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Encyclopedia > Yarn
Yarn
Yarn
Spools of thread
Spools of thread

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing.[1] Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery. Image File history File links A basket of yarn, from http://www. ... Image File history File links A basket of yarn, from http://www. ... Spools of thread This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Spools of thread This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Sewn redirects here. ... Detail of a crocheted doily, Sweden Crochet (IPA: krəʊʃeɪ) is a process of creating fabric from yarn or thread using a crochet hook. ... For the record label, see Knitting Factory. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Embroidery in silk thread on linen, 19th century Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with designs stitched in strands of thread or yarn using a needle. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Sewing machines can make a great variety of plain or patterned stitches. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Embroidery thread, left to right: No. ... Commercial machine embroidery in chain stitch on a voile curtain, China, early 21st century. ...

Contents

Structure

See main article Spinning (textiles)
A Spinning Jenny, spinning machine which initiated the Industrial Revolution
A Spinning Jenny, spinning machine which initiated the Industrial Revolution
Z- and S-twist yarn
Z- and S-twist yarn

Spun yarn is made by twisting or otherwise bonding staple fibers together to make a cohesive thread.[2] Twisting fibers into yarn in the process called spinning can be dated back to the Upper Paleolithic[3], and yarn spinning was one of the very first processes to be industrialized. Spun yarns may contain a single type of fiber, or be a blend of various types. Combining synthetic fibers (which have high strength, artificial lustre, and fire retardant qualities) with natural fibers (which have good water absorbance and skin comforting qualities) is very common. The most widely used blends are cotton-polyester and wool-acrylic fiber blends. Blends of different natural fibers are common too, especially with more expensive fibers such as angora and cashmere. A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Two wool samples of different staple lengths A staple is a sample of the raw material for a textile. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Synthetic Fibers are the result of an extensive search by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibers that have been used in making cloth. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... Natural is defined as of or relating to nature; this applies to both definitions of nature: essence (ones true nature) and the untouched world (force of nature). Natural is often used meaning good, healthy, or belonging to human nature. This use can be questioned, as many freely growing plants... Angora was the name of the city of Ankara and the surrounding Ankara Province (vilayet) in Turkey and the Ottoman Empire prior to 1930. ... Cashmere may refer to: Cashmere wood, the name of a scent in the perfume industry. ...


Yarns are made up of a number of plies, each ply being a single spun yarn. These single plies of yarn are twisted in the opposite direction (plied) together to make a thicker yarn. Depending on the direction of this final twist, the yarn will be known as s-twist or z-twist. For a single ply, the direction of the final twist is the same as its original twist. Plying, in textile manufacture, is the activity of twisting, intermingling, or otherwise intimately combining two or more fibers or yarns into a combined yarn or fiber. ...


Filament yarn consists of filament fibers twisted together. Thicker monofilaments are typically used for industrial purposes rather than fabric production or decoration. Silk is a natural filament, and synthetic filament yarns are used to produce silk-like effects. Monofilament line is a thin string made from a single fiber. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...


Texturized yarns are made by a process of air texturizing (sometimes referred to as taslanizing), which combines multiple filament yarns into a yarn with some of the characteristics of spun yarns. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Measurement

Craft yarns

Yarn quantities are usually measured by weight in ounces or grams. In the United States, Canada and Europe, balls of yarn for handcrafts are sold by weight. Common sizes include 25g, 50g, and 100g skeins. Some companies also primarily measure in ounces with common sizes being three-ounce, four-ounce, six-ounce, and eight-ounce skeins. These measurements are taken at a standard temperature and humidity, because yarn can absorb moisture from the air. The actual length of the yarn contained in a ball or skein can vary due to the inherent heaviness of the fiber and the thickness of the strand; for instance, a 50 g skein of lace weight mohair may contain several hundred meters, while a 50 g skein of bulky wool may contain only 60 meters. This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ...


There are several thicknesses of yarn, also referred to as weight. This is not to be confused with the measurement of weight listed above. The Craft Yarn Council of America is making an effort to promote a standardized industry system for measuring this, numbering the weights from 1 (finest) to 6 (heaviest)[4]. Some of the names for the various weights of yarn from finest to thickest are called lace, fingering, sock, sport, double-knit (or DK), worsted, aran, bulky, and super-bulky. This naming convention is more descriptive than precise; fiber artists disagree about where on the continuum each lies, and the precise relationships between the sizes.


A more precise measurement of yarn weight, often used by weavers, is wraps per inch (wpi). The yarn is wrapped snugly around a ruler and the number of wraps that fit in an inch are counted.


Labels on yarn for handcrafts often include information on gauge, known in the UK as tension, which is a measurement of how many stitches and rows are produced per inch or per centimeter on a specified size of knitting needle or crochet hook. The proposed standardization uses a four-by-four inch/ten-by-ten centimeter knitted or crocheted square, with the resultant number of stitches across and rows high made by the suggested tools on the label to determine the gauge. Gauge indicates the number of rows or stiches in a given length or width of knitting. ...


In Europe textile engineers often use the unit tex, which is the weight in grams of a kilometer of yarn, or decitex, which is a finer measurement corresponding to the weight in grams of 10 kilometers of yarn. Many other units have been used over time by different industries. Tex is a unit of measure for the linear mass density of fibers, the unit code is tex. Tex is defined as the mass in grams per 1000 meters. ...


Thread

Spool of all purpose sewing thread, closeup shows texture of 2-ply Z-twist mercerized cotton with polyester core.
Spool of all purpose sewing thread, closeup shows texture of 2-ply Z-twist mercerized cotton with polyester core.

Most types of embroidery thread come in a single size or weight; an exception is pearl or perle cotton, which comes in three weights, No. 3 (heaviest), No. 5, and No. 8 (finest).[5]


Color

Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum.
Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum.

Yarn may be used undyed, or may be colored with natural or artificial dyes. Most yarns have a single uniform hue, but there is also a wide selection of variegated yarns: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1797, 1348 KB) Summary Yarn drying after being dyed in early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum in Fishers, Indiana. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1797, 1348 KB) Summary Yarn drying after being dyed in early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum in Fishers, Indiana. ... 1886 base ball demonstration at Liberty Corner. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • heathered or tweed: yarn with flecks of different colored fiber
  • ombre: variegated yarn with light and dark shades of a single hue
  • multi-colored: variegated yarn with two or more distinct hues (a "parrot colorway" might have green, yellow and red)
  • self-striping: yarn dyed with lengths of color that will automatically create stripes in a knitted or crocheted object
  • marled: yarn made from strands of different-colored yarn twisted together, sometimes in closely-related hues

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Yarn
  • Embroidery thread
  • List of novelty yarns
  • Textile manufacturing
  • Electrically conducting yarn
  • Dye lot
  • Crochet thread

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Embroidery thread, left to right: No. ... This is a list of novelty yarns, or yarns with an interesting texture or other notably unusual features that distinguish them from ordinary yarn like cotton and wool. ... Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... An electrically conducting yarn is yarn that conducts electricity. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007, ISBN 0-13-118769-4, p. 203
  2. ^ Kadolph, Textiles, p. 197
  3. ^ Barber, Elizabeth Wayland: Women's Work:The First 20,000 Years, W. W. Norton, 1994, p. 44
  4. ^ http://www.yarnstandards.com/weight.html
  5. ^ Reader's Digest Complete Guide to Needlework. The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (March 1992). ISBN 0-89577-059-8, p. 8

External links

The textile arts include feltmaking, quilting, patchwork, sewing, knitting, crochet, needlework and embroidery. ... Quilt block in applique and reverse applique Applique or appliqué (from French, applied) is an ancient needlework technique in which pieces of fabric, embroidery, or other materials are sewn onto a foundation fabric to create designs. ... Detail of a crocheted doily, Sweden Crochet (IPA: krəʊʃeɪ) is a process of creating fabric from yarn or thread using a crochet hook. ... Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For the record label, see Knitting Factory. ... For other uses, see Lace (disambiguation). ... Nålebinding (Danish: literally binding with a needle or needle-binding, also naalbinding or naalebinding) is a fabric creation technique predating both knitting and crochet. ... Needlework is another term for the handicraft of decorative sewing and textile arts. ... Example of patchwork Patchwork or pieced work is a form of needlework that involves sewing together pieces of fabric into a larger design. ... Passementerie of applied gold cord and embroidery worn by Henry VIII of England (detail of a portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. ... Plying, in textile manufacture, is the activity of twisting, intermingling, or otherwise intimately combining two or more fibers or yarns into a combined yarn or fiber. ... Quilter and Quilters redirect here. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Sewn redirects here. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... This article is about tapestry the textile. ... Textile printing is a general name for all woven fabrics and the art of ornamenting such fabrics by printing on designs or patterns in color is very ancient, probably originating in the East. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Ladies making silk, early 12th century painting by Emperor Huizong of Song (a remake of an 8th century original by artist Zhang Xuan), illustrates silk fabric manufacture in China. ... The history of silk begins, according to Chinese tradition, in the 27th century BC. The Chinese were able to continue making it exclusively for three millennia without ever divulging the secret process whereby it was made. ... Quilting fabric is as old as ancient Egypt if not older and wholecloth quilts were very common trade goods in wealthy circles in Europe and Asia going back as far as the 15th century. ... With the establishment of overseas colonies, the British Empire at the end of the 17th century/beginning of the 18th century had a vast source of raw materials and a vast market for goods. ... Timeline of clothing and textiles technology. ... In knitting, crochet and other textile arts, blocking is a family of techniques for setting the stable dimensions of a finished textile piece by pinning it to the desired size and annealing it with heat and moisture, e. ... Fiber art is a subclassification of fine art defined by the usually exclusive use of fabrics, yarn, other natural fibers, and now synthetic fibers to focus on the properties of the material as well as the hands-on work intensive process as part of the significance of the piece. ... Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... Ainu ceremonial dress on display under glass in the British Museum. ... The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles . ... Wearable Art, also known as Artwear, describes the making of individually designed pieces of usually hand-made clothing as artistic expressions. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Yarn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1480 words)
In Europe, yarn is often sold in increments of 25 grams, with 25 g, 50 g, and 100 g being common quantities.
Labels on yarn for handcrafts often include information on gauge, known in the UK as tension, which is a measurement of how many stitches and rows are produced per inch or per centimeter on a specified size of knitting needle or crochet hook.
Yarn used for fabric manufacture is made by spinning short lengths of various types of fibers.
Learning to work with Yarn at Quiltbugs' Knitters Nook (1396 words)
Yarn is made from fibers which are plied or twisted into a strand.
The weight of the yarn is often shown using one of these symbols as determined by Craft Yarn Council of America.
Although the size of the yarn is a factor, needle or hook size and the tightness with which the yarn is worked also determine gauge.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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