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Encyclopedia > Yama
A modern depiction of Yamaraja's Court, by Dominique Amendola
A modern depiction of Yamaraja's Court, by Dominique Amendola
19th century kagamibuta netsuke depicting Enma
19th century kagamibuta netsuke depicting Enma

Yama (Sanskrit: यम), also known as Yamarāja (यमराज) in India, Yanluowang (閻羅王) in China and Enma Dai-Ō (閻魔大王) in Japan, is the lord of death, first recorded in the Vedas. The name Yanluo is a shortened Chinese transliteration of the Sanskrit term Yama Rājā, or "King Yama". Enma Dai-Ō is a further transliteration, meaning "Great King Yama", where Enma means Yama, Enma-O means Yama Rājā and Enma Dai-O would be equivalent to Yama Mahārāja. Image File history File links Yamas_big. ... Image File history File links Yamas_big. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 213 KB)Yama_2 Field Museum of Natural History Yama, the Lord of Death, is revered in Tibet as a guardian of spiritual practice, and was likely revered even before the conversion of Tibet from Bön to Buddhism in the 7th century. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 213 KB)Yama_2 Field Museum of Natural History Yama, the Lord of Death, is revered in Tibet as a guardian of spiritual practice, and was likely revered even before the conversion of Tibet from Bön to Buddhism in the 7th century. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), having the two names different connotations; see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the... In Vajrayana Buddhism, a dharmapāla (Tibetan drag-gshed) is a type of wrathful deity. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex called known as the Museum Campus which includes Soldier Field, the football stadium that is the home of the Chicago... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837  - Mayor... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1240x1242, 243 KB) Summary This 19th century kagamibuta netsuke depicts Emma Dai O, the King of Hell. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1240x1242, 243 KB) Summary This 19th century kagamibuta netsuke depicts Emma Dai O, the King of Hell. ... a monkey-shaped netsuke a netsuke maintains an inro (box) in the obi (belt) Japanese artists starting in the 17th century cleverly invented the miniature sculptures known as netsuke (Japanese:根付) to serve a very practical function. ... Ten Traditional Yamas or Codes of Conduct The Yamas are codified as the restraints in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... Mobilian Jargon was a pidgin trade language used as a lingua franca among Native American groups living along the Gulf of Mexico around the time of European settlement of the region. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Yama belongs to an early stratum of Vedic mythology. In Vedic tradition Yama was considered to have been the first mortal who died and espied the way to the celestial abodes, and in virtue of precedence he became the ruler of the departed. In some passages, however, he is already regarded as the god of death. Yama's name can be interpreted to mean "twin", and in some myths he is paired with a twin sister Yamī. Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... In Vedic beliefs, Yami is the first woman, along with her twin brother, Yama. ...

Contents

Eastern religion

Yama in Hinduism

Main article: Yama (Hinduism)

Yama is a Lokapāla and an Aditya. In art, he is depicted with green or red skin, red clothes, and riding a water buffalo. He holds a loop of rope in his left hand with which he pulls the soul from the corpse. He is the son of Surya (Sun) and twin brother of Yami, or Yamuna, traditionally the first human pair in the Vedas. He was also worshiped as a son of Vivasvat and Saranya. He is one of the Guardians of the directions and represents the south. He reports to Lord Shiva the Destroyer, an aspect of Trimurti (Hinduism's triune Godhead). Three hymns (10, 14, and 35) in the Rig Veda Book 10 are addressed to him. This article is about the deity Yama in Hinduism. ... The Guardians of the Directions (Sanskrit Aṣṭa-Dikpālas) are the deities who rule the eight directions of space according to Hinduism and Vajrayāna Buddhism - especially Kālacakra. ... In Hinduism, the s are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kashyapa. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Mossy, green fountain in Wattens, Austria. ... Red may be any of a number of similar colours at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidermis (skin). ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In Vedic beliefs, Yami is the first woman, along with her twin brother, Yama. ... Not to be confused with Jamuna River. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... In Hinduism, Vivasvat (also Visvakarma or Vivasvan) is a solar deity and the architect who built the cities and palaces of the gods, as well as a master craftsman and artisan. ... In Hinduism, Saranya is a goddess of the dawn and wife of either Surya or Vivasvat, with whom she is the mother of the Asvins, Manu, Yama and Yami. ... The Guardians of the Directions (Sanskrit Aṣṭa-Dikpālas) are the deities who rule the eight directions of space according to Hinduism and Vajrayāna Buddhism - especially Kālacakra. ... Nilakantha redirects here. ... From left, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) is a concept that holds that God has three aspects, which are only different forms of the same one God. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...


Yama in Buddhism and Chinese mythology

The Vedic Yama, with certain changes of function, was the basis for the Buddhist Yama, judge of the dead, who presides over the Buddhist Hells. The Buddhist Yama became an integral part of Chinese and Japanese mythology. Although ultimately based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity. He has also spread far more widely, and is known in every region where Buddhism is practiced, including Tibet, China and Japan. Tibetan Dharmapala at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois Yama is the name of the Buddhist god and judge of the dead, who presides over the Buddhist Narakas (Pāli: Nirayas), Hells or Purgatories. Although ultimately based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed... Tibetan Dharmapala at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois Yama is the name of the Buddhist god and judge of the dead, who presides over the Buddhist Narakas (Pāli: Nirayas), Hells or Purgatories. Although ultimately based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed... Japanese mythology is a very complex system of beliefs that embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. ... This article is about the deity Yama in Hinduism. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tibetan Buddhism (Simplified Chinese: 藏传佛教) is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...


Yama's abode

Naraka (Hindu)

Main article: Naraka (Hinduism)

Naraka in Hinduism, is compared to the Abrahamic concept of Hell. However, Naraka in Hinduism is not equivalent to Hell in Christian ideology. Naraka is only a purgatory where the soul gets purified of sin by sufferings. In Hindu myth, there are many hells, and Yama, Lord of Justice, sends human beings after death for appropriate punishment. Such punishment can be in boiling oil, etc. Even Mukti-yogyas (souls eligible for mukti or moksha), and Nitya-samsarins (forever transmigrating ones in Dvaita theology) can experience Naraka for expiation. Naraka is the name of a place of torment, in both Hinduism and Buddhism. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) A hell, according to many religious beliefs, is an afterlife of suffering where the wicked or unrighteous dead are punished. ... This article is about the deity Yama in Hinduism. ... In Dvaita theology, this class of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, is considered eligible for mukti or moksha. ... In Dvaita theology, this class of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, are eternally transmigrating. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (originally called Tattvavada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ...


Naraka (Buddhist)

Main article: Naraka (Buddhism)

Naraka is usually translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory". A Naraka differs from the hells of western religions in two respects. First, beings are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine judgment and punishment; second, the length of a being's stay in a Naraka is not eternal, though it is usually very long. Instead, a being is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma (actions of body, speech and mind), and resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its full result. Naraka (Sanskrit) or Niraya (Pāli) (Ch: 地獄 Dì Yù, Jp: Jigoku, Tib: ) is the name given to one of the worlds of greatest suffering in Buddhist cosmology. ... Naraka (Sanskrit) or Niraya (Pāli) (Ch: 地獄 Dì Yù, Jp: Jigoku, Tib: ) is the name given to one of the worlds of greatest suffering in Buddhist cosmology. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) A hell, according to many religious beliefs, is an afterlife of suffering where the wicked or unrighteous dead are punished. ... Purgatory commonly refers to a doctrine in the Roman Catholic Church, which posits that those who die in a state of grace undergo a purification in order to achieve the holiness necessary to enter heaven. ... Karma (Sanskrit act, action, performance[1]; Pāli kamma) ( ) is the concept of action or deed in Dharmic religions understood as denoting the entire cycle of cause and effect described in Hindu and Buddhist philosophies. ...


Di Yu (Chinese mythology) and Jigoku (Japanese mythology)

Main article: Di Yu and Jigoku

Chinese Di Yu, Japanese Jigoku, literally "earth prison", is the realm of the dead or "hell" in Chinese mythology and Japanese mythology. It is based upon the Buddhist concept of Naraka combined with local afterlife beliefs. Incorporating ideas from Taoism and Buddhism as well as traditional religion in China, Di Yu is a kind of purgatory place which serves not only to punish but also to renew spirits ready for their next incarnation. Jigoku is similar, with Shinto concepts. These names are interchangeable with the concept of Naraka. Diyu (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ti-yü; Japanese: 地獄, jigoku, literally earth prison) is the realm of the dead or hell in Chinese mythology. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) A hell, according to many religious beliefs, is an afterlife of suffering where the wicked or unrighteous dead are punished. ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... Japanese mythology is a very complex system of beliefs that embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. ... Naraka (Sanskrit) or Niraya (Pāli) (Ch: 地獄 Dì Yù, Jp: Jigoku, Tib: ) is the name given to one of the worlds of greatest suffering in Buddhist cosmology. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism) is the English name for a cluster of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Naraka is the name of a place of torment, in both Hinduism and Buddhism. ...


Related concepts

Yama and Ymir

Main article: Ymir

In a disputable etymology, W. Meid (1992) has linked the names Yama (reconstructed in Proto-Indo-European as *yemos) and the name of the primeval Norse frost giant Ymir, which can be reconstructed in Proto-Germanic as *umijaz or *jumijaz, in the latter case possibly deriving from PIE *ym̩yos, from the root yem "twin". In his myth, however, Ymir is not a twin, and only shares with Yama the characteristics of being primeval and mortal. However, Ymir is a hermaphrodite and engenders the race of giants. For the moon of Saturn, see Ymir (moon). ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... For the moon of Saturn, see Ymir (moon). ... The 1st-century BC sculpture The Reclining Hermaphrodite, in the Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme in Rome In zoology and botany, a hermaphrodite is an organism that possesses both male and female sex organs during its life. ...


Yama in Iranian mythology

Main article: Jamshid

The parallel character in the Iranian mythology of Zoroastrianism is known as Yima Xšaēta in the Zoroastrian scripture of the Avesta. The pronunciation "Yima" is peculiar to the Avestan dialect; in most Iranian dialects, including Old Persian, the name would have been "Yama". In the Avesta, the emphasis is on Yima/Yama's character as one of the first mortals and as a great king of men. Over time, *Yamaxšaita was transformed into Jamšēd or Jamshid, celebrated as the greatest of the early Shāhs of the world. Jamshid (in Persian: ‎) is a common Persian male first name. ... Zoroastrianism (Avestan Daênâ Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Jamshid (in Persian: ‎) is a common Persian male first name. ... Shah is a Persian term for a monarch (king or emperor) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...


Yama in Javanese

There is Yamadipati in Javanese culture, especially in wayang. Word adipati means ruler or commander. In the beginning Hinduism came to Java, Yama was still the same as Yama in Hindu myth. When Islam became majority religion, Yama was demistified by Walisanga who ruled at that time. So, in Javanese, Yama became a new character. He is son of Sanghyang Ismaya and Dewi Sanggani. In wayang story, Yamadipati married Dewi Mumpuni. Unfortunately, Dewi Mumpuni felt in love with Nagatatmala, son of Hyang Anantaboga who rules earth. Dewi Mumpuni left Yamadipati, finally. Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Yama in popular culture

  • In the Spriggan manga, Yama was a virus programmed from ancient text that overran an ARCAM compound in the United States, brainwashing its occupants to kill intruders by flashing the words "KILL THEM ALL!"
  • In the Bleach manga, a Yama type being is occasionally seen pulling people through a portal to hell, in addition, the Shinigami themselves are 'death gods'.
  • In the Naruto manga, as well as a Hanuman-type creature, and a character named after an asura, there is a Yama type creature that seems to be based upon classical Indian descriptions.
  • In the comic book Micronauts, Yama was a warrior-companion of the Wayfarer from the Microverse.
  • Yama is Monster in My Pocket #100. Unlike other Hindu divinities, he was not removed from the line.
  • In the comic book Tex Willer, Yama is the son of Tex' archnemesis Mefisto.
  • Yama is a major character in the science fiction novel Lord of Light by Roger Zelazny. In this novel certain colonists from Earth use high technology on a faraway planet to rule other colonists transported as frozen fertilized ova as Hindu gods. Yama is the genius behind most of the technology.
  • Yama appears in the novel Belaku tanda Balaka by TaRaSu.
  • In the video game Ōkami, Yama is the final antagonist.
  • In the dojin game Phantasmagoria of Flower View, the final boss Sikieiki Yamaxanadu is a yama.
  • Yama, the Pit: A Novel of Prostitution by Aleksandr Kuprin (Russian)
  • Yama, identified as a "Chinese spirit of the underworld", appears played by Todd Newton in the episode Dead Man Dating of the television series Charmed.
  • For uses of the Japanese version of Yama in popular culture, see Enma.
  • Slang for methamphetamine in southeast Asian countries. [citation needed]

Serialized in Weekly Shonen Sunday Komik Remaja (Defunct) Original run 1989 – 1996 No. ... Commercial chlorine bleach To bleach something is to remove or lighten its colour, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing; a bleach is a chemical that produces these effects, often via oxidation. ... Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Shonen Jump BANZAI! Shonen Jump Weekly Comic Original run November 1999 – Ongoing No. ... Hanuman tearing his chest open to reveal that Rama and Sita are literally in his heart Hanuman (Sanskrit: ; nominative singular ), known also as Anjaneya, is one of the most important personalities in the epic, the Ramayana. ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... // Publishing History The Micronauts was originally a Marvel comic published between 1979 and 1986. ... Monster in My Pocket was a toy line developed by Morrison Entertainment Group, headed by Joe Morrison and John Weems, and released by Matchbox in 1990 consisting of small, soft plastic monsters from religion and mythology, literary fantasy, and unexplained phenomena. ... Tex Willer is a character in an Italian comics of the same name, created by writer Gian Luigi Bonelli and illustrator Aurelio Galleppini, first published in Italy on September 30, 1948. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Cover of Lord of Light, published by Methuen in 1986. ... Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... TaRaSu, one of the foremost novelists in Kannada is still fondly remembered by millions of Kannadigas as their favourite author. ... For the subspecies of gray wolf, see Japanese Wolf. ... Dōjin game (同人ゲ−ム, also romanised as Doujin Game) in Japan is an informal term for computer games created by non-professionals, mostly for fun but sometimes for profit. ... An example of bullet hell in Perfect Cherry Blossom. ... This is a list of the characters that belong to the Touhou Project, a series of games by ZUN from Team Shanghai Alice. ... Kuprin in Gatchina (cartoon from the 1910s) Aleksandr Ivanovich Kuprin (Александр Иванович Куприн, September 7, 1870 in the Penza Oblast - August 25, 1938 in Leningrad) was a Russian writer, pilot, explorer and adventurer whose best known novellas include Moloch (1896), Olesya (1898), The Duel (1905), Junior Captain Rybnikov (1906), Emerald (1907), and The... Todd Newton is the host of Hollywood Showdown and Whammy! The All-New Press Your Luck, both on GSN; and Coming Attractions on E!, as well as occasional episodes of that channels infamous Wild On. ... General Information Episode of the popular U.S. television series, Charmed Episode Number: 4 Season: 1 First Aired: October 28, 1998 on The WB in the United States of America Production Code: 4398005 Writer: Javier Grillo-Marxuach Director: Richard Compton Synopsis Spoiler warning: Piper falls for the ghost of a... Charmed is an American television series that ran for eight seasons on The WB. It was produced by Aaron Spelling and is about three sisters who are the worlds most powerful good witches, known throughout the supernatural community as The Charmed Ones but known to everyone else as the... Yama is the Hindu Lord of death whose first recorded appearance is in the Vedas. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yama - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1293 words)
The spirits of the dead, on being judged by Yama, are supposed to either pass through a term of enjoyment in a region midway between the earth and the heaven of the gods, or to undergo their measure of punishment in Naraka (or Jigoku), the nether world, situated somewhere in the southern region.
Yama is also the lord of justice and is sometimes referred to as Dharma, in reference to his unswerving dedication to maintaining order and adherence to harmony.
Yama was revered in Tibet as a guardian of spiritual practice.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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