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Encyclopedia > Yam (god)
Ancient Southwest Asian deities
Levantine deities

Adonis | Anat | Asherah | Ashima | Astarte | Atargatis | Ba'al | Berith | Dagon | Derceto | El | Elyon | Eshmun | Hadad | Kothar | Mot | Moloch | Qetesh | Resheph | Shalim | Yarikh | Yam  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... In Greek mythology Adonis (Greek: , also: Άδωνις) is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity of Semitic origin, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... It has been suggested that Asherah pole be merged into this article or section. ... In the Hebrew Bible, Ashima is one of several deities protecting the individual cities of Samaria who are mentioned specifically by name in 2 Kings 17:30. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Other deities worshipped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith. ... Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly of grain and agriculture. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyōn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyōn when it means God or is applied to... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Kothar-wa-Khasis Kothar-wa-Khasis means Skillful-and-Wise or Adroit-and-Perceptive or Deft-and-Clever. Another of his names means Deft-with-both-hands. Kothar is smith, craftsman, engineer, architect, and inventor. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... For the Stargate character, see Qetesh (Stargate). ... Resheph was a Semitic god of plague and war. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... Yarikh, in Canaanite mythology, is a god of the moon whose epithets are Illuminator of the Heavens, Illuminator of the Myriads of Stars, and Lord of the Sickle (the latter may come from the appearance of the crescent moon). ...

Mesopotamian deities

Adad | Amurru | An/Anu | Anshar | Ashur | Abzu/Apsu | Enki/Ea | Enlil | Ereshkigal | Inanna/Ishtar | Kingu | Kishar | Lahmu & Lahamu | Marduk | Mummu | Nabu | Nammu | Nanna/Sin | Nergal | Ningizzida | Ninhursag | Ninlil | Tiamat | Utu/Shamash Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) (which means sky pivot or sky axle) is a sky god. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... In Akkadian mythology, Kishar is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpent-gods who were in turn the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. ... Lahmu is a deity from Akkadian mythology, first-born son of Apsu and Tiamat. ... Lahamu was the first-born daughter of Tiamat and Apsu in Akkadian mythology. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... For other uses, see Mummu (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... The Sumerian god Ningizzida accompanied by two gryphons. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... For other uses, see Tiamat (disambiguation). ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ...

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Yam, from the Canaanite word Yam, meaning "Sea", is one name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea. Also titled Judge Nahar ("Judge River"), he is also one of the 'ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. Others dispute the existence of the alternative names, claiming it is a mistranslation of a damaged tablet. Despite linguistic overlap, theologically this god is not a part of the later subregional monotheistic theology, but rather is part of a broader and archaic Levantine polytheism. The name Yam means "sea" and he is also called Nahar meaning "river". The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient Canaanite peoples. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... The Nahar is the name of the currency that Chechen separatists planned for Chechen Republic. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...


Yam is the deity of the primordial chaos and represents the power of the sea untamed and raging; he is seen as ruling tempests and the disasters they wreak. The gods cast out Yam from the heavenly mountain Sappan (modern Jebel Aqra; "Sappan" is cognate to Tsephon (Tsion). The seven-headed dragon Lotan is associated closely with him and the serpent is frequently used to describe him. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ... Sapan is derived from Hinduism and comes from the word Sapna. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Jewish mythology, Zephon was an angel, sent by the archangel Gabriel together with Ithuriel, to find out the location of Satan after his Fall. ... This article deals with the historical and biblical Zion of Israel. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... This page is about the biblical creature; for other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ...


Of all the gods, Yam holds special hostility against Baal Hadad over the divine assembly. Yam is a deity of the sea and his palace is in the abyss associated with the depths, or Biblical tehwom, of the oceans. (This is not to be confused with the abode of Mot, the ruler of the netherworlds.) In Ugaritic texts, Yam's special enemy Hadad is also known as the "king of heaven" and the "first born son" of El, whom ancient Greeks identified with their god Kronos, just as Baal was identified with Zeus, Yam with Poseidon and Mot with Hades. Yam wished to become the Lord god in his place. In turns the two beings kill each other, yet Hadad is resurrected and Yam also returns. Some authors have suggested that these tales reflect the experience of seasonal cycles in the Levant. For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... In classic Greek mythology, below Heaven, Earth, and Pontus is Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek Τάρταρος, deep place). ... Tehwom in the Bible means the depths or the deeps. It is cognate with Babylonian Tiamat, the creatrix Goddess of Salt Water, who with her freshwater partner Apsu/Abzu, was the original creators of the Babylonian cosmos, mother and father of Lahm and Lahmu. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Chronos is the personification of time in Greek mythology There is also Cronus, the similarly named Greek mythological Titan, father of Zeus. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Speculative similarities in other mythological traditions

Since Yam wishes to raise himself to the lofty heights of the gods whom he hates, and since he is the lord of chaos and destruction, some consider the nearest equivalent to Yam in modern religions is the Christian Satan[citation needed]. In some Christian interpretations of Genesis 3:15, the serpent of Eden is in conflict with the Messiah, Jehovah's son. This article is about the concept of Satan. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...


A relevant passage in the Christian book of Revelation reads: "And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world" (Revelation 12:9). For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... This page is about the concept of the Devil. ...


Also, the chaotic coiling sea serpent Leviathan appears as hated by Jehovah (Isaiah 27:1). This article is about the biblical creature. ... This article is about a reading of the name of God in Hebrew scripture. ...


In the Apocalypse of Abraham, the enemy of Yahweh is called Azazel and is is described as a dragon with "hands and feet like a man's, on his back six wings on the right and six on the left." (23:7) Some Christian interpretations identify Azazel with the serpent who tempted Eve. The Apocalypse of Abraham is a Jewish scripture probably composed between 80-100 AD. It has survived only in Old Slavonic recensions. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Azazel (disambiguation). ...


Moreover, a comparison with the evil Jörmungandr (Norse world-serpent and deity of the sea) is accurate, given his description. Like Yam and Hadad, he and Thor (son of Odin) slay each other at the end of the world (Ragnarök or Twilight of the Gods). There are also many similarities with the Egyptian chaos serpent, Apep and his animosity with the sun god Ra. Thor goes fishing for the Midgard Serpent in this picture from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Look up Ragnarok in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Cypriot football team, see APEP Kyperounda FC. An Egyptian deity wards off the snake-like Apep [1] In Egyptian mythology, Apep (also spelled Apepi, and Aapep, or Apophis in Greek) was an evil demon, the deification of darkness and chaos (isfet in Egyptian), and thus opponent of light... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ...


In addition, the serpent-Titan Typhon battled the god Zeus over Olympus and was cast into the pits of the Earth. Titan may mean: // Titan (mythology), a class of deities who preceded the Olympians in Greek mythology Helios, Greek sun-deity sometimes referred to as Titan (Mahler), nicknamed Titan Titan (satellite), largest satellite of the planet Saturn Titan beetle, the largest beetle in the Amazon rainforest USS Titan (AGOS-15), a... Zeus darting his lightning at Typhon, Chalcidian black-figured hydria, ca. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Mount Olympus (Greek: ; also transliterated as Mount Ólympos, and on modern maps, Óros Ólimbos) is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 meters high (9,576 feet)[1]. Since its base is located at sea level, it is one of the highest mountains in Europe, in real absolute altitude...


Yam shares many characteristics with Greco-Roman Ophion, the serpentine Titan of the sea whom Kronos cast out of the heavenly Mt. Olympus. In Greek mythology, Ophion (serpent), also called Ophioneus ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea, according to some sources. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Chronos is the personification of time in Greek mythology There is also Cronus, the similarly named Greek mythological Titan, father of Zeus. ... Mount Olympus (Greek: ; also transliterated as Mount Ólympos, and on modern maps, Óros Ólimbos) is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 meters high (9,576 feet)[1]. Since its base is located at sea level, it is one of the highest mountains in Europe, in real absolute altitude...


The story is also analogus to the war between the serpent Vritra and the god Indra, son of the 'Sky Father' Dyaus Pita. In the early Vedic religion, Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र (Devanāgarī) or (IAST)) the enveloper, was an Asura and also a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and enemy of Indra. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... In the Vedic religion is Akasha, the Sky Father, husband of Prithvi and father of Agni and Indra (RV 4. ...


In the Epic of Ba'al

In the Epic of Ba'al El king of the Gods appoints Yam to fight Hadad the king of heaven. KTU 1.2 iv reads: Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... KTU may mean: the Korean Teachers & Education Workers Union Key Telephone Unit, a piece of telephone equipment A short-hand reference to WKTU-FM, a New York City radio station operating at 103. ...

"I, myself, Kindly `El the Beneficent, have taken you upon my hands.
I proclaim your name.
Yam is your name,
Your name is Beloved of `El, Yam."
"[Go against] the hand of the Mighty Lord Most High (´Aliyan Ba´al )
Because he spoke ill to me —
[And] drive him from the throne of his kingship,
From the resting place,
the cushion on the seat of his dominion.
But if then you do not drive him from his throne of kingship,
from the seat of his dominion,
He will beat you like...
He slaughters oxen and sheep.
He fells bulls and fatted rams, yearling calves,
sheep by the flock, he sacrifices kids."
Now Mighty Baal, son of Dagon, desired the kingship of the Gods. He contended with Prince Yam-Nahar, the Son of El. But Kindly El, Father Shunem, decided the case in favour of His son; He gave the kingship to Prince Yam. He gave the power to Judge Nahar.
Fearsome Yam came to rule the Gods with an iron fist. He caused Them to labor and toil under His reign. They cried unto Their mother, Asherah, Lady of the Sea. They convinced Her to confront Yam, to interceed in Their behalf.
Asherah went into the presence of Prince Yam. She came before Judge Nahar. She begged that He release His grip upon the Gods Her sons. But Mighty Yam declined Her request. She offered favours to the Tyrant. But Powerful Nahar softened not His heart.
Finally, Kindly Asherah, who loves Her children, offered Herself to the God of the Sea. She offered Her own body to the Lord of Rivers.
Yam-Nahar agreed to this, and Asherah returned to the Source of the Two Rivers. She went home to the court of El. She came before the Divine Council, and spoke of Her plan to the Gods Her children.

Baal was infuriated by Her speech. He was angered at the Gods who would allow such a plot. He would not consent to surrendering Great Asherah to the Tyrant Yam-Nahar. He swore to the Gods that He would destroy Prince Yam. Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyōn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyōn when it means God or is applied to... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ...

He would lay to rest the tyranny of Judge Nahar.

Ba'al Hadad warns Yam that the gods will not allow him to usurp the throne of heaven. In KTU 1.2 iii, the Lord warns:

"From your throne of kingship you shall be driven,
from the seat of your dominion cast out!
On your head be Ayamari (Driver) O Yam,
Between your shoulders Yagarish (Chaser), O Judge Nahar
May Horon split open, O Yam,
may Horon smash your head,
´Athtart-Name-of-the-Lord thy skull!

After a great war in heaven involving many of the gods, Yam is roundly defeated: Horon dance with authentic Anatolian enstruments // Definition Authentic Pontic dance is characterized by small, quick, precise steps, arm swings, syncopated knee bends, and abrupt pauses. ...

And the weapon springs from the hand of the Lord,
Like a raptor from between his fingers.
It strikes the skull of Prince Yam,
between the eyes of Judge Nahar.
Yahm collapses, he falls to the earth;
His joints quiver, and his spine shakes.
Thereupon the Lord drags out Yam and would rend him to pieces;
he would make an end of Judge Nahar.

However, Athtart pleads for Yam, who acknowledges the Lord as king of heaven:

Then up speaks Yam: "Lo, I am as good as dead! Surely, the Lord now reigns as king!"

Hadad holds a great feast, but not long afterwards he battles Mot (death) and through his mouth he descends to his realm below the earth. Yet like Yam, Death too is defeated and in h. I AB iii the Lord arises from the dead: In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...

For alive is the Mighty Lord,
Revived is the Prince, Master of Earth."
'El calls to the Virgin Anat:
"Hearken, O maiden Anat!"[1]

Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ...

Yaw: speculation over connections between Yam and YHWH

According to some, Yam was also called Ya'a or Yaw. Damaged text in KTU 1.2 iv has been interpreted by Mark S. Smith as describing a renaming of Yam from an original name Yaw [1]. The resemblance of the latter to the Tetragrammaton YHWH led to speculation over a possible connection between Yam and God of the Hebrew Bible. However even if the reading is correct many scholars argue the names have different roots and reject the idea that they are related.[citation needed] Another suggested reading of the name is Ya'a and it has also been suggested as an early form of the divine name Yah, Yahu. Earlier archaeologists like Theophilus G. Pinches[2] quoted the research of Hommel, Professor of Semitic languages at Munich, who suggested "that this god Ya is another form of the name Ea...". By this theory Ya'a thus appears to have been a God of the waters, both salt (Yam) and fresh (Nahar), in some ways similar to the Mesopotamian God Ea.[3] This view has been supported in more recent times by archaeologists like Jean Bottero[4] and others,[5] although this is disputed by other scholars.[6][7] The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Yaw or Yam is the name for the Levantine god of chaos and the power of the untamed sea as found in texts from the ancient city of Ugarit. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ...


See also

Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... This page is about the concept of the Devil. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... The Demiurge, The Craftsman or Creator, in some belief systems, is the deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Iaoue or is the transliteration in Roman letters of koine Greek , which in turn is a transcription of the ancient Hebrew . ...

References and further reading

References

  1. ^ Smith, Mark S. (2001) "The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts" (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  2. ^ Pinches, Theophilus G. (1908) The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia. London. Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge.
  3. ^ Walter Reinhold Warttig Mattfeld y de la Torre, Yahweh-Elohim's Historical Evolution (Pre-Biblical).
  4. ^ Bottero, Jean (2004) "Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia" (University Of Chicago Press) ISBN 0-226-06718-1
  5. ^ Cohn, Norman. Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come, The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith. New Haven and London. Yale University Press, 1993.
  6. ^ Gray, John, (1953), The god Yaw in the Religion of Canaan, in Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Chicago. Vol. 12, pp. 278-283.
  7. ^ Garbini, G. 1988. History and Ideology in Ancient Israel.
  8. ^ from a translation note in the New Jewish Publication Society of America Version

The New Jewish Publication Society of America Version of the Jewish Bible (i. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Lilinah biti-´Anat, The Myth of Baal, "Baal Battles Yahm" (1997). (Accessed 2006.2.15). This site has an unusually complete online text based on several scholarly versions cited.
  2. ^ The Septuagint, written in Greek, does not contain the Tetragrammaton. Since the original Hebrew texts from which it was translated have long since disappeared, it is not known in which passages YHWH may have been written.
  3. ^ Johannes C. De Moor, The Rise of Yahwism: The Roots of Israelite Monotheism, (Peeters Publishers, 2001).
  4. ^ Gerald A. Larue, Old Testament Life and Literature (1968). (Accessed 2005.12.4)
  5. ^ Mike Magee, "The Truth about the Jewish Scriptures I". (Accessed 2005.12.26)
  6. ^ Michael S. Heiser, Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God. (Accessed 2005.12.4)
  7. ^ Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts. (Accessed 2005.12.4)
  8. ^ "Sons of El" is from the Qumran text, LXX has "angels of God".
  1. ^ Joel Kalvemaski, The Septuagint Online, (October 15, 2005). (Accessed 2006.2.15)
  2. ^ Bryan T. Huie, The Heavenly Divine Council, (September 28, 2002). (Accessed 2005.12.4)
  3. ^ Smith.
  4. ^ Richard Freund, interviewed by Gary Hochman and Matthew Collins, NOVA. "Ancient Refuge in the Holy Land". (Accessed 2005.12.26)
  5. ^ Alan Fuller, "Re: A question about the introducing beasts", Fri, 25 Oct 2002 16:02:20 -0000 (Accessed 2005.12.26), and Jean Philippe Fontanille, Menorah Coin Project "H426", (bottom of page). (Accessed 2005.12.26)

It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...

Bibliography

  • Cassuto, U., trans. by Israel Abrahams. The Goddess Anath, (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1951).
  • Coogan, Michael D., trans. & ed., Stories from Ancient Canaan, (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978), 86-89.
  • De Moor, Johannes, The Seasonal Pattern in the Myth of Ba' lu according to the version of Ilimilku, (1971).
  • Driver, G.R., trans., J. C. L. Gibson, ed., Canaanite Myths and Legends, (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark Ltd., 1977).
  • _____, The Rise of Yahwism: The Roots of Israelite Monotheism, (Peeters Publishers, 2001).
  • Gaster, Theodor, trans., Thespis: Ritual, Myth & Drama in the Ancient Near East (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), 114-244.
  • Ginsberg, H. L., trans., in The Ancient Near East, An Anthology of Tests and Pictures, James B. Pritchard, Ed., (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958), 92-118.
  • Smith, Mark S., The Ugaritic Ba'al Cycle; Vol. I: Introduction with Text, Translation & Commentary of KTU 1.1-1.2, (New York: E. J. Brill, 1994).
  • Thompson, Thomas L., The Mythic Past; Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel, (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

Theodor Herzl Gaster (1906 - 1992) was an American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions. ... Ginsberg, Ginzburg, Ginsburg and Ginzberg are surnames. ...

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