, the foremost of which was the assassination of the three Palestinian Leaders, martyrs... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Southern Lebanon is the geographical area of Lebanon composed of two Governates: the South Lebanon Governate and the Nabatiyeh Governate. ... The Litani River in red The Litani River (Arabic: نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Lytany) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ...


After Israel withdrew from Lebanon, PLO forces fired rockets into Israel-occupied Galilee, prompting another Israeli invasion in 1982. Beirut was soon besieged and bombarded by the IDF;[43] Arafat declared the city to be the "second Hanoi and Stalingrad."[43] The Civil War's first phase ended and Arafat, who was commanding Fatah forces at the Palestinian refugee camp of Tel al-Zaatar (located in Beirut), narrowly escaped with assistance from Saudi and Kuwaiti diplomats.[45] To end the siege, the United States and European governments brokered an agreement guaranteeing safe passage for Arafat and the PLO – guarded by a multinational force of 800 US Marines supported by the US Navy – to exile in Tunis. At the siege's end, Beirut was in ruins, with close to 17,000 civilians dead.[46] Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Tel al-Zaatar Massacre took place during the Lebanese Civil War on August 12, 1976. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... USN redirects here. ...


Arafat returned to Lebanon a year after he was evicted from Beirut, this time establishing himself in the northern city of Tripoli. Instead of being expelled by Israel, in this case, Arafat was expelled by a fellow Palestinian working under Hafez al-Assad. Arafat did not return to Lebanon after his second expulsion, though many Fatah fighters did.[43] This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ...


Tunisia

Tunis, the capital of Tunisia, was the center of operations for Arafat and his fighters until 1993. In 1985 he narrowly survived an Israeli assassination attempt when Israeli Air Force F-15s bombed his headquarters in Tunis as part of Operation Wooden Leg, leaving 73 people dead. Arafat had gone out jogging that morning.[47] The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... Operation Wooden Leg was the October 1, 1985 Israeli Air Force raid on the Palestinian Liberation Organizations headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia. ...


During the 1980s, Arafat received financial assistance from Libya, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, which allowed him to reconstruct the badly-battered PLO. This was particularly useful during the First Intifada in December 1987, which began as an uprising of Palestinian youth against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The first stage of the Intifada was a response to an incident at the Erez checkpoint where an Israeli truck unintentionally hit a group of Palestinian laborers, killing four of them. However, within weeks Arafat was attempting to direct the revolt which lasted until 1992-1993, and Israelis believe that Fatah forces in the West Bank formerly set up by Abu Jihad were essential for continuing the civil unrest for the duration.[48] On April 16, 1988, as the Intifada was raging, Abu Jihad was assassinated by an Israeli hit squad. Arafat publicly mourned Abu Jihad as a PLO counterweight to local West Bank leadership, and led a funeral procession for him in Damascus.[48] The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... The Erez Crossing (Hebrew: מעבר ארז) is a pedestrian/cargo terminal on the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Khalil Al-Wazir (October 10, 1935–April 16, 1988), better known by the kunya Abu Jihad (Arabic: father of the struggle) and Al-Wazir (the top minister), was a founder of the Palestinian group Fatah (which later formed the dominant part of the PLO), and later a top aide to... The Hit Squad was a 1990s hip hop collective of East coast hip hop artists formed by Erick Sermon and Parrish Smith better known as EPMD. The collective separated when EPMD broke up in 1993. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...


The most common tactic used by Palestinians during the Intifada was throwing stones at IDF tanks, which became a symbol of the uprising. The local leadership in Beit Sahour, a large town adjacent to Bethlehem, commenced non-violent protests against Israeli occupation by engaging in tax resistance and other boycotts. Israel responded by blockading the town and confiscating large sums of money in house-to-house raids.[48][49] In the last years of the Intifada, armed Palestinian groups – in particular Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) – began targeting Israeli civilians with the new tactic of suicide-bombing. As the intifada came to an end, internal fighting amongst the Palestinians increased dramatically.[48] Beit Sahour (Arabic: بيت ساحور pronounced ) is a Palestinian town in the West Bank, situated to the east of Bethlehem. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ...


On November 15, 1988, the PLO proclaimed the independent State of Palestine. In speeches on December 13 and December 14, 1988, Arafat accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242, Israel's right "to exist in peace and security" and renounced "terrorism in all its forms, including state terrorism".[50][51] Arafat's statements were greeted with approval by the US administration, which had long insisted on these statements as a necessary starting point for official discussions between the US and the PLO. These remarks from Arafat indicated a shift away from one of the PLO's primary aims – the destruction of Israel (as in the Palestinian National Covenant) – and toward the establishment of two separate entities: an Israeli state within the 1949 armistice lines, and an Arab state in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. On April 2, 1989, Arafat was elected by the Central Council of the Palestine National Council, the governing body of the PLO, to be the president of the proclaimed State of Palestine. is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (Arabic: الميثاق الوطني الفلسطيني; transliterated: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ...


In 1990 Arafat married Suha Tawil, a Palestinian Greek Orthodox Christian when he was 61 and Suha, 27. Suha converted to Islam before marrying him. Before their marriage, Suha was working for the PLO in Tunis after meeting Arafat in France.[52][53] Prior to the couple's marriage in 1991, Arafat adopted fifty Palestinian war orphans.[54] Hillary Clinton kissing Suha Arafat Suha Daoud Arafat (Arabic: سهى داود عرفات), née Suha Daoud Tawil (سهى داود الطويل) (born 17 July 1963), is the widow of the late Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat. ... The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (or animal), one or both of whose parents have died. ...


During the 1991 Madrid Conference, Israel conducted open negotiations with the PLO for the first time. Prior to the Gulf War of 1991, Arafat opposed the US attack on Iraq, alienating many of the Arab states that supported the US-led coalition. Many in the US also used Arafat's position as a reason to disregard his claims of being a partner for peace.[55] The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Arafat narrowly escaped death again on April 7, 1992, when his aircraft crash-landed in the Libyan Desert during a sandstorm. The pilot and several passengers were killed; Arafat suffered broken bones and other injuries.[56] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Desert landscape in Southern Libya The Libyan Desert (Arabic: الصحراء الليبية) is an African desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and occupies southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya and northwestern Sudan. ...


Palestinian Authority and peace negotiations

1993 Oslo Accords

In the early 1990s, Arafat and leading Fatah officials engaged the Israeli government in a series of secret talks and negotiations that led to the 1993 Oslo Accords.[57][6] The agreement called for the implementation of Palestinian self-rule in portions of the West Bank and Gaza Strip over a five year period, along with an immediate halt to and gradual removal of Israeli settlements in those areas. The accords called for a Palestinian police force to be formed from local recruits and Palestinians abroad, to patrol areas of self-rule. Authority over the various fields of rule, including education and culture, social welfare, direct taxation and tourism, would be transferred to the Palestinian interim government. Both parties also agreed on forming a committee that would establish cooperation and coordination dealing with specific economic sectors, including utilities, industry, trade and communication.[58][59] US government photo. ... US government photo. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A social welfare provision refers to any government program which seeks to provide a minimum level of income, service or other support for disadvantaged peoples such as the poor, elderly, disabled, students and minority groups. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        The term direct tax has more than one meaning: a colloquial... “Tourist” redirects here. ...


Prior to signing the accords, Arafat – as Chairman of the PLO and its official representative – signed two letters renouncing violence and officially recognizing Israel on September 9, 1993. In return, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, on behalf of Israel, officially recognized the PLO.[60] is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...

Part of Israeli-Palestinian conflict
and Arab-Israeli conflict series
Israeli-Palestinian peace process
      Israel
      The West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights1
Negotiating parties
Palestinians
Israel
History of the peace process

Camp David Accords Madrid Conference Oslo Accords Oslo II Hebron Agreement Wye River Memorandum Sharm e-Sheikh memorandum • Camp David 2000 Summit Taba Summit Road map Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 374 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1428 × 2289 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... The Madrid Conference of 1991 was an early attempt by the international community to start a peace process through negotiations with Israel and the Palestinians. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip or Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement, or simply the Interim Agreement, also known as Oslo 2 (or Oslo II), and alternately known as Taba, was a key and complex agreement about the future of the Gaza Strip and the West... Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as The Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, began January 7 and was concluded from January 15 to January 17, 1997 between Israel, represented by Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), represented by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum, full name: The Sharm el Sheikh Memorandum on Implementation Timeline of Outstanding Commitments of Agreements Signed and the Resumption of Permanent Status Negotiations was a memorandum signed on September 4, 1999 by Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat at Sharm... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Primary negotiation concerns

Antisemitic incitements East Jerusalem Israeli settlements Israeli West Bank barrier Jewish state Palestinian political violence Palestinian refugees Palestinian state Places of worship This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... Palestinian political violence refers to acts of violence committed for political reasons by Palestinians or Palestinian militant groups. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians... It has been suggested that State of Palestine be merged into this article or section. ...

Palestinian flag     Current Leaders      Flag of Israel

Mahmoud Abbas Salam Fayyad Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Dr. Salam Fayyad (Arabic: ; b. ...

Ehud Olmert Tzipi Livni Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney meets with Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tzipi Livni, at the White House. ...

International brokers

Diplomatic Quartet  · Egypt
Flag of the United Nations Flag of Europe Flag of Russia Flag of the United States Flag of Egypt The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ...

Other proposals

Beirut Summit Elon Peace Plan Lieberman Plan Geneva Accord Hudna Israel's unilateral disengagement plan and Realignment plan Projects working for peace Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The Elon Peace Plan is a solution for the Arab-Israeli conflict proposed in 2002 by Rabbi Binyamin Elon, who was the Israeli tourism minister at the time he put forward his proposal. ... // The Lieberman Plan is named after Avigdor Lieberman, the leader of the Israeli political party Yisrael Beytenu. ... This article is about the proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... The realignment plan (Hebrew: ) (originally known as the convergence plan) is a plan that was formulated and introduced to the Israeli public by prime minister Ehud Olmert, in a number of media interviews during the election campaign for the 17th Knesset in 2006. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ...


1 The Golan Heights are not part of Israeli-Palestinian track The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ...


v  d  e

The following year Arafat and Rabin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, along with Shimon Peres. Arafat returned to the Palestinian territories as a hero to the members and supporters of Fatah. He was considered a traitor and collaborator by other factions, in particular the Islamists and Arab nationalists which made up the majority of the Palestinian left.[6] In 1994, Arafat moved to Gaza City, one of the territories controlled by the Palestinian Authority (PA) – the provisional entity created by the Oslo Accords.[7] On July 24, 1995, Arafat's wife Suha gave birth to a daughter, named Zahwa after his deceased mother.[53] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology in Arab world. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... The article is about the Middle Eastern city. ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Palestinian elections and other peace agreements

On January 20, 1996, Arafat was elected president of the PA, with an overwhelming 88.2% majority (the only other candidate was the charity organizer Samiha Khalil). However, because Hamas and other popular opposition movements chose not to participate in the presidential elections, the choices were limited. Arafat's landslide victory guaranteed Fatah 51 of the 88 seats in the Palestinian Legislative Council.[6] The following elections scheduled for January 2002 were later postponed – the stated reason was an inability to campaign due to the emergency conditions imposed by the al-Aqsa intifada, as well as IDF incursions and restrictions on freedom of movement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.[61] January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Samiha Khalil Samiha Khalil (1924-1999) was a prominent figure in Palestinian politics for four decades Born in the village of Anabta in 1924, she dropped out of highschool at the age of seventeen to marry Salameh Khalil. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


In mid-1996, Benjamin Netanyahu was elected Prime Minister of Israel by a margin of just one percent. Palestinian-Israeli relations grew even more hostile as a result of continued conflict.[62] Despite the Israel-PLO accord, Netanyahu opposed the idea of Palestinian statehood.[63] In 1998, US President Bill Clinton persuaded the two leaders to meet. The resulting Wye River Memorandum of October 23, 1998 detailed the steps to be taken by the Israeli government and PA to complete the peace process.[64]   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... The first ever election for Prime Minister was held in Israel on 29 May 1996 alongside simultaneous Knesset elections. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Arafat with PA cabinet members at a meeting in Copenhagen, 1999
Arafat with PA cabinet members at a meeting in Copenhagen, 1999

Arafat continued negotiations with Netanyahu's successor, Ehud Barak, at the Camp David 2000 Summit in July 2000. Due partly to his own politics (Barak was from the leftist Labor Party, whereas Netanyahu was from the rightist Likud Party) and partly due to insistence for compromise by American President Bill Clinton, Ehud Barak offered Arafat a Palestinian state in 73% of the West Bank and all of the Gaza Strip. The Palestinian percentage of sovereignty would extend to 90% over a ten to twenty-five year period. In the negotiation over Jerusalem's sovereignty, Barak insisted on annexing "Greater Jerusalem" cities such as Ma'ale Adumim and Givat Ze'ev to Israel, while handing over control of certain small towns and cities that had been attributed to Jerusalem after 1967. Israel's proposal included dismantling sixty-three settlements in the West Bank and all settlements in the Gaza Strip. Israel would control the border between what would have been the newly created state of Palestine and Jordan. This, however, would only last for a ten year period until the PLO gained enough credibility to control its own border. Also included in the offer was the return of a small number of refugees and compensation for those not allowed to return.[57] Arafat rejected Barak's offer and refused to make an immediate counter-offer.[57] He told President Clinton that, "the Arab leader who would surrender Jerusalem is not born yet".[65] The move was criticized even by a member of his own negotiating team and cabinet, Nabil Amr.[57] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Israeli Labor Party (‎, Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit), generally known in Israel as Avoda (‎) is a center-left political party in Israel. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Givat Zeev (גבעת זאב) is an Israeli settlement in the West Bank. ... Nabil Amr is a former cabinet minister in the Palestinian National Authority. ...

Arafat with Ehud Barak and Bill Clinton at Camp David 2000 Summit

Negotiations continued at the Taba summit in January 2001; this time Ehud Barak pulled out of the talks to campaign in the Israeli elections. In the months of October and December of 2001, suicide bombings by Palestinian militant groups increased and Israeli counter strikes were intensified, causing the outbreak of the al-Aqsa or Second Palestinian Intifada. Following the election of Ariel Sharon, the peace process took a steep downfall. On January 18, 2002 Sharon ordered Arafat to be confined to his Mukata'a headquarters in Ramallah, following a suicide bombing in the Israeli city of Hadera;[65] US President George W. Bush supported Sharon's action, claiming that Arafat was "an obstacle to the peace".[66] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Mukataa (also spelled Muqataa, Arabic المقاطعة) is a compound of buildings which contain governmental offices and local administrative headquarters. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... Haderas Great Synagogue Hadera (Hebrew: חדרה) is a city in the Haifa District between Tel Aviv and Haifa in Israel. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Political survival, marginalization and controversy

Arafat's long personal and political survival was taken by most Western commentators as a sign of his mastery of asymmetric warfare and his skill as a tactician, given the extremely dangerous nature of politics of the Middle East and the frequency of assassinations.[67] Some commentators believe his survival was largely due to Israel's fear that he could become a martyr for the Palestinian cause if he were assassinated or even arrested by Israel.[68] Others believe that Israel refrained from taking action against Arafat because it feared Arafat less than Hamas and the other Islamist movements gaining support over Fatah. The complex and fragile web of relations between the US, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and other Arab states also contributed to Arafat's longevity as the leader of the Palestinians.[67] Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...

Arafat greeting Ahmed Yassin, founder and spiritual leader of the Hamas organization in Gaza City, 1997

Arafat's ability to adapt to new tactical and political situations was perhaps tested by the rise of the Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad organizations, Islamist groups espousing rejectionist opposition to Israel and employing new tactics such as suicide bombing, often intentionally targeting non-military targets, such as malls and movie theaters, to increase the psychological damage. In the 1990s, these groups seemed to threaten Arafat's capacity to hold together a unified secular nationalist organization with a goal of statehood.[67] They appeared to be out of Arafat's influence and control, and were actively fighting with Fatah. Some allege that activities of these groups were tolerated by Arafat as a means of applying pressure on Israel.[48] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ... The article is about the Middle Eastern city. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ...


Some Israeli government officials opined in 2002 that the armed Fatah sub-group al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades commenced attacks towards Israel in order to compete with Hamas.[69] On May 6, 2002, the Israeli government released a report, based in part on documents captured during the Israeli occupation of Arafat's Ramallah headquarters, which included copies of papers signed by Arafat authorizing funding for the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades' activities.[70] The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الأقصى) are a Palestinian armed terrorist group closely linked to the Fatah party. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ...


In March 2002, the Arab League made an offer to recognize Israel in exchange for an Israeli retreat from all territories captured in the Six-Day War and statehood for Palestine and Arafat's Palestinian Authority. Supporters of this declaration saw the offer, which included recognition of Israel by the Arab states, as a historic opportunity for comprehensive peace in the region; critics said it would constitute a heavy blow to Israel's security and not guarantee Israel an end to suicide bombing attacks. Israel ignored what it deemed to be a facile offer.[71] Shortly afterward, attacks carried out by Hamas militants killed twenty-eight Israeli civilians celebrating Passover.[72] In response, Israel launched Operation Defensive Shield, a major military offensive into key West Bank cities. Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Pasch redirects here. ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades & Tanzim) Hamas Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian security forces Commanders Aluf Itzhak Eitan (Central commander) Strength Golani Brigade, Nahal Brigade, Paratroopers Brigade, 5th Reserve Infantry Brigade, 408th Reserve Infantry Brigade, Jerusalem Brigade(reserve), Shayetet 13, Armor and Engineering forces. ... Map of the West Bank Map of Gaza Strip List of cities (and towns) in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. ...


Persistent attempts by the Israeli government to identify another Palestinian leader to represent the Palestinian people failed. Arafat was enjoying the support of groups that, given his own history, would normally have been quite wary of dealing with or supporting him. Marwan Barghouti emerged as a possible replacement during the al-Aqsa Intifada, but Israel had him arrested and sentenced to five life terms. He was charged with killing twenty-six people and holding membership with the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, which Israel considers a terrorist organization.[73] Marwan Barghouti Marwan Bin Khatib Barghouti ( مروان البرغوثي born June 6, 1959) is a Palestinian leader from the West Bank and a leader of the Fatah movement. ...


Arafat was finally allowed to leave his compound on May 3, 2002, after intense negotiations led to a settlement: six militants wanted by Israel, who had been holed up with Arafat in his compound, would not be turned over to Israel, but neither would they be held in custody by the Palestinian Authority. Rather, a combination of British and American security personnel would ensure that the wanted men remained imprisoned in Jericho. With that, and a promise that he would issue a call in Arabic to the Palestinians to halt attacks on Israelis, Arafat was released.[74] He issued such a call on May 8, 2002, but as with previous attempts, it was largely ignored. Many feel this was because he secretly supported the attacks, a belief that was widespread among the Palestinian militant organizations which did not take Arafat's call seriously.[citation needed] is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


On July 18, 2004, in an interview in Le Figaro, U.S. President George W. Bush dismissed Arafat as a negotiating partner: "The real problem," he said, "is that there is no leadership that is able to say 'help us establish a state and we will fight terror and answer the needs of the Palestinians'".[75] is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Arafat had a mixed relationship at best with the leaders of other Arab nations. Arafat's support from Arab leaders tended to increase whenever he was pressured by Israel; for example, when Israel declared in 2003 it had made the decision, in principle, to remove him from the Israeli-controlled West Bank.[65] In an interview with the Arab news network Al-Jazeera, Arafat responded to Ariel Sharon's suggestion that he be exiled from the Palestinian territories permanently, by stating, "Is it his [Sharon] homeland or ours? We were planted here before the Prophet Abraham came, but it looks like they [Israelis] don't understand history or geography."[65] This article is about the TV network and channel. ...


Financial dealings

In August 2002, the Israeli Military Intelligence Chief claimed that Arafat's personal wealth was USD $1.3 billion.[76] However, he provided no material evidence for this claim. In 2003 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) conducted an audit of the Palestinian Authority and stated that Arafat diverted $900 million in public funds to a special bank account controlled by Arafat and the PA Chief Economic Financial adviser. However, the IMF did not claim that there were any improprieties, and it specifically stated that most of the funds had been used to invest in Palestinian assets, both internally and abroad.[77] “IMF” redirects here. ...


Also in 2003, a team of American accountants – hired by Arafat's own finance ministry – began examining Arafat's finances. The team claimed that part of the Palestinian leader's wealth was in a secret portfolio worth close to $1 billion, with investments in companies like a Coca-Cola bottling plant in Ramallah, a Tunisian cell phone company and venture capital funds in the US and the Cayman Islands. The head of the investigation stated that "although the money for the portfolio came from public funds like Palestinian taxes, virtually none of it was used for the Palestinian people; it was all controlled by Arafat. And none of these dealings were made public." The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ...


Although Arafat always lived modestly[citation needed], Dennis Ross, former Middle East negotiator for Presidents George H.W. Bush and Clinton, stated that Arafat's "walking-around money" financed a vast patronage system known as neopatrimonialism. According to Salam Fayyad, a former World Bank official whom Arafat appointed finance minister in 2002, Arafat's commodity monopolies could accurately be seen as gouging his own people, "especially in Gaza which is poorer, which is something that is totally unacceptable and immoral."[78] According to Hanan Ashrawi, a former member of Arafat's cabinet, "Getting Mr. Arafat to hand over the holdings was like pulling teeth. Mr. Arafat gave in to pressure from aid donors such as the European Union and from his finance minister, Salam Fayyad, the IMF's former representative in the territories. They demanded that Mr. Arafat turn over the investments as a condition of further aid."[79] Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ... Neopatrimonialism is a term used for patrons using state resources in order to secure the loyalty of clients in the general population, and is indicitive of informal patron-client relationships that can reach from the very high up in state structures down to individuals in say, small villages. ... Dr. Salam Fayyad (Arabic: ; b. ... The World Bank (the Bank), a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), was formally established on December 27, 1945, following the ratification of the Bretton Woods agreement. ... Hanan Ashrawi Dr. Hanan Daoud Khalil Ashrawi (born 8 October 1946 in Ramallah, Palestine) is a Palestinian Anglican scholar and political activist. ...


An investigation by the European Union into claims that EU funds were misused by the Palestinian Authority found no evidence that funds were diverted to finance terrorist activities.[80] The EU "remains convinced that deepening reform in the PA and improving its financial management and audit capacities is the best preventive strategy against the misuse of funds and corruption. The reform of the financial management of the PA is the objective of several key conditions attached to the EU financial assistance."[81] Fuad Shubaki, former financial aide to Arafat, told the Israeli security service Shin Bet that Arafat used several million dollars of aid money to buy weapons and support militant groups.[82] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ...


Claims by unnamed sources in the PA Finance Ministry stated that Arafat's wife, Suha, receives a stipend of $100,000 each month from the PA budget. In an interview with the London-based newspaper Al Hayat, Mrs. Arafat accused Ariel Sharon of spreading rumors about money-laundering – involving the transfer of funds to herself – to distract media attention away from corruption allegations against him.[83] In October 2003, French government prosecutors opened a money-laundering probe of Suha Arafat after the French finance service Tracfin alerted the prosecutors to a series of untaxed transfers of nearly $1.27 million each, from Switzerland to Mrs. Arafat's accounts in Paris.[84] Hillary Clinton kissing Suha Arafat Suha Daoud Arafat (Arabic: سهى داود عرفات), née Suha Daoud Tawil (سهى داود الطويل) (born 17 July 1963), is the widow of the late Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat. ... Money laundering, the metaphorical cleaning of money with regard to appearances in law, is the practice of engaging in specific financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source, and/or destination of money, and is a main operation of underground economy. ... Tracfin (Traitement du renseignement et action contre les circuits financiers clandestins) is a service of the French Ministry of Finances. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Illness and death

First reports of Arafat's treatment by his doctors for what his spokesman said was the "flu" came on October 25, 2004, after he vomitted during a meeting. His condition deteriorated in the following days, and he fell unconscious for 10 minutes on October 27. Following visits by other doctors, including teams from Tunisia, Jordan, and Egypt – and agreement by Israel not to block his return – Arafat was taken on October 29 aboard a French government jet to the Percy military hospital in Clamart, near Paris. According to one of his doctors, Arafat was suffering from Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an immunologically-mediated decrease in the number of circulating platelets to abnormally low levels.[85] On November 3 he lapsed into a gradually deepening coma. In the ensuing days, Arafat's health was the subject of some speculation, with suspicion that he was suffering from poisoning or AIDS.[86] Various sources speculated that Arafat was comatose, in a "vegetative state", or dead. Palestinian authorities and Arafat's Jordanian doctor denied reports that Arafat was brain dead and had been kept on life support. Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Percy military hospital is located in Clamart, France, a suburb of Paris. ... Clamart is a city and commune in France, in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of no known cause (idiopathic). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness, which may result from a variety of conditions including intoxication (drug, alcohol or toxins), metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, etc. ...


A controversy erupted between officials of the Palestinian Authority and Arafat's wife Suha. On November 8, officials of the Palestinian Authority traveled to France to see Yasser Arafat. Suha stated "They are trying to bury Abu Ammar [Arafat] alive". French law forbids physicians from discussing the condition of their patients with anybody with the exception, in case of grave prognosis, of close relatives.[87] Accordingly, all communications concerning Yasser Arafat's health had to be authorized by Arafat's wife. Palestinian officials expressed regret that the news about Yasser Arafat was "filtered" by her. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 9, at 10 AM, chief surgeon Estripeau of Percy reported that Arafat's condition had worsened, and that he had fallen into a deeper coma. On November 10, Sheikh Taissir Tamimi, the head of the Islamic court of the Palestinian territories – who held a vigil at Arafat's bedside - visited Arafat and declared that it was out of the question to disconnect Arafat from life support machines since, according to him, such an action would be prohibited by Islam.[65] is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sheikh Taissir Tamimi is the head of the Islamic Court of the West Bank and Gaza Strip and staunch Palestinian nationalist. ... The Islamic Courts is the name given to a loose band of militias operating in Somalia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Arafat was pronounced dead at 3:30 AM UTC on November 11 at the age of 75. The exact cause of his illness is unknown. Tamimi described it as "a very painful scene. There was blood everywhere on his face. The blood was coming from every possible place. My first reaction when I saw the scene was that I didn't understand what was going on. I closed my eyes, and I started reading from the Quran…".[65] When Arafat's death was announced, the Palestinian people went into a state of mourning, with Qur'anic mourning prayers emitted from mosque loudspeakers and tires burning in the street as a sign of remorse. The PA declared an official mourning that lasted for forty days. One obituary at Socialist World said: "Many Palestinians will view the death of Yasser Arafat with a mixture of sadness and a wish that the Palestinian Authority he led, had done much more to end the poverty and oppression that blights their lives".[88] ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Some have alleged that the PLO's leader may have contracted HIV as the result of risky homosexual behavior in the years preceding the AIDS scare of the late 1980s. Arafat's sexual proclivities may have been largely ignored by Arab, and indeed other, state leaders.[89] In September 2005, the Israeli newspaper Haaretz reported that French experts could not determine the cause of Arafat's death. The paper quoted an Israeli AIDS expert who claimed that Arafat bore all the symptoms of AIDS, a hypothesis later rejected by the New York Times.[90] Ion Mihai Pacepa, a Romanian intelligence chief, recorded in his memoir "Red Horizons", that Arafat had homosexual tendencies. He alleged that intelligence on the "Tiger" (an English translation of Arafat's common Arabic nickname, Nimr) gathered in the 1970s indicated Arafat had had frequent sexual trysts with his male bodyguards and protégés.[91] In his autobiography, Terry McAuliffe, former US Democratic Party leader and close aide to President Bill Clinton writes that Arafat made a pass at him by rubbing his leg at a dinner.[92] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Ion Mihai Pacepa Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928) is the highest intelligence official ever to have defected from the Soviet bloc to the West. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Terry McAuliffe opening the 2004 Democratic National Convention Terrence Richard Terry McAuliffe (born 1957) is an American political leader from the Democratic Party; he served as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee from February 2001 to February 2005. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Dr. Ashraf al-Kurdi, a personal physician of Arafat for 20 years and who also treated the Hashemite kings of Jordan, later declared that nothing in Arafat's medical report mentioned the existence of such a disease.[93] Another "senior Israeli physician" claimed in the Haaretz article that it was "a classic case of food poisoning", probably caused by a meal eaten four hours before he fell ill that may have contained a toxin such as ricin, rather than a standard bacterial poisoning. However, in the same week as the Haaretz report, the New York Times published a separate report, also based on access to Arafat's medical records, which claimed that it was highly unlikely that Arafat had AIDS or food poisoning.[citation needed] Both Haaretz and the New York Times further speculated that the cause of death may have been an infection of an unknown nature or origin. However, rumors of Arafat's poisoning have remained popular around the world, and especially among the Arab populace. Dr. al-Kurdi lamented the fact that Arafat's wife Suha had refused an autopsy, which would have answered many questions in the cause of death case.[93][94] Calling for the creation of an independent commission to carry out investigations concerning Arafat's suspicious death, Dr. al-Kurdi declared to Haaretz on September 9, 2005 that "any doctor would tell you that these are the symptoms of a poisoning".[93][95] He had previously told the Associated Press that Arafat had the AIDS virus and that "it was given to him to cover up the poison".[93][96] The Jordanian monarchy was set up in 1921, with help from the British. ... Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced ) is a toxin from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Aftermath

Arafat's tomb in Ramallah
Arafat's tomb in Ramallah

Israel refused Arafat's wish to be buried in or near the al-Aqsa Mosque in East Jerusalem, citing widespread security concerns.[97] Following a state funeral in Cairo attended by many world leaders, Arafat was "temporarily" laid to rest on November 12 within his former headquarters in Ramallah in the West Bank; the ceremony was watched by a large crowd. After Sheikh Taissir Tamimi discovered that Arafat was buried improperly and in a coffin – which is not in accordance with the Muslim religion – Arafat was reburied on the morning of November 13, at around 3:00 AM.[98] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1227 KB) Summary Taken by Marquez, on 24 December 2004 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yasser Arafat Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1227 KB) Summary Taken by Marquez, on 24 December 2004 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yasser Arafat Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mukataa (also spelled Muqataa, Arabic المقاطعة) is a compound of buildings which contain governmental offices and local administrative headquarters. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ...


On November 16, 2004, the Canard Enchaîné newspaper reported alleged leaks of information by unnamed medical sources at Percy hospital who had access to Arafat and his medical file. According to the newspaper, the doctors at Percy hospital suspected, from Arafat's arrival, grave lesions of the liver responsible for an alteration of the composition of the blood; Arafat was therefore placed in a hematology service. Leukemia was soundly ruled out. According to the same source, the reason why this diagnosis of cirrhosis could not be made available was that, in the mind of the general public, cirrhosis is generally associated with the consequences of alcohol abuse. Even though the diagnosis was not of an alcoholic cirrhosis and Arafat was not known for consuming any alcohol, there was a likelihood of rumors. The source explained that Arafat's conditions of life during the last three years did not improve the situation: Arafat did not get health care appropriate to his state. Thus, according to the source, the probable causes of the disease were multiple; Arafat's coma was a consequence of the worsened cirrhosis. Finally, he had a brain hemorrhage and died on November 11, 2004. The French newspaper Le Monde quoted doctors as saying that he suffered from "an unusual blood disease and a liver problem".[99] is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Le Canard enchaîné is a satirical newspaper published weekly in France, founded in 1915, featuring investigative journalism and leaks from sources inside the French government, the French political world and the French business world, as well as a large number of jokes and humoristic cartoons. ... The Hôpital dinstruction des armées Percy (meaning Percy Training Hospital of the Armies) is a military hospital in Clamart, near Paris, France. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Alcoholic beverages. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ...


Paris deputy Claude Goasguen asked for a parliamentary inquiry commission on the death of Arafat in an attempt to quell rumors. On November 17, the French government insisted that there was no evidence Arafat had been poisoned; otherwise, a criminal investigation would have necessarily been opened.[100] This article is about the capital of France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...


After Arafat's death, the French Ministry of Defense said that Arafat's medical file would only be transmitted to his next of kin. It was determined that Arafat's nephew and PA envoy to the UN, Nasser al-Qudwa, was a close enough relative, thus working around Suha Arafat's mutism on her husband's illness. On November 22, Nasser al-Qudwa was given a copy of Arafat's 558-page medical file by the French Ministry of Defense.[101] Categories: French government | Stub ... Next of kin is the term used to describe a persons closest living blood relative or relatives. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A controversy erupted around Arafat's death certificate. While Arafat's own personal biography listed Cairo as his place of birth, French authorities chose to note his place of birth as Jerusalem instead. French officials claimed that Jerusalem was specified by the documents provided to the French ministry of foreign affairs when Arafat's wife acquired French citizenship; however, France has refused all requests to make these documents public. French officials flatly refused Israel's request to provide proof that Arafat was born in Jerusalem and not Cairo.[102] The Simon Wiesenthal Center later called on France "to investigate the circumstances of the false and incomplete registration of Arafat's death certificate, to correct the erroneous details of his birthplace, adding the truth of his parentage and the cause of his death."[103] Many of Arafat's biographers, as well as Egyptian authorities, have maintained that Arafat's birthplace was Cairo.[1] So far, no party to the controversy has brought the case to a court to ask for a rectification of the certificate.[104] The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ...


Upon Arafat's death, Speaker Rawhi Fattouh succeeded Arafat as interim President of the Palestinian Authority (PA). PLO Secretary-General Mahmoud Abbas was selected Chairman of the PLO, and Foreign Minister Farouk Kaddoumi became head of Fatah. Ahmed Qurei remained as Prime Minister, and took on additional security responsibilities. Abbas won the January 2005 presidential election by a comfortable margin, solidifying himself as the successor to Arafat as leader of the Palestinians. Rawhi Fattuh (روحي فتوح, also transliterated as Rauhi Fattouh) (born 1953) was the interim President of the Palestinian Authority, following the death of Yasser Arafat on November 11, 2004 until January 15, 2005. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Farouk al-Kaddoumi (alternative spelling, Faruq al-Qaddumi), a. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Ahmed Qurei (Abu Alaa) Ahmed Ali Mohammed Qurei (or Qureia; احمد علي محمد قريع), also known by his Arabic Kunya Abu Alaa (أبو علاء) (born March 26, 1937) was prime minister of the Palestinian Authority. ... The Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority is the head of government of the Palestinian government. ... The 2005 Palestinian presidential election — the first to be held since 1996 — took place on January 9, 2005 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


See also

The following is a list of members of Fatah, a Palestinian political party and militia founded sometime between 1958-1959. ... The following is a list of prominent Palestinians from Israel and Palestine, as well as Palestinian refugees living in other places. ... The Nobel Prize controversies are contentious disputes regarding the Nobel Prize. ... Past Person of the Year covers (clockwise from upper-left): Charles Lindbergh, 1927; The American Fighting-Man, 1950; Ayatollah Khomeini, 1979; The Computer, 1982; Rudy Giuliani, 2001. ...

Further reading

  • Aburish, Said K. (1998). Arafat: From Defender to Dictator. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58234-049-4. 
  • Bregman, Ahron (2005). Elusive Peace: How the Holy Land Defeated America. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-102084-6. 
  • Gowers, Andrew; Tony Walker (2005). Arafat: The Biography. Virgin Books. ISBN 978-1-85227-924-0. 
  • Hart, Alan (1994). Arafat. Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 978-0-283-06220-9. 
  • Livingstone, Neil (1990). Inside the PLO. Reader's Digest Association. ISBN 978-0-7090-4548-9. 
  • Rubin, Barry M.; Judith Colp Rubin (2003). Yasir Arafat: A Political Biography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516689-7. 
  • Rubenstein, Danny; Dan Leon (1995). The Mystery of Arafat. Steerforth Press. ISBN 978-1-883642-10-5. 
  • Wallach, Janet (1990). Arafat: In the Eyes of the Beholder. Lyle Stuart. ISBN 978-0-8184-0533-4. 

Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Bloomsbury Publishing Plc is an independent, London-based publishing house known for literary novels. ... Ahron Bregman is a writer and journalist, specialising on the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Andrew Gowers was appointed editor of the Financial Times in October 2001. ... Alan Hart was a British television executive, who from 1981 to 1984 was the Controller of BBC One. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Danny Rubinstein Danny Rubinstein is an Israeli journalist. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Not certain; Disputed; Most sources including Andrew Walker, Alan Hart and Said K. Aburish indicate Cairo as Arafat's place of birth, but others list his birthplace as Jerusalem as well as Gaza. See here and here for more information. Some also believe that the Jerusalem birthplace might have been a rumor created by the KGB [1].
  2. ^ Some sources use the term Chairman rather than President; the Arabic word for both titles is the same. See President of the Palestinian Authority for further information.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.33–67. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  4. ^ "Palestinians mourn Yasser Arafat", BBC News, BBC MMVII, 2004-11-13. Retrieved on 2007-07-12. 
  5. ^ Miron, Richard. "Hatred and Hope in Israel", BBC News, BBC MMVII, 2004-11-11. Retrieved on 2007-07-12. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.252–270. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  7. ^ a b 1994: Israelis and Arafat share peace prize. BBC News. BBC MMVII (1993-09-03). Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.7–32. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  9. ^ "Yasser Arafat: Homeland a dream for Palestinian Authority Chief", CNN News, Cable News Network. Retrieved on 2007-09-15. 
  10. ^ Rubenstein, Dany (1995). The Mystery of Arafat. New York: Steerforth Press, pp.38. ISBN 1883642108. 
  11. ^ Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.46. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  12. ^ Hart, Alan (1994). Arafat. Sidgwick & Jackson, pp.99. ISBN 978-0-283-06220-9. 
  13. ^ Mattar, Phillip. "Biography of Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad)", Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, Facts on File; 1st edition, 2000-11-12. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  14. ^ Hussein, Hassan Khalil. Abu Iyad, Unknown Pages of his Life, pp.64. 
  15. ^ Cooley, John K. (1973). Green March, Black September. Frank Crass & Co., pp.100. ISBN 0-7146-2987-1. 
  16. ^ Abu Sharif, Bassam; Uzi Mahmaini (1996). Tried by Fire. Time Warner Paperbacks, pp.33. ISBN 0751516368. 
  17. ^ Gowers, Andrew; Tony Walker (1991). Behind the Myth:Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian Revolution. Interlink Pub Group Inc, pp.65. ISBN 0940793865. 
  18. ^ a b Oren, Michael (2003). Six Days of War, June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. New York: The Random House Publishing Group, pp.33–36. ISBN 0-345-46192-4. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.69-98. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  20. ^ Aburish, Said K. (2004). Nasser, The Last Arab. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 031228683. 
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  104. ^ French Civil Code, L99–101

Born back in the 1700s (BC), Andrew Walker is an important figure in Prussian politics today. ... Alan Hart was a British television executive, who from 1981 to 1984 was the Controller of BBC One. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... The President of the Palestinian Authority is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Danny Rubinstein Danny Rubinstein is an Israeli journalist. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Alan Hart was a British television executive, who from 1981 to 1984 was the Controller of BBC One. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John K. Cooley John K. Cooley (b. ... Bassam Abu Sharif Bassam Abu Sharif (born 1946) is a former senior adviser to the late Yasser Arafat and press officer of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... Andrew Gowers was appointed editor of the Financial Times in October 2001. ... Michael Oren (born in 1955) is an Israeli historian and writer. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Lisa Beyer is a United States journalist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeremy Bowen has been Middle East Editor for BBC News since June 2005. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amira Hass Amira Hass (born 1956) is an Israeli journalist and author, mostly known for her columns in the daily newspaper Haaretz. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons of the same name, see Aaron Klein (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ion Mihai Pacepa Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928) is the highest intelligence official ever to have defected from the Soviet bloc to the West. ... Terry McAuliffe opening the 2004 Democratic National Convention Terrence Richard Terry McAuliffe (born 1957) is an American political leader from the Democratic Party; he served as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee from February 2001 to February 2005. ... Danny Rubinstein Danny Rubinstein is an Israeli journalist. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ...

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Biographies and profiles

Speeches

Preceded by
Yahya Hammuda
Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
1969–2004
Succeeded by
Mahmoud Abbas
Preceded by
President of the Palestinian National Authority
1996–2004
Succeeded by
Rauhi Fattouh
(interim)
Preceded by
Bill Clinton
Time's Men of the Year (The Peacemakers, alongside Nelson Mandela, F.W. de Klerk and Yitzhak Rabin
1993
Succeeded by
Pope John Paul II
Persondata
NAME Arafat, Yasser
ALTERNATIVE NAMES ياسر عرفات (Arabic); Abu `Ammar (kunya)
SHORT DESCRIPTION President of the Palestinian Authority
DATE OF BIRTH August 4 or 24, 1929
PLACE OF BIRTH Cairo, Egypt
DATE OF DEATH November 11, 2004
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CNN.com - Palestinian leader Arafat dies at 75 - Nov 11, 2004 (984 words)
Arafat was first elected head of the PLO in 1969, and by 1974, Arab leaders recognized the group as "the sole legitimate representative" of the Palestinian people.
In 1994, Arafat was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, along with Israeli leaders Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for their work on the Oslo accords, seen at the time as a breakthrough toward an independent Palestinian state and a permanent peace with Israel.
Arafat is survived by his wife, Suha Tawil, whom he married in 1991, and their daughter, Zahwa, who was born in 1995.
Yasser Arafat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5950 words)
Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat As Qudwa al-Hussaeini was born on 24 August 1929 in Cairo and spoke with an Egyptian accent.
Arafat's statement indicated a shift from one of the PLO's primary aims — the destruction of Israel (as in the Palestinian National Covenant) — towards the establishment of two separate entities, an Israeli state within the 1949 armistice lines and an Arab state in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
Arafat's long personal and political survival was taken by most Western commentators as a sign of his mastery of asymmetric warfare and his skill as a tactician, given the extremely dangerous nature of politics of the Middle East and the frequency of assassinations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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