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Encyclopedia > Xuanzang
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A portrait of Xuanzang
A portrait of Xuanzang
See also: Xuanzang (fictional character)

Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: Xuán Zàng; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... 漢字 / 汉字 Chinese character in Hànzì, Kanji, Hanja, Hán Tá»±. Red in Simplified Chinese. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (250x698, 27 KB) A depiction of the Chinese monk Xuanzang on his journey to India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (250x698, 27 KB) A depiction of the Chinese monk Xuanzang on his journey to India. ... The fictional character Xuanzang (玄奘, WG: Hsüan-tsang), a central character of the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West, is partly modelled after the historical Tang dynasty Buddhist monk of the same name, whose life was the books inspiration; the real Xuanzang made a perilous journey on foot... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Tang could refer to: Tang Dynasty of China Tang (Shang dynasty ruler) A transliteration of Chinese family names such as 唐,湯,鄧,é‚“,滕 Tang Clan of Hong Kong, the first inhabitants to leave China and settle in Hong Kong. ...


Xuanzang was born near Luoyang, Henan in 602? as Chén Huī (陳 褘) and died 5th Feb. 664[1] in Yu Hua Gong (玉華宮). He became famous for his seventeen year trip to India, during which he studied with many famous Buddhist masters, especially at the famous center of Buddhist learning at Nālanda University. When he returned, he brought with him some 657 Sanskrit texts. With the emperor's support, he set up a large translation bureau in Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), drawing students and collaborators from all over East Asia. He is credited with the translation of some 1,330 fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. His strongest personal interest in Buddhism was in the field of Yogācāra (瑜伽行派) or Consciousness-only (唯識). Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Events Phocas kills Byzantine Emperor Maurice I and makes himself emperor Beginning of a series of wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanids Births Muawiyah, founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs (approximate date) Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... Events September, Synod of Whitby Births Deaths Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... A view of the ruins of Nalanda University In the extreme rear is visible stucco (lime plaster fresco) wall art from the Gupta period. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Changan â–¶(?) (Simplified Chinese: 长安; Traditional Chinese: 長安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... Xian redirects here. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yogacara. ...


The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school (法相宗) in East Asia. Although the school itself did not thrive for a long time, its theories regarding perception, consciousness, karma, rebirth, etc. found their way into the doctrines of other more successful schools. Xuanzang's closest and most eminent student was Kuiji (窺基) who became recognized as the first patriarch of the Faxiang school. Dharma-character school (Chinese: 法相宗 pinyin fa xiang zong) is the pejorative name for a stream of thought that represented the Indian Yogācāra system of thought in East Asia. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Karma (Sanskrit act, action, performance[1]; Pāli kamma) ( ) is the concept of action or deed in Dharmic religions understood as denoting the entire cycle of cause and effect described in Hindu and Buddhist philosophies. ... Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer...

Contents

Name

Xuanzang is also known by the Cantonese transcription of his title, Táng-sānzàng (唐三藏), as Tong Sam Jong. Less common romanizations of Xuanzang include Hhuen Kwan, Hiouen Thsang, Hiuen Tsiang, Hsien-tsang, Hsuan Chwang, Hsuan Tsiang, Hwen Thsang, Xuan Cang, Xuan Zang, Shuen Shang, Yuan Chang, Yuan Chwang, and Yuen Chwang. In Japanese, he is known as Genjō, or Genjō-sanzō (Xuanzang-sanzang). In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. ...


Early life

Xuanzang, whose lay name was Chen Hui, was born into a family possessing erudition for generations. He was the youngest of four children. His great-grandfather was an official serving as a prefect, his grandfather was appointed as professor in the Imperial College at the capital. His father was a conservative Confucianist who gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to escape the political turmoil that gripped China at that time. According to traditional biographies, Xuanzang displayed a superb intelligence and earnestness, amazing his father by his careful observance of the Confucian rituals at the age of eight. Along with his brothers and sister, he received an early education from his father, who instructed him in classical works on filial piety and several other canonical treatises of orthodox Confucianism. Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


Although his household in Chenhe Village of Goushi Town (緱氏 gou1), Luo Prefecture (洛州), Henan, was essentially Confucian, at a young age Xuanzang expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk as one of his elder brothers had done. After the death of his father in 611, he lived with his older brother Chensu (later known as Changjie) for five years at Jingtu Monastery (淨土寺) in Luoyang, supported by the Sui Dynasty state. During this time he studied both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, preferring the latter. Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Alternate meaning: phone number 6-1-1 Events Kalakmul defeats Palenque Cynegils becomes King of Wessex Births Deaths Ceolwulf of Wessex Categories: 611 ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda, Sanskrit: sthaviravāda → English: The Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ...


In 618, the Sui Dynasty collapsed and Xuanzang and his brother fled to Chang'an, which had been proclaimed as the capital of the Tang state, and thence southward to Chengdu, Sichuan. Here the two brothers spent two or three years in further study in the monastery of Kong Hui, including the Abhidharmakosa-sastra (Abhidharma Storehouse Treatise). When Xuanzang requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious knowledge. Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng-tu), located in southwest China, is the capital of the Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Abhidharma-kośa, a key Abhidharma text in verse written by Vasubandhu, summarizing Sarvāstivādin tenets in eight chapters with a total of around 600 verses. ...


Xuanzang was fully ordained as a monk in 622, at the age of twenty. The myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts at that time prompted Xuanzang to decide to go to India and study in the cradle of Buddhism. He subsequently left his brother and returned to Chang'an to study foreign languages and to continue his study of Buddhism. He began his mastery of Sanskrit in 626, and probably also studied Tocharian. During this time Xuanzang also became interested in the metaphysical Yogacara school of Buddhism. Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as Consciousness-only (Sanskrit: Cittamātra). ...


Pilgrimage

In 629, Xuanzang reportedly had a dream that convinced him to journey to India. The Tang Dynasty and Eastern Türk Göktürks were waging war at the time, therefore Emperor Tang Taizong prohibited foreign travel. Xuanzang persuaded some Buddhist guards at the gates of Yumen and slipped out of the empire via Liangzhou (Gansu), and Qinghai province. He subsequently travelled across the Gobi desert to Kumul (Hami), thence following the Tian Shan westward, arriving in Turfan in 630. Here he met the king of Turfan, a Buddhist who equipped him further for his travels with letters of introduction and valuables to serve as funds. Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born LÄ­ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Yumen (Simplified Chinese: 玉门; Traditional Chinese: 玉門; pinyin: Yùmén, situated in western Gansu province in China, is a county-level city of over 100,000 famous for oil production and located on the Silk Road, at . ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... The Gobi (Chinese: [GÄ“bì (Shāmò)]; Mongolian: Говь [Gowi]) is a large desert region in China and southern Mongolia. ... Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل/K̢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ...


Moving further westward, Xuanzang escaped robbers to reach Yanqi, then toured the Theravada monasteries of Kucha. Further west he passed Aksu before turning northwest to cross the Tian Shan's Bedal Pass into modern Kyrgyzstan. He skirted Issyk Kul before visiting Tokmak on its northwest, and met the great Khan of the Western Türk, whose relationship to the Tang emperor was friendly at the time. After a feast, Xuanzang continued west then southwest to Tashkent (Chach/Che-Shih), capital of modern day Uzbekistan. From here, he crossed the desert further west to Samarkand. In Samarkand, which was under Persian influence, the party came across some abandoned Buddhist temples and Xuanzang impressed the local king with his preaching. Setting out again to the south, Xuanzang crossed a spur of the Pamirs and passed through the famous Iron Gates. Continuing southward, he reached the Amu Darya and Termez, where he encountered a community of more than a thousand Buddhist monks. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda, Sanskrit: sthaviravāda → English: The Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest... Kucha (Modern Chinese Simplified: 库车, Traditional: 庫車, pinyin KùchÄ“, also romanized Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... Aksu (also known as Ak-su, Akshu, Aqsu, Bharuka and Po-lu-chia. ... Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... The city of Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan is often also spelt Tokmak. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title with many meanings. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Tashkent Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: , English: ) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Preaching is the most important element in the protestant churches. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... The Iron Gate upstream The Iron Gate (Romanian: Porţile de Fier, Serbian: Gvozdena Vrata, Hungarian: Vaskapu, German: Eisernes Tor) is a gorge on the Danube River. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Termez (Termiz in Uzbek; Termes in German) is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. ...


Further east he passed through Kunduz, where he stayed for some time to witness the funeral rites of Prince Tardu, who had been poisoned. Here he met the monk Dharmasimha, and on the advice of the late Tardu made the trip westward to Balkh (modern day Afghanistan), to see the Buddhist sites and relics, especially the Nava Vihara, or Nawbahar, which he described as the westernmost monastic institution in the world. Here Xuanzang also found over 3,000 Theravada monks, including Prajnakara, a monk with whom Xuanzang studied Theravada scriptures. He acquired the important [Mahāvibhāṣa] text here, which he later translated into Chinese. Prajnakara then accompanied the party southward to Bamyan, where Xuanzang met the king and saw tens of Theravada monasteries, in addition to the two large Bamyan Buddhas carved out of the rockface. The party then resumed their travel eastward, crossing the Shibar pass and descending to the regional capital of Kapisi (about 60 km north of modern Kabul), which sported over 100 monasteries and 6,000 monks, mostly Mahayana. This was part of the fabled old land of Gandhara. Xuanzang took part in a religious debate here, and demonstrated his knowledge of many Buddhist sects. Here he also met the first Jains and Hindus of his journey. He pushed on to Jalalabad and Laghman, where he considered himself to have reached India. The year was 630. President Celal Bayar, King Zahir and Lord Serwar Nasher inspecting the once world-renown cotton of Kunduz Spinzar factory Kunduz (قندوز) is a city in Afghanistan; the name has also sometimes been rendered as Kûnduz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Nava Vihara (Sanskrit: नव विहार - New Temple or New Monastery (See Vihara), has been arabized as Nau Behar or Navbahar) was a buddhist temple or monastery near near the ancient city of Balkh, in the Khorasan province of Persia (now in present-day Afghanistan) The temple may have been an old Zoroastrian... Bamiyan province is one of the thirty_four provinces of Afghanistan. ... One of the Buddhas of Bamyan as it stood in 1963. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Jalalabad (Persian: Jalālābād, 34°31′N 70°31′E) is the capital of Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, 150 km east of Kabul near the Khyber Pass and west of the Kunar River. ... Laghman province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ...


India

Xuanzang left Jalalabad, which had few Buddhist monks, but many stupas and monasteries. He passed through Hunza and the Khyber Pass to the east, reaching the former capital of Gandhara, Peshawar, on the other side. Peshawar was nothing compared to its former glory, and Buddhism was declining in the region. Xuanzang visited a number of stupas around Peshawar, notably the Kanishka Stupa. This stupa was built just southeast of Peshawar, by a former king of the city. In 1908 it was rediscovered by D.B. Spooner with the help of Xuanzang's account. Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... This page is about the town of Hunza in northern areas of Pakistan. ... The Khyber Pass (also called the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Xuanzang left Peshawar and travelled northeast to the Swat Valley. Reaching Udyana, he found 1,400 old monasteries, that had previously supported 18,000 monks. The remnant monks were of the Mahayana school. Xuanzang continued northward and into the Buner Valley, before doubling back via Shabaz Gharni to cross the Indus river at Hund. Thereafter he headed to Taxila, a Mahayana Buddhist kingdom that was a vassal of Kashmir, which is precisely where he headed next. Here he found 5,000 more Buddhist monks in 100 monasteries. Here he met a talented Mahayana monk and spent his next two years (631-633) studying Mahayana alongside other schools of Buddhism. During this time, Xuanzang writes about the fourth Buddhist Council that took place nearby, ca. 100 AD, under the order of King Kanishka of Kushana. This is disputed by some Theravadins. Swat is a former state in the northwest frontier province of Pakistan. ... Udyāna (Sanskrit, meaning garden or orchard; Chinese pinyin: wu chang, also romanized as Woo-chang) was a Buddhist region in northern India, delimited in part by the Indus river and to the south by a region known as Soo-ho-to. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... BUNER, a valley on the Peshawar valley border of the North-West Frontier Province of modern day Pakistan. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age (Vedic) India. ... Carl von Weizacker & Friedrich Hund, Goettingen DPI Friedrich Hund (February 4, 1896 - March 31, 1997) : German physicist known for his work on atoms and molecules. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... -1... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ...


In 633, Xuanzang left Kashmir and journeyed south to Chinabhukti (thought to be modern Firozpur), where he studied for a year with the monk-prince Vinitaprabha. Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Firozpur (or Ferozepur, Ferozepore) is city and district in Punjab, India. ...


In 634 he went east to Jalandhara in eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river. Mathura had 2,000 monks of both major Buddhist branches, despite being Hindu-dominated. Xuanzang travelled up the river to Srughna before crossing eastward to Matipura, where he arrived in 635, having crossed the river Ganges. From here, he headed south to Sankasya (Kapitha), said to be where Buddha descended from heaven, then onward to the northern Indian emperor Harsha's grand capital of Kanyakubja (Kanauji). Here, in 636, Xuanzang encountered 100 monasteries of 10,000 monks (both Mahayana and Theravada), and was impressed by the king's patronage of both scholarship and Buddhism. Xuanzang spent time in the city studying Theravada scriptures, before setting off eastward again for Ayodhya (Saketa), homeland of the Yogacara school. Xuanzang now moved south to Kausambi (Kosam), where he had a copy made from an important local image of the Buddha. Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... small alley in Jalandhar, close to the fish-market rikshaws with bananas in Jalandhar, close to the fish-market Jalandhar is a city in the state of Punjab, India. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda, Sanskrit: sthaviravāda → English: The Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest... Kulu Valley is a software company formed in 2002 by Sumit Rai and Robert Long. ... Bairat is a town in northern Jaipur District of Rajasthan, India. ... Mathura (मथुरा) is a city in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and south of Delhi. ... The river Yamuna is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ... Events Saint Aidan founds Lindisfarne in Northumbria, England Nestorian China Births Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia (approximate date) 23 May - Chan Bahlum II, king of Palenque Deaths Categories: 635 ... This article is about the river. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Kanauj, or Kannauj, is an ancient city of Uttar Pradesh state of India (1991 pop. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda, Sanskrit: sthaviravāda → English: The Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as Consciousness-only (Sanskrit: Cittamātra). ... Kausambi is the name of an ancient city in India, and is thought to correspond to the Kosam Ruins, Kosam, in Uttar Pradesh. ...


Xuanzang now returned northward to Sravasti, travelled through Terai in the southern part of modern Nepal (here he found deserted Buddhist monasteries) and thence to Kapilavastu, his last stop before Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha. Reaching Lumbini, he would have seen a pillar near the old Ashoka tree that Buddha is said to have been born under. This was from the reign of emperor Ashoka, and records that he worshipped at the spot. The pillar was rediscovered by A. Fuhrer in 1895. SrāvastÄ« or SāvatthÄ« (Chinese: 舍衛), a city of ancient India, was one of the largest cities during Gautama Buddha’s lifetime. ... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ... Lumbini (Sanskrit for the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal near the Indian border. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 637, Xuanzang set out from Lumbini to Kusinagara, the site of Buddha's death, before heading southwest to the deer park at Sarnath where Buddha gave his first sermon, and where Xuanzang found 1,500 resident monks. Travelling eastward, at first via Varanasi, Xuanzang reached Vaisali, Pataliputra (Patna) and Bodh Gaya. He was then accompanied by local monks to Nalanda, the great ancient university of India, where he spent at least the next two years. He was in the company of several thousand scholar-monks, whom he praised. Xuanzang studied logic, grammar, Sanskrit, and the Yogacara school of Buddhism during his time at Nalanda. Events Arabs take Jerusalem Arabs take Aleppo Battle of al-Qadisiyah: Arabs defeat Persian army, take Persian capital of Ctesiphon Battle of Mag Rath: Dalriada influence in Ulster greatly reduced Births Deaths Categories: 637 ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located next to Kasia a rural town in the state of Uttar Pradesh, 52 km off Gorakhpur, in northern India. ... Sarnath (formerly also Mrigadava, Rishipattana, Isipatana), located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha was founded. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (HindÄ«: वाराणसी, UrdÅ«: وارانسی, IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (HindÄ«: बनारस, UrdÅ«: بنارس, ; IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (काशी کاشی ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Vaishali is a district in Bihar state, India. ... Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar, in north-eastern India. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... A view of the ruins of Nalanda University In the extreme rear is visible stucco (lime plaster fresco) wall art from the Gupta period. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Legacy

Statue of Xuanzang at the Great Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an
Statue of Xuanzang at the Great Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an

Xuanzang was known for his strenuous translation of Indian Buddhist texts to Chinese, and subsequent recoveries of lost Indian Buddhist texts from translated Chinese copies. He is credited with writing or compiling the Cheng Weishi Lun as a commentary on these texts. He also founded the short-lived but influential Faxiang school of Buddhism. Additionally, he was known for recording the events of the reign of the northern Indian emperor, Harsha. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 100 KB) The statue of Xuanzang at the Great Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, which was built to house the texts he brought back from India. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 100 KB) The statue of Xuanzang at the Great Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, which was built to house the texts he brought back from India. ... Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China The Big Goose Pagoda, or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔; pinyin: ), is located in southern Xian, China. ... Xian redirects here. ... The Cheng Weishi Lun (成唯識論, Discourse on the Theory of Consciousness-only) is a commentary written or compiled by the Chinese monk Xuanzang in the 7th century. ... Dharma-character school (Chinese: 法相宗 pinyin fa xiang zong) is the pejorative name for a stream of thought that represented the Indian Yogācāra system of thought in East Asia. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ...


In 646, under the Emperor's request, Xuanzang completed his book "Journey to the West in the Great Tang Dynasty" (大唐西域記), which has become one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central Asia and India. This book was first translated into French by the Sinologist Stanislas Julien in 1857. There was also a biography of Xuanzang written by the monk Huili. Both books were first translated into English by Samuel Beal, in 1884 and 1911 respectively. An English translation with copious notes by Thomas Watters was edited by T. S. Rhys Davids and S.W. Bushell, and published posthumously in London in 1905. These books are however all seriously outdated and full of inaccuracies, and recent attempts are not much better. Events Byzantines reconquer Alexandria from the Muslims. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Stanislas Julien (April 13, 1797? - February 14, 1873) was a French orientalist. ...


Xuanzang's journey along the so-called Silk Roads, and the legends that grew up around it, inspired the Ming novel Journey to the West, one of the great classics of Chinese literature. The Xuanzang of the novel is the reincarnation of a disciple of Gautama Buddha, and is protected on his journey by three powerful disciples. One of them, the monkey, was a popular favourite and profoundly influenced Chinese culture and contemporary Japanese manga and anime, (including the popular Dragon Ball and Saiyuki series'), and became well known in the West by Arthur Waley's translation and later the cult TV series Monkey. The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: Sun Wukong, Xuánzàng, Zhu Bajie, and Sha Wujing. ... // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ... The fictional character Xuanzang (玄奘, WG: Hsüan-tsang), a central character of the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West, is partly modelled after the historical Tang dynasty Buddhist monk of the same name, whose life was the books inspiration; the real Xuanzang made a perilous journey on foot... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The culture of China is the result of over 5,000 years of artistic, philosophical, political, and scientific advancement. ... Manga )   is the Japanese word for comics and print cartoons. ... For the franchise created by Akira Toriyama, see Dragon Ball (franchise). ... Arthur David Waley (August 19, 1889 – June 27, 1966) was a noted English Orientalist and Sinologist. ... Region 1 DVD cover of Monkey, Episodes 1-3. ...


In the Yuan Dynasty, there was also a play by Wu Changling (吳昌齡) about Xuanzang obtaining scriptures. The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... Romeo and Juliet by Ford Madox Brown A play, written by a playwright, or dramatist, is a form of literature, almost always consisting of dialog between characters, and intended for performance rather than reading. ...


Relics

A skull relic purported to be that of Xuanzang was held in the Temple of Great Compassion, Tianjin until 1956 when it was taken to Nalanda - allegedly by the Dalai Lama - and presented to India. The relic is now in the Patna museum. The Wenshu Monastery in Chengdu, Sichuan province also claims to have part of Xuanzang's skull. The Temple of Great Compassion (Chinese 大悲禅寺, pinyin dà bēi chán yuàn, literally Great Compassion Zen Temple) is a Buddhist temple in Hebei district, Tianjin, China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A view of the ruins of Nalanda University In the extreme rear is visible stucco (lime plaster fresco) wall art from the Gupta period. ... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng-tu), located in southwest China, is the capital of the Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


See also

Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... Zhang Qian leaving emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618-712 CE. Zhang Qian (Chinese:張騫; died 113 BCE) was a Chinese explorer and imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... Fǎxiǎn (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Genjyo Sanzo Genjyo Sanzo (玄奘三蔵 Genjō Sanzō) is one of the four main characters in the manga and anime series Saiyuki (Known as Gensomaden Saiyuki in Japan). ... Hyecho (704-787) was a Korean buddhist monk from the Korean Kingdom of Silla. ... An artist impression of Yi Jing 义净(635~713), Tang dynasty Buddhist monk. ...

References

  1. ^ Sally Hovey Wriggins. Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road. Westview Press, 1996. Revised and updated as The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang. Westview Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6, pp. 7, 193
  • Sally Hovey Wriggins. Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road. Westview Press, 1996. Revised and updated as The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang. Westview Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6.
  • On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India tr.Thomas Watters. Reprint. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1996 ISBN 81-215-0336-1.
  • Stanislas Julien. 1857. Memoires sur les contrées occidentales. Paris.

Further reading

  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Translated by Samuel Beal. London. 1884. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang. Translated from the Chinese of Shaman Hwui Li by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Li, Rongxi (translator). 1995. A Biography of the Tripiṭaka Master of the Great Ci’en Monastery of the Great Tang Dynasty. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-00-1
  • Li, Rongxi (translator). 1995. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8
  • Saran, Mishi 2005. Chasing the Monk’s Shadow: A Journey in the Footsteps of Xuanzang. Penguin/Viking, New Delhi.
  • Wriggins, Sally Hovey. 2004. The Silk Road Journey with Xuanzang. Boulder, Colorado, WestviewPress. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6
  • Waley, Arthur. The Real Tripitaka, and Other Pieces. London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1952.

External links

  • Book One of Samual Beal's translation [1]
  • Details of Xuanzang's life and works [2]
  • History of San Zang A narration of Xuan Zang's journey to India.
  • Xuanzang's Journey In the footsteps of Xuanzang
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Xuanzang | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, Free Content, ... (1643 words)
Xuanzang was born near Luoyang, Henan in 602 as Chen Yi (陳褘 Ch'en I, yi1).
Xuanzang was fully ordained as a monk in 622, at the age of 20.
The Xuanzang of the novel is the reincarnation of a disciple of Gautama Buddha, and is protected on his journey by three notorious monsters.
Xuanzang (fictional character) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (284 words)
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
In recent years, a mural on the wall of a mountain pass on the way to the China/India border was discovered that is purported to show the real Xuanzang flanked by a small hairy man that some scholars have theorized might have been the inspiration for the character of the Monkey King.
Xuanzang is occasionally mistaken for Ksitigarbha, a bodhisattva, due the fact that Ksitigarbha is often portrayed with the robes and staff of a monk.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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