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Encyclopedia > Yao people
A Yao stilt house in Vietnam
A Yao stilt house in Vietnam

The Yao nationality (瑶族, Pinyin: Yáo zú; Vietnamese: người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China, where they reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south. They also form one of the 54 ethnic groups officially recognized by Vietnam. In the last census, they numbered 2,637,421 in China, and roughly 470,000 in Vietnam. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... 9 to 10 year old boys of the Yao tribe participating in circumcision and initiation rites (March 2005). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 603 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 603 pixels, file size: 1. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...

Contents

History

Early History

Origins of the Yao can be traced back 2000 years ago starting in Northern China.


Emigration

From the 15th to 19th Century, the Yao migrated into Thailand, Cambodia and the highlands of Laos. The migration was agitated by the opium trade and as the result of revolts in Southern China during this period. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the drug. ...


Laotian Civil War

During the Laotian Civil War, Yao tribes of Laos had a good relationship with U.S. forces and were dubbed to be an “efficient friendly force.”[1] This relationship caused the Laotian government to target Yao tribal groups for revenge once the war was over. This triggered further immigration into Thailand, where the tribes would be put into camps along the Thailand-Laos border. “Secret War” redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Lao Peoples Democratic Republic is a landlocked country in southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (commonly known in the west as Burma) and the Peoples Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. ...


Immigration to the United States

After obtaining refugee status from the Thai government and with the help of the United Nations, many Yao people were able to obtain sponsorship into the United States (although many remain in Thailand, mostly in impoverished upland settlements in Northern Thailand). Most Yao have immigrated to the United States have settled along the Western part of the U.S., mainly in Northern California but also in parts of Oregon and Washington State. Anthem Phleng Chat Royal anthem Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami Capital (and largest city) Bangkok Official languages Thai Demonym Thai Government Military Junta under Constitutional Monarchy  -  Monarch King Bhumibol Adulyadej  -  Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont  -  President of the Council for National Security Air Chief Marshal Chalit Pookpasuk (acting) Formation  -  Sukhothai Kingdom 1238... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


Culture

The typical houses of the Yao are rectangular and they have structures made of wood and bamboo. Normally it is comprised of three rooms: a room and two dormitories in the lateral side. Each one of these rooms has a small oven to cook.


The men and the women cover their heads with a black or red scarf. Some women substitute this scarf by a turban that can adopt different forms.


The traditional suit of the women is of bright colors. They also decorate their shirts with decorations made out of silver.


Religion

The Yao have a religion based on medieval Chinese Taoism, although many have converted to Buddhism and some to Christianity. Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Marriage

Marriage is traditionally arranged by go-betweens who represent the boy's family to the girl's parents. If the union is acceptable, a bride-price is negotiated, typically ranging from three to ten silver bars, worth about US$100 each, a partial artifact from the opium trade. The wedding takes place in two installments, first at the bride's house, followed by a procession to the groom's house where a second ceremony occurs.


Groups and languages

There are several distinct groups within the Yao nationality, and they speak several different languages, from different language families:

  • Miao-Yao languages
    • The Mien speak Mienic languages (Chinese: Miǎnyǔ 勉语) , including:
      • Mian-Jin languages
        • Iu Mien, 818,685 speakers (383,000 in China, 350,000 in Vietnam, 40,000 in Thailand, 20,250 in Laos, 70,000 in the United States) [1]
        • Kim Mun (also known as Lanten), more than 300,000 Yao people [2]
        • Biao Mon, 20,000 speakers [3]
      • Dzao Min, 60,000 speakers [4]
      • Biao-Jiao Mien, 43,000 speakers [5]
    • Miao or Hmong languages
      • Bunu, 258,000 speakers [6]
      • Wunai Bunu, 18,442 speakers.[7]
      • Younuo Bunu, 9,716 speakers [8]
      • Jiongnai Bunu, 1,078 speakers also known as the 'Flowery Blue Yao' [9]
      • Some linguists group the above languages - with a total of more than 287,000 speakers - together as dialects of a single Bunu language (Bùnǔyǔ 布努语).
  • Tai-Kadai languages
    • Lakkia (Lājiāyǔ 拉珈语), 12,000 speakers[10]
  • Chinese
    • about 500,000 Yao speak Chinese dialects

In addition to China, populations of Yao also live in Northern Vietnam (where they are called Dao), Northern Laos, and Myanmar. There are around 60,000 Yao in Northern Thailand, where they are one of the six main hill tribes. The lowland-living Lanten of Laos, who speak Kim Mun, and the highland-living Iu Mien of Laos are two different Yao groups. There are also many Yao living in the United States, mainly refugees from the highlands of Laos who speak the Iu Mien language. The Iu Mien do not call themselves "Yao". Not all "Yao" are Iu Mien. The Hmong-Mien or Miao-Yao languages are a language family of southern China and Southeast Asia. ... The Iu Mien language is one of the main languages spoken by the Yao people in China, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and more recently the USA. There are about 900,000 speakers in total. ... Kim Mun language, known as Lowland Yao (Pingdi Yaohua) is one of the languages spoken by the Pingdi Yao, a branch of the Yao nationality in the provinces of Guangxi and Hunan. ... |familycolor=Hmong-Mien |states=Sichuan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and USA. |speakers=over 4 million[1] |fam1=Hmong-Mien |iso2=hmn| |lc1=hmn|ld1=Hmong (generic)|ll1=none |lc2=mww|ld2=Hmong Daw (Laos, China)|ll2=none |lc3=hmv|ld3=Hmong Do (Vietnam)|ll3=none |lc4=hmf|ld4=Hmong Don (Vietnam... The Tai-Kadai languages are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ... Akha girl. ... Kim Mun language, known as Lowland Yao (Pingdi Yaohua) is one of the languages spoken by the Pingdi Yao, a branch of the Yao nationality in the provinces of Guangxi and Hunan. ... A Mien American is a person of Yao ancestry who was either born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The Iu Mien language is one of the main languages spoken by the Yao people in China, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and more recently the USA. There are about 900,000 speakers in total. ...


A group of 61,000 people on the island of Hainan speak the Yao language Kim Mun, but see themselves as Miao (Hmong), and they are also officially categorized as Miao by the Chinese Government. 139,000 speakers of Kim Mun live in other parts of China (Yunnan and Guangxi), and 174,500 live in Laos and Vietnam.[11] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Kim Mun language, known as Lowland Yao (Pingdi Yaohua) is one of the languages spoken by the Pingdi Yao, a branch of the Yao nationality in the provinces of Guangxi and Hunan. ... Language(s) Hmong/Mong Religion(s) Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (IPA:) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... Yunan redirects here. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: Guǎngxī; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū) is a Zhuang autonomous region of...


The Bunu call themselves Nuox [no13], Buod nuox [po43 no13], Dungb nuox [tuŋ33 no13] or according to their official name Yaof zuf [ʑau21 su21]. Only 258,000 of the 439,000 people categorised as Bunu in the 1982 census speak Bunu; 100,000 speak Zhuang, and 181,000 speak Chinese and Bouyei.


Written languages

After the Eleventh Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Guangxi Nationality Institute and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences together created a new Yao writing system which was unified with the research results of the Yao-American scholar Yuēsè Hòu (约瑟·候). The writing system was finalized at a one-day conference in 1984 in Ruyan County, Guangdong, which included Chinese professors Pan Chengqian (盘承乾), Deng Fanggui (邓方贵), Liu Baoyuan (刘保元), Su Defu (苏德富) and Yauz Mengh Borngh; Chinese government officials; Mien Americans Sengfo Chao (Zhao Fuming), Kao Chiem Chao (Zhao Youcai), and Chua Meng Chao; United States Linguist Herbert C. Purnell, who developed a curriculum and workshop presentations on language learning in East and Southeast Asia; and Yao Seng Deng from Thailand. The US delegation took the new writing system to the Iu Mien community in the United States where it was adopted with a vote of 78 to 7 by a conference of Mien American community leaders.[12] This writing system based on the Latin alphabet was designed to be pan-dialectal; it distinguishes 30 syllable initials, 121 syllable finals and eight tones. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... A Mien American is a person of Yao ancestry who was either born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... A Mien American is a person of Yao ancestry who was either born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


For an example of how the unified alphabet is used to write Iu Mien, a common Yao language, see Iu Mien language. The Iu Mien language is one of the main languages spoken by the Yao people in China, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and more recently the USA. There are about 900,000 speakers in total. ...


There is a separate written standard for Bunu, since it is from the Hmong/Miao side, rather than the Mien/Yao side, of the Miao-Yao languages family. Language(s) Hmong/Mong Religion(s) Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (IPA:) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... The Hmong-Mien or Miao-Yao languages are a language family of southern China and Southeast Asia. ...


Officially illiteracy and semi-literacy among the Yao in China still stands at 40.6%, as of 2002.[13] Also see: 2002 (number). ...


References and sources

  1. ^ http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/deathofashaman/mien.html
  • Máo Zōngwǔ 毛宗武: Yáozú Miǎnyǔ fāngyán yánjiū 瑶族勉语方言研究 (Studies in Mien dialects of the Miao nationality; Běijīng 北京, Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社 2004), ISBN 7-105-06669-5.
  • Méng Cháojí 蒙朝吉: Hàn-Yáo cídiǎn - Bùnǔyǔ 汉瑶词典——布努语 (Chinese-Miao Dictionary - Bunu; Chéngdū 成都, Sìchuān mínzú chūbǎnshè 四川民族出版社 1996), ISBN 7-5409-1745-8.
  • Barker, Judith C., and Saechao, Kaochoy. "A Household Survey of Older Iu-Mien Refugees in Rural California." Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 12.2 (1997): 121-143.
  • Barker, Judith C. & Saechao, Kaochoy. (2000). A demographic survey of Iu-Mien in West Coast States of the U.S., 1993. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2:1, 31-42.

Films

  • 2003 - Death of a Shaman. Directed by Richard Hall; produced by Fahm Fong Saeyang.

External links

  • The Virtual Hilltribe Museum
  • The Yao ethnic minority (on a Chinese government website)
  • Yao religious culture - bibliography by Barend ter Haar
  • Yao People On-line - in Chinese
  • The Mien
  • The Yao of Thailand

  Results from FactBites:
 
Yao people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (675 words)
There are also many Yao living in the United States, mainly refugees from the highlands of Laos who speak the Iu Mien language.
A group of 61,000 people on the island of Hainan speak the Yao language Kim Mun, but see themselves as Miao (Hmong), and they are also officially kategorized as Miao by the Chinese Government.
Officialy illiteracy and semi-literacy among the Yao in China still stands at 40.6%, as of 2002.
The Yao ethnic (2433 words)
The thickly forested Jianghua Yao Autonomous County in Hunan is renowned as the "home of Chinese firs." The places inhabited by the Yaos also abound in indigo, edible funguses, bamboo shoots, sweet grass, mushrooms, honey, dye yam, jute and medical herbs.
The third type, engaged in by a tiny percentage of the Yao population, was the primitive "slash-and-burn" cultivation.
The Yao Autonomous County of Bama in Guangxi today used to be the base area of the 7th Red Army commanded by Deng Xiaoping in the 1930s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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