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Encyclopedia > Xiongnu
A Xiongnu belt buckle.

The Xiongnu (Chinese: 匈奴; pinyin: Xiōngnú; Wade-Giles: Hsiung-nu); were a nomadic people from Central Asia, generally based in present day Mongolia. From the 3rd century BC they controlled a vast steppe empire extending west as far as the Caucasus.[citation needed] They were active in the areas of southern Siberia, western Manchuria and the modern Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Xinjiang. Relations between the Han Chinese and the Xiongnu were complicated and included military conflict, exchanges of tribute and trade, and marriage treaties. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Belt buckle: paired felines attacking ibexes, Xiongnu type, 3rd–2nd century B.C. Mongolia or southern Siberia Gold; 2 5/8 x 3 1/8 in. ... Belt buckle: paired felines attacking ibexes, Xiongnu type, 3rd–2nd century B.C. Mongolia or southern Siberia Gold; 2 5/8 x 3 1/8 in. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ...


The bulk of information on the Xiongnu comes from Chinese sources. What little is known of their titles and names comes from transliterations of Chinese character phoneticizations of their language. Only about 20 Xiongnu words[1] belonging to the Altaic languages are known[2], and only a single Xiongnu sentence survives from the Chinese documents. Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ...

Contents

Origins, languages and early history of the Xiongnu

The original geographic location of Xiongnu is generally placed at the Ordos. According to Sima Qian, the Xiongnu were descendants of Chunwei (淳維), possibly a son of Jie, the final ruler of the Xia Dynasty. However, while there is no direct evidence contradicting this account, there is no direct evidence supporting it either. Ordos Desert 1912 The Ordos Desert (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯沙漠; Pinyin: ÈěrduōsÄ« Shāmò) is a desert and steppe region lying on a plateau in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... Jie (Chinese: 桀) was the last emperor of the Xia dynasty of China, and is blamed for its fall. ... The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ...


The language of the Xiongnu reflects without any scholarly consensus, based on the analysis between early 19th century to 20th century different opinions were proposed; proponents of the Turkic languages included Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat, Julius Klaproth, Shiratori Kurakichi, Gustaf John Ramstedt, Annemarie von Gabain and Omeljan Pritsak, while others; like Paul Pelliot insisted a Mongolic origin; Albert Terrien de Lacouperie considered them to be multi component groups.[3] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Cover of Iu-kiao-li, ou les deux cousines Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (September 5, 1788 - June 4, 1832) was a French sinologist. ... Julius Heinrich Klaproth (1783-1835), German Orientalist and traveller, was born in Berlin in October of 1783, the son of the chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. ... Gustaf John Ramstedt (1873-1950) was a Finnish linguist who worked as professor extraordinarius in Altaic languages at the University of Helsinki. ... Omeljan Pritsak (b. ... Pelliot examines manuscripts in the Mogao Caves Paul Pelliot (May 28, 1878–October 26, 1945) was a French sinologist and explorer of Central Asia. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ...


Lajos Ligeti was the first to suggest that the Xiongnu spoke a Yeniseian language. In the early 1960s Edwin Pulleyblank was the first to expand upon this idea with credible evidence. In 2000, Alexander Vovin reanalyzed Pulleyblank's argument and found further support for it by utilizing the most recent reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology by Starostin and Baxter and a single Chinese transcription of a sentence in the language of the Jie (a member tribe of the Xiongnu confederacy). Previous Turkic interpretations of the aforementioned sentence do not match the Chinese translation as precisely as using Yeniseian grammar.[4] The Yenisei-Ostyak language family is spoken in central Siberia. ... Alexander vovin is a professor of eastern languages and linguistics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ... The Jie (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Chieh) were members of a small tribe in the Xiongnu Confederation in the 4th and 5th centuries CE. Their name literally means wethers or castrated male sheep. They were Caucasoid in appearance, with full beards, deep-set eyes and high noses, and were probably related...


Recent genetics research dated 2003[5] confirms the studies[6] indicating that the Turkic peoples,[7] originated from the same area and therefore are possibly related. This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


The rock art of the Yinshan and Helanshan is dated from the 9th millennium BC to 19th century. It consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and only minimally of painted images.[8] Ma Liqing compared the petroglyphs (which he presumed to be the sole extant example of possible Xiongnu writings), and the Orkhon script (the earliest known Turkic alphabet) recently, and argued a new connection between both of them.[9] The Yin Mountains (Yin Shan or Yinshan) are mountains in the Eastern Gobi Desert steppe of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China. ... The Helan Shan (Chinese: ) is a mountain range forming the border of Inner Mongolia and Ningxia, rising to some 3360 m. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ...


Excavations conducted between 1924-1925, in Noin-Ula kurgans located in Selenga River in the northern Mongolian hills north of Ulan Bator, produced objects with over twenty carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to that of to the runic letters of the Turkic Orkhon script discovered in the Orkhon Valley.[10] Noin-Ula kurgan is located in the northern Mongolia hills north of Ulaanbaatar on the Selenga River near Lake Baikal and dated by the 1st century AD. Noin-Ula kurgan contained a lacquer cup inscribed with the name of its Chinese maker and dated September 5, 13 AD. It was... Selenga River Delta from space, October 1994 The Selenga or Selenge (Mongolian: Сэлэнгэ, Russian: Селенга́) is a river in Mongolia and Russia. ... Coordinates: , Established as Örgöö 1639 current location 1778 Ulaanbaatar 1924 Area  - City 4,704. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. ...


Archaeology

In the 1920s, Pyotr Kozlov's excavations of the royal tombs dated to about 1st century CE at Noin-Ula in northern Mongolia provided a glimpse into the lost world of the Xiongnu. Other archaeological sites have been unearthed in Inner Mongolia and elsewhere; they represent the neolithic and historical periods of the Xiongnu's history.[11] Those included the Ordos culture, many of them had been identified as the Xiongnu cultures. the region were occupied predominantly by peoples showing Mongoloid features, known from their skeletal remains and artifacts. Portraits found in the Noin-Ula excavations demonstrate other cultural evidences and influences, showing that Chinese and Xiongnu art have influenced each other mutually. Some of these embroidered portraits in the Noin-Ula kurgans also depict the Xiongnu with long braided hair with wide ribbons, which are seen to be identical with the Turkic Ashina clan hair-style.[12] Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov (Russian: ) (born October 3, 1863 near Smolensk; died September 26, 1935 in Peterhof) was a Russian explorer who continued the studies of Nikolai Przhevalsky in Mongolia and Tibet. ... Noin-Ula kurgan is located in the northern Mongolia hills north of Ulaanbaatar on the Selenga River near Lake Baikal and dated by the 1st century AD. Noin-Ula kurgan contained a lacquer cup inscribed with the name of its Chinese maker and dated September 5, 13 AD. It was... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Location of the archaeological finds of the Ordos culture. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Ashina (also Asen or Asena), the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turks, according to Xin Tangshu they were related to the northern tribes from Xiongnu, though four theories were already established prior to the present under Zhoushu, Suishu and Youyang Zazu from as early as the 7th-century [1]. The...


Early history

Confederation under Modu

Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Shanyu
Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Shanyu
Eastern Hemisphere in the year 200 BC, showing the Xiongnu and its neighbors.

In 209 BC, just three years before the founding of the Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu were brought together in a powerful confederacy under a new shanyu named Modu Shanyu (known as Modu to Chinese and Mete in Turkish). The Xiongnu's political unity transformed them into a much more formidable foe by enabling them to concentrate larger forces and exercise better strategic coordination. The cause of the confederation, however, remains unclear. It has been suggested that the unification of China prompted the nomads to rally around a political centre in order to strengthen their position.[13] Another theory is that the reorganisation was their response to the political crisis that overtook them 215 BC, when Qin armies evicted them from pastures on the Yellow River.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Modu Shanyu (born in BC) was a military leader Shanyu and emperor of Khunnu Empire located in modern-day Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (2880 × 1692 pixel, file size: 530 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (2880 × 1692 pixel, file size: 530 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC - 209 BC - 208 BC 207 BC... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Chanyu(Shanyu is quite an unacceptable corruption) is the title of the ruler of the Huns [Xiongnu in Chinese]. The literal translation is the greatest in Xiongnu language. ... Modu Shanyu (born in BC) was a military leader Shanyu and emperor of Khunnu Empire located in modern-day Mongolia. ... April 23 - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene. ... Qin, Qín or Chin (Wade-Giles) can refer to. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ...


After forging internal unity, Modun expanded the empire on all sides. To the north he conquered a number of nomadic peoples, including the Dingling of southern Siberia. He crushed the power of the Donghu of eastern Mongolia and Manchuria, as well as the Yuezhi in the Gansu corridor. He was able, moreover, to recover all the lands taken by the Qin general Meng Tian. Before the death of Modun in 174 BC, the Xiongnu had driven the Yuezhi from the Gansu corridor completely and asserted their presence in the Western Regions in modern Xinjiang. For the contemporary Chinese author, see Ding Ling. ... Donghu(Chinese 东胡;pinyin dong hu), was an ancient nomad tribe or tribe union in Northeast China. ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Hexi Corridor or Gansu Corridor (Chinese: 河西走廊,, pinyin: hé xī zǒu láng), is located in Gansu province in China and covers an area of about 110,000 km². As a part of the Silk Road in ancient China, It is the most... Meng Tian (蒙恬) was a general of the Qin Dynasty who distinguished himself against the Xiongnu and the construction of the Great Wall of China. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC 175 BC - 174 BC - 173 BC 172 BC 171... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Western Regions (西域) is a historical region of Central Asia which corresponds roughly with the modern Chinese province of Xinjiang. ...


Nature of the Xiongnu state

Under Modun, a dualistic system of political organisation was formed. The left and right branches of the Xiongnu were divided on a regional basis. The shanyu or shan-yü — supreme ruler equivalent to the Chinese "Son of Heaven" — exercised direct authority over the central territory. The Longcheng (蘢城), near Koshu-Tsaidam in Mongolia, was established as the annual meeting place and de facto capital. The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ...


The marriage treaty system

In the winter of 200 BC, following a siege of Taiyuan, Emperor Gao personally led a military campaign against Modun. At the battle of Baideng, he was ambushed reputedly by 300,000 elite Xiongnu cavalry. The emperor was cut off from supplies and reinforcements for seven days, only narrowly escaping capture. The eastern hemisphere in 200 BC. Antiochus IIIs forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria, defeating the Egyptian general Scopas at Panion near the source of the Jordan River, and thus gaining control of Palestine. ... Location within China Taiyuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tàiyuán; Wade-Giles: Tai-yüan) is a prefecture-level city in China, capital of the Shanxi province. ... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only a few dynasty founders who...


After the defeat at Pingcheng, the Han emperor abandoned a military solution to the Xiongnu threat. Instead, in 198 BC, the courtier Liu Jing (劉敬) was despatched for negotiations. The peace settlement eventually reached between the parties included a Han princess given in marriage to the shanyu (called heqin 和親 or "harmonious kinship"); periodic tribute of silk, liquor and rice to the Xiongnu; equal status between the states; and the Great Wall as mutual border. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC - 198 BC - 197 BC 196 BC... Heqin (Chinese: 龢親 or 和親; pinyin: hě qīn) is a term used in ancient China for a marriage alliance. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Spirits redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect...


This first treaty set the pattern for relations between the Han and the Xiongnu for some sixty years. Up to 135 BC, the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, with an increase of "gifts" with each subsequent agreement. In 192 BC, Modun even asked for the hand of the widowed Empress Lü. His son and successor, the energetic Jiyu (稽粥), known as the Laoshang Shanyu (老上單于), continued his father's expansionist policies. Laoshang succeeded in negotiating with Emperor Wen, terms for the maintenance of a large-scale government-sponsored market system. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 140 BC 139 BC 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC - 135 BC - 134 BC 133 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC - 192 BC - 191 BC 190 BC... Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC–157 BC) was an emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ...


While much was gained by the Xiongnu, from the Chinese perspective marriage treaties were costly and ineffective. Laoshang showed that he did not take the peace treaty seriously. On one occasion his scouts penetrated to a point near Chang'an. In 166 BC he personally led 140,000 cavalry to invade Anding, reaching as far as the imperial retreat at Yong. In 158 BC, his successor sent 30,000 cavalry to attack the Shang commandery and another 30,000 to Yunzhong. For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC - 166 BC - 165 BC 164 BC 163... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 163 BC 162 BC 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC - 158 BC - 157 BC 156 BC...


War with Han China

Main article: Sino-Xiongnu War

Han China was making preparations for a military confrontation from the reign of Emperor Wen. The break came in 133 BC, following an abortive trap to ambush the shanyu at Mayi. By that point the empire was consolidated politically, militarily, and financially, and was led by an adventurous pro-war faction at court. In that year, Emperor Wu reversed the decision he had made the year before to renew the peace treaty. Combatants Xiongnu Han Dynasty Strength Varied, ranging from around 100,000 to over 200,000, mostly cavalry Varied but estimated at around 300,000 maximum The Sino-Xiongnu War is a name given to a series of battle between the Han Dynasty and the tribes of Xiongnu between 133 BC... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC–157 BC) was an emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC 135 BC 134 BC - 133 BC - 132 BC 131 BC... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern...


Full scale war broke out in autumn 129 BC, when 40,000 Chinese cavalry made a surprise attack on the Xiongnu at the border markets. In 127 BC, the Han general Wei Qing retook the Ordos. In 121 BC, the Xiongnu suffered another setback when Huo Qubing led a force of light cavalry westward out of Longxi and within six days fought his way through five Xiongnu kingdoms. The Xiongnu Hunye king was forced to surrender with 40,000 men. In 119 BC both Huo and Wei, each leading 50,000 cavalrymen and 100,000 footsoldiers, and advancing along different routes, forced the shanyu and his court to flee north of the Gobi Desert.[15] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC - 127 BC - 126 BC 125 BC... Wèi QÄ«ng (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Wei Ching, d. ... Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC - 121 BC - 120 BC 119 BC... Huo Qubing (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Huo Chüping, b. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC 120 BC - 119 BC - 118 BC 117 BC... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ...


Major logistical difficulties limited the duration and long-term continuation of these campaigns. According the analysis of Yan You (嚴尤), the difficulties were twofold. Firstly there was the problem of supplying food across long distances. Secondly, the weather in the northern Xiongnu lands was difficult for Han soldiers, who could never carry enough fuel.[16] According to official reports, Xiongnu's side lost 80,000 to 90,000 men. And out of the 140,000 horses the Han forces had brought into the desert, fewer than 30,000 returned to China.


As a result of these battles, the Chinese controlled the strategic region from the Ordos and Gansu corridor to Lop Nor. They succeeded in separating the Xiongnu from the Qiang peoples to the south, and also gained direct access to the Western Regions. Ordos Desert 1912 The Ordos Desert (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯沙漠; Pinyin: ÈěrduōsÄ« Shāmò) is a desert and steppe region lying on a plateau in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lop Nur (alternately Lop Nor or Lo-pu po) is a group of small salt lakes and marshes in the desert in Malan, Xinjiang, in Northwestern China. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The Western Regions (西域) is a historical region of Central Asia which corresponds roughly with the modern Chinese province of Xinjiang. ...


Ban Chao, Protector General (都護; Duhu) of the Han Dynasty embarked with an army of 70,000 men in a campaign against the Xiongnu insurgents who were harassing the trade route we now know as the Silk Road. His successful military campaign saw the subjugation of one Xiongnu tribe after another, and those fleeing Xiongnu insurgents were pursued by Ban Chao's army of entirely mounted-infantry and light cavalry over an extremely vast distance westward into the territory of the Parthians and beyond the Caspian Sea, reaching the region of what is present-day Ukraine. Upon return, he established a base on the shores of the Caspian Sea, after which he reportedly also sent an envoy named Gan Ying to Daqin (Rome). Ban Chao was created the Marquess of Dingyuan (定遠侯, i.e., "the Marquess who stabilized faraway places") for his services to the Han Empire and returned to the capital Loyang at the age of 70 years old and died there in the year 102. Following his death, the power of the Xiongnu in the Western Regions increased again, and the emporers of subsequent dynasties were never again able to reach so far to the west. Ban Chao (Chinese: 班超; Wade-Giles: Pan Chao, 32-102 CE), born in Xianyang, Shaanxi, was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Gan Ying (Chinese:甘英; Wade-Giles:Kan Ying), was a Chinese military ambassador who was sent on a mission to Rome in AD 97 by the Chinese general Ban Chao. ... Daqin (Ch:大秦) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a city in Henan province, China. ...


Leadership struggle among the Xiongnu

As the Xiongnu empire expanded, it became clear that the original leadership structures lacked flexibility and could not maintain effective cohesion. The traditional succession of the eldest son became increasingly ineffective in meeting wartime emergencies in the 1st century BC. To combat the problems of succession, the Huhanye Shanyu (58 BC-31 BC) later laid down the rule that his heir apparent must pass the throne on to a younger brother. This pattern of fraternal succession did indeed become the norm. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC...


The growth of regionalism became clear around this period, when local kings refused to attend the annual meetings at the shanyu's court. During this period, shanyu were forced to develop power bases in their own regions to secure the throne. Regionalism could be Regionalism (politics) Regionalism (literature) Regionalism (art) Regionalism (linguistics) Category: ...


In the period 114 BC to 60 BC, the Xiongnu produced altogether seven shanyu. Two of them, Chanshilu and Huyanti, assumed the office while still children. In 60 BC, Tuqitang, the "Worthy Prince of the Right", became Wuyanjuti Shanyu. No sooner had he come to the throne, than he began to purge from power those whose base lay in the left group. Thus antagonised, in 58 BC the nobility of the left put forward Huhanye as their own shanyu. The year 57 BC saw a struggle for power among five regional groupings, each with its own shanyu. In 54 BC Huhanye abandoned his capital in the north after being defeated by his brother, the Zhizhi Shanyu. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 119 BC 118 BC 117 BC 116 BC 115 BC - 114 BC - 113 BC 112 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar suppressed an uprising and conquered all of Lusitania for Rome Creation of the First Triumvirate, an informal political alliance between Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus (or 59 BC) the Seleucid Kingdom comes to an end with the last two Emopors being murdered on... Worthy Prince (Chinese: 贤王; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsienwang), one of the established mechanism of Xiongnu, commander-in-chief held with the practical strength from the eastern and western territories of the ruling elites. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Zhizhi Chanyu (Chinese: 郅支單于, Russian: шаньюй Чжичжи or Чжичжи-хан), was a prince (chanyu) of Xiongnu who lived in the first century BC. In 55 BC Zhizhi Chanyu rose against his brother Huhanye, then the chanyu of Xiongnu. ...


Tributary relations with the Han

The Han Dynasty world order in AD 2.
The Han Dynasty world order in AD 2.

In 53 BC Huhanye (呼韓邪) decided to enter into tributary relations with Han China. The original terms insisted on by the Han court were that, first, the shanyu or his representatives should come to the capital to pay homage; secondly, the shanyu should send a hostage prince; and thirdly, the shanyu should present tribute to the Han emperor. The political status of the Xiongnu in the Chinese world order was reduced from that of a "brotherly state" to that of an "outer vassal" (外臣). During this period, however, the Xiongnu maintained political sovereignty and full territorial integrity. The Great Wall of China continued to serve as the line of demarcation between Han and Xiongnu. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (880x650, 1030 KB) // Summary Created and copyright (2006) by Yeu Ninje. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (880x650, 1030 KB) // Summary Created and copyright (2006) by Yeu Ninje. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


Huhanye sent his son, the "wise king of the right" Shuloujutang, to the Han court as hostage. In 51 BC he personally visited Chang'an to pay homage to the emperor on the Chinese New Year. On the financial side, Huhanye was amply rewarded in large quantities of gold, cash, clothes, silk, horses and grain for his participation. Huhanye made two more homage trips, in 49 BC and 33 BC; with each one the imperial gifts were increased. On the last trip, Huhanye took the opportunity to ask to be allowed to become an imperial son-in-law. As a sign of the decline in the political status of the Xiongnu, Emperor Yuan refused, giving him instead five ladies-in-waiting. One of them was Wang Zhaojun, famed in Chinese folklore as one of the Four Beauties. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC... Emperor Yuan of Han (75 BC–33 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Wang Qiang (王牆 also 王檣; 王嬙), more commonly known by her style name Wang Zhaojun (王昭君) was the consort of the Xiongnu shanyu Huhanye (呼韓邪). She is famed as one of the Four Beauties of ancient China. ... Qing Dynasty depiction of Diaochan, one of the Four Great Beauties. ...


When Zhizhi learned of his brother's submission, he also sent a son to the Han court as hostage in 53 BC. Then twice, in 51 BC and 50 BC, he sent envoys to the Han court with tribute. But having failed to pay homage personally, he was never admitted to the tributary system. In 36 BC, a junior officer named Chen Tang, with the help of Gan Yanshou, protector-general of the Western Regions, assembled an expeditionary force that defeated Zhizhi and sent his head as a trophy to Chang'an. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Combatants Xiongnu Han Dynasty Commanders Zhizhi Chanyu Gan Yanshou Chen Tang Strength 3,000 Xiongnu cavalry and infantry with 10,000 cavalry reinforcement from Kangju 40,000 Han crossbowmen with Tarim Basin allies Casualties 1518 aristocrats executed, 1,000 surrendered and 145 captived Minimal The Battle of Zhizhi was a...


Tributary relations were discontinued during the reign of Huduershi (AD 18-48), corresponding to the political upheavals of the Xin Dynasty in China. The Xiongnu took the opportunity to regain control of the western regions, as well as neighbouring peoples such as the Wuhuan. In AD 24, Hudershi even talked about reversing the tributary system. ˑ This article is about the year 18. ... Events Rome Roman Emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xīn cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Wuhuan (traditional Chinese: 烏桓; simplified Chinese: 乌桓; pinyin: Wūhuán) were a nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia. ... Roman war against Numidia and Mauretania ends. ...


Late history

Northern Xiongnu

The Xiongnu's new power was met with a policy of appeasement by Emperor Guangwu. At the height of his power, Huduershi even compared himself to his illustrious ancestor, Modu. Due to growing regionalism among the Xiongnu, however, Huduershi was never able to establish unquestioned authority. When he designated his son as heir apparent (in contravention of the principle of fraternal succession established by Huhanye), Bi, the Rizhu king of the right, refused to attend the annual meeting at the shanyu's court. Emperor Guangwu (January 15, 5 BC - March 29, 57), born Liu Xiu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). ...


As the eldest son of the preceding shanyu, Bi had a legitimate claim to the succession. In 48, two years after Huduershi's son Punu ascended the throne, eight Xiongnu tribes in Bi's powerbase in the south, with a military force totalling 40,000 to 50,000 men, acclaimed Bi as their own shanyu. Throughout the Eastern Han period, these two groups were called the southern Xiongnu and the northern Xiongnu, respectively. Events Rome Roman Emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem. ...


Hard pressed by the northern Xiongnu and plagued by natural calamities, Bi brought the southern Xiongnu into tributary relations with Han China in 50. The tributary system was considerably tightened to keep the southern Xiongnu under Han supervision. The shanyu was ordered to establish his court in the Meiji district of Xihe commandery. The southern Xiongnu were resettled in eight frontier commanderies. At the same time, large numbers of Chinese were forced to migrate to these commanderies, where mixed settlements began to appear. The northern Xiongnu were dispersed by the Xianbei in 85 and again in 89 by the Chinese during the Battle of Ikh Bayan, of which the last Northern Shanyu was defeated and fled over to the north west with his subjects. This article is about the year 50. ... Events Roman Empire Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89. ... This article is about the year 89. ... Combatants Northern Xiongnu Han Dynasty Commanders Northern Chanyu (unnamed chief) Dou Xian Southern Chanyu Deng Hong Strength Unknown 46,000 cavalry (30,000 Southern Xiongnu and 8,000 Qiang) Casualties 13,000 dead, 200,000 surrendered and 1,000,000 livestocks captured Minimal The Battle of Ikh Bayan, was a... The Northern Shanyu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei Chanyü, reigned 89–91) was an unnamed and obscure shanyu of Xiongnu who lived in the 1st century. ...


Southern Xiongnu

Economically, the southern Xiongnu relied almost totally on Han assistance. Tensions were evident between the settled Chinese and practitioners of the nomadic way of life. Thus, in 94 Anguo Shanyu joined forces with newly subjugated Xiongnu from the north and started a large scale rebellion against the Han. For other uses, see number 94. ...


Towards the end of the Eastern Han, the southern Xiongnu were drawn into the rebellions then plaguing the Han court. In 188, the shanyu was murdered by some of his own subjects for agreeing to send troops to help the Han suppress a rebellion in Hebei - many of the Xiongnu feared that it would set a precedent for unending military service to the Han court. The murdered shanyu's son succeeded him, but was then overthrown by the same rebellious faction in 189. He travelled to Luoyang (the Han capital) to seek aid from the Han court, but at this time the Han court was in disorder from the clash between Grand General He Jin and the eunuchs, and the intervention of the warlord Dong Zhuo. The shanyu named Yufuluo (於扶羅), but entitled Chizhisizhu (特至尸逐侯), had no choice but to settle down with his followers in Pingyang, a city in Shanxi. In 195, he died and was succeeded by his brother Hucuquan. Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... He Jin (? – 189) was the elder half-brother of Empress He, consort to Emperor Ling of the late Eastern Han Dynasty. ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: DÇ’ng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Linfen (Traditional Chinese: 臨汾; Simplified Chinese: 临汾) is a prefecture-level city in southern Shanxi province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


In 216, the warlord-statesman Cao Cao detained Hucuquan in the city of Ye, and divided his followers in Shanxi into five divisions: left, right, south, north, and centre. This was aimed at preventing the exiled Xiongnu in Shanxi from engaging in rebellion, and also allowed Cao Cao to use the Xiongnu as auxiliaries in his cavalry. Eventually, the Xiongnu aristocracy in Shanxi changed their surname from Luanti to Liu for prestige reasons, claiming that they were related to the Han imperial clan through the old intermarriage policy. Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ... Look up ye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Luanti (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Luanti, alternatively written as Xulianti 虚连题) was a clan and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Xiongnu that flourished between 3rd century BCE to 4th century CE. It was the clan that held some of the highest positions in the Xiongnu society, including the title...


After the Han Dynasty

After Hucuquan, the Xiongnu were partitioned into five local tribes. The complicated ethnic situation of the mixed frontier settlements instituted during the Eastern Han had grave consequences, not fully apprehended by the Chinese government until the end of the 3rd century. By 260, Liu Qubei had organized the Tiefu confederacy in the north east, and by 290, Liu Yuan was leading a splinter group in the south west. At that time, non-Chinese unrest reached alarming proportions along the whole of the Western Jin frontier. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... Liu Qubei (Chinese: 劉去卑; pinyin: Liú Qùbēi), (?-272) Tiefu chieftain 260-272. ... Liu Yuan (劉淵) (d. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ...


Liu Yuan's Northern Han (304-318)

In 304 the sinicised Liu Yuan, a grandson of Yufuluo Chizhisizhu stirred up descendants of the southern Xiongnu in rebellion in Shanxi, taking advantage of the War of the Eight Princes then raging around the Western Jin capital Luoyang. Under Liu Yuan's leadership, they were joined by a large number of frontier Chinese and became known as Bei Han. Liu Yuan used 'Han' as the name of his state, hoping to tap into the lingering nostalgia for the glory of the Han dynasty, and established his capital in Pingyang. The Xiongnu use of large numbers of heavy cavalry with iron armour for both rider and horse gave them a decisive advantage over Jin armies already weakened and demoralised by three years of civil war. In 311, they captured Luoyang, and with it the Jin emperor Sima Chi (Emperor Huai). In 316, the next Jin emperor was captured in Chang'an, and the whole of north China came under Xiongnu rule while remnants of the Jin dynasty survived in the south (known to historians as the Eastern Jin). For other uses, see 304 (disambiguation). ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article appears to contradict itself. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Linfen (Traditional Chinese: 臨汾; Simplified Chinese: 临汾) is a prefecture-level city in southern Shanxi province, Peoples Republic of China. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ...


Liu Yao's Former Zhao (318-329)

In 318, after suppressing a coup by a powerful minister in the Xiongnu-Han court (in which the Xiongnu-Han emperor and a large proportion of the aristocracy were massacred), the Xiongnu prince Liu Yao moved the Xiongnu-Han capital from Pingyang to Chang'an and renamed the dynasty as Zhao (it is hence known to historians collectively as Han Zhao). However, the eastern part of north China came under the control of a rebel Xiongnu-Han general of Jie (probably Yeniseian) ancestry named Shi Le. Liu Yao and Shi Le fought a long war until 329, when Liu Yao was captured in battle and executed. Chang'an fell to Shi Le soon after, and the Xiongnu dynasty was wiped out. North China was ruled by Shi Le's Later Zhao dynasty for the next 20 years. Liu Yao (劉曜) (d. ... The Han Zhao (Simplified Chinese script: 汉赵, Traditional Chinese script: 漢趙, pinyin: Hànzhào) (304-329) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420). ... The Jie (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Chieh) were members of a small tribe in the Xiongnu Confederation in the 4th and 5th centuries CE. Their name literally means wethers or castrated male sheep. They were Caucasoid in appearance, with full beards, deep-set eyes and high noses, and were probably related... // The Yeniseian family of languages (sometimes known as Yenisei-Ostyak) is spoken in central Siberia. ... Shi Le (石勒) (274-333), courtesy name Shilong (世龍), formally Emperor Ming of (Later) Zhao ((後)趙明帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Jie state Later Zhao. ... The Later Zhao (Simplified Chinese character: 后赵, Traditional Chinese character: 後趙, Hanyu pinyin Hòuzhào) (319-351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ...


However, the "Liu" Xiongnu remained active in the north for at least another century.


Tiefu & Xia (260-431)

The northern Tiefu branch of the Xiongnu gained control of the Inner Mongolian region in the 10 years between the conquest of the Tuoba Xianbei state of Dai by the Former Qin empire in 376, and its restoration in 386 as the Northern Wei. After 386, the Tiefu were gradually destroyed by or surrendered to the Tuoba, with the submitting Tiefu becoming known as the Dugu. Liu Bobo, a surviving prince of the Tiefu fled to the Ordos Loop, where he founded a state called the Xia (thus named because of the Xiongnu's supposed ancestry from the Xia dynasty) and changed his surname to Helian (赫連). The Helian-Xia state was conquered by the Northern Wei in 428-431, and the Xiongnu thenceforth effectively ceased to play a major role in Chinese history, assimilating into the Xianbei and Han ethnicities. The Tiefu (Simplified Chinese character: 铁弗, Traditional Chinese character: 鐵弗, pinyin: TiÄ›fú) was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Tuoba (æ‹“æ‹”; pinyin Tuòbá) or To-pa in Wade-Giles was a clan of the Xianbei people. ... Xianbei belt buckles, 3-4th century CE. The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. ... Dai (Chinese character: 代, pinyin: Dài) was a state of the Tuoba clan of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Former Qin (Chinese character: 前秦, Hanyu pinyin Qiánqín) (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... Helian Bobo (赫連勃勃) (381-425), né Liu Bobo (劉勃勃), courtesy name Qujie (屈孑), formally Emperor Wulie of Xia (夏武烈帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Xiongnu state Xia. ... Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Juqu & Northern Liang (401-460)

The Juqu were a branch of the Xiongnu. Their leader Juqu Mengxun took over the Northern Liang by overthrowing the former puppet ruler Duan Ye. By 439, the Juqu power was destroyed by the Northern Wei. Their remnants were then settled in the city of Gaochang before being destroyed by the Rouran. Juqu Mengxun (沮渠蒙遜) (368-433) was a prince of the Chinese/Xiongnu state Northern Liang, and the first from the Juqu clan. ... The Northern Liang (Chinese character: 北凉, Hanyu pinyin BÄ•i Liáng) (397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Duan Ye (段業) (d. ... Events Licinia Eudoxia, wife of the Roman Emperor Valentinian III, is granted the rank of Augusta following the birth of their daughter Eudocia. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... Ruins of Gaochang Gaochang (高昌) was an ancient city, located 30 km SE of modern Turpan in Xinjiang, China. ... Rouran (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Jou Jan, literally Soft-like), Juan Juan (Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally meaning the Wriggling Insects, a name given by the Toba ruling elites of northern China), or Ruru (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Ju Ju, literally meaning Fodder) was the name of a confederation of nomadic tribes on the...


Northern Xiongnu becoming the Huns

Etymology of 匈
Source: http://starling.rinet.ru
Preclassic Old Chinese: sŋoŋ
Classic Old Chinese: ŋ̥oŋ
Postclassic Old Chinese: hoŋ
Middle Chinese: xöuŋ
Modern Cantonese: hūng
Modern Mandarin: xiōng
Modern Sino-Korean: hyung

As in the case of the Rouran with the Avars, oversimplifications have led to the Xiongnu often being identified with the Huns, who populated the frontiers of Europe. The connection started with the writings of the eighteenth century French historian de Guignes, who noticed that a few of the barbarian tribes north of China associated with the Xiongnu had been named "Hun" with varying Chinese characters. This theory remains at the level of speculation, although it is accepted by some scholars, including Chinese ones. DNA testing of Hun remains has not proven conclusive in determining the origin of the Huns. Rouran (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Jou Jan, literally Soft-like), Juan Juan (Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally meaning the Wriggling Insects, a name given by the Toba ruling elites of northern China), or Ruru (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Ju Ju, literally meaning Fodder) was the name of a confederation of nomadic tribes on the... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Linguistically, it is important to understand that "xiōngnú" is only the modern standard Mandarin pronunciation (based on the Beijing dialect) of "匈奴". At the time of Hunnish contact with the western world (the 4th–6th centuries AD), the sound of the character "匈" has been reconstructed as /hoŋ/. Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Peking redirects here. ...


The supposed sound of the first character has a clear similarity with the name "Hun" in European languages. Whether this is evidence of kinship or mere coincidence is hard to tell. It could lend credence to the theory that the Huns were in fact descendants of the Northern Xiongnu who migrated westward, or that the Huns were using a name borrowed from the Northern Xiongnu, or that these Xiongnu made up part of the Hun confederation.


The traditional etymology of "匈" is that it is as pictogram of the facial features of one of these people, wearing a helmet, with the "x" under the helmet representing the scars they inflicted on their faces to frighten their enemies. However, there is no actual evidence for this interpretation.


In modern Chinese, the character "匈" is used in four ways: to mean "chest" (written 胸 in this sense as the set of Chinese characters evolves), in the name 匈奴 Xiōngnú "Xiongnu", in the word 匈人 Xiōngrén "Hun [person]", and in the name 匈牙利 Xiōngyálì "Hungary". The last of these is a modern coinage which may derive from the belief that the Huns were related to the Xiongnu.[citation needed]


The second character, "奴", appears to have no parallel in Western terminology. Its contemporary pronunciation was /nhō/, and it means "slave", although it is possible that it has only a phonetic role in the name 匈奴. There is almost certainly no connection between the "chest" meaning of 匈 and its ethnic meaning. There might conceivably be some sort of connection with the identically pronounced word "凶", which means "fierce", "ferocious", "inauspicious", "bad", or "violent act". Most probably, the word derives from the tribe's own name for itself as a semi-phonetic transliteration into Chinese, and the character was chosen somewhat arbitrarily — a practice that continues today in Chinese renderings of foreign names.


Although the phonetic side of the question is not conclusive, new results from Central Asia might shift the balance in favor of a political and cultural link between the Xiongnu and the Huns. The Central Asian sources of the 4th century translated in both direction Xiongnu by Huns (in the Sogdian Ancient Letters, the Xiongnu in Northern China are named xwn, while in the Buddhist translations by Dharmarakhsa Huna of the Indian text is translated Xiongnu). Moreover, from an archaeological point of view, it is certain that the Hunnic cauldrons are similar to the Ordos Xiongnu ones. Moreover, they were used in the same rituals, as in Hungary and in the Ordos they were found buried in river banks.


Another clue in the link between the Xiongnu and the Huns is indicated by an old Byzantine codex dating back to 14th century. Inside the codex was a list in a Slav language from the early Middle Ages. This was decoded and translated by Omeljan Pritsak professor of history and language (at Lvov, Hamburg and Harvard University) in 1955 and named: "The Old-Bulgarian King List" [17] (Nominalia of the Bulgarian Khans). This contains the names and descendants of the Hun kings` dynasty. On the start of it is the great Mao-Tun (Modu shanyu), who established the Xiongnu Empire. Among the other descendants` names is the name of Ernakh, the youngest son of Attila The Hun. It indicates that the Xiongnu and the Huns lived under the same ruler dynasty. The possibility of Xiongnu eventually becoming the Huns is indicated by this codex. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Omeljan Pritsak (b. ... The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Bulgarian: ) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Mao Dun (July 4, 1896–March 27, 1981) was the pen name of Shen Dehong, a 20th century Chinese novelist, cultural critic, and journalist. ... Ernakh or Ernac (Priscus: Ήρνάχ Hernach) was the 3rd son of Attila. ... “Attila” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20041212065606/http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/twain/1279/royalhouse/xianbei/xiongnulanguage.htm 匈奴語言一覽The Xiongnu(Hun) language](Chinese Traditional Big5 code page) via Internet Archive Hunnish language words in old Chinese texts
  2. ^ Wang (2004). "Outlines of Ethnic Groups in China". p. 133.
  3. ^ GENG Shi-min On Altaic Common Language and Xiongnu Language. (Wanfang Data: Digital Periodicals, 2005)
  4. ^ Vovin, Alexander. "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language?". Central Asiatic Journal 44/1 (2000), pp. 87-104.
  5. ^ Keyser-Tracqui C., Crubezy E., Ludes B. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a 2,000-year-old necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia American Journal of Human Genetics 2003 August; 73(2): 247–260.
  6. ^ The Gök Türk Empire All Empires
  7. ^ Nancy Touchette Ancient DNA Tells Tales from the Grave "Skeletons from the most recent graves also contained DNA sequences similar to those in people from present-day Turkey. This supports other studies indicating that Turkic tribes originated at least in part in Mongolia at the end of the Xiongnu period."
  8. ^ Paola Demattè Writing the Landscape: the Petroglyphs of Inner Mongolia and Ningxia Province (China). (Paper presented at the First International Conference of Eurasian Archaeology, University of Chicago, May 3-4, 2002.)
  9. ^ MA Li-qing On the new evidence on Xiongnu's writings. (Wanfang Data: Digital Periodicals, 2004)
  10. ^ N. Ishjatms, "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", in the "History of civilizations of Central Asia", Volume 2, Fig 6, p. 166, UNESCO Publishing, 1996, ISBN 92-3-102846-4
  11. ^ Zhang et al (2001). "Cultural History of Ancient Northern Ethnic Groups in China", p. 176-225.
  12. ^ Ma, Liqing (2005). Original Xiongnu, An Archaeological Explore on the Xiongnu's History and Culture. Hohhot: Inner Mongolia University Press. ISBN 7-81074-796-7, p. 196-197
  13. ^ Barfield, Thomas. The Perilous Frontier (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989).
  14. ^ Di Cosmo, "The Northern Frontier in Pre-Imperial China", in The Cambridge History of Ancient China, edited by Michael Loewe and Edward Shaughnessy, pp. 885-966. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  15. ^ These campaigns are described in detail by Michael Loewe, "The campaigns of Han Wu-ti", in Chinese ways in warfare, ed. Frank A. Kierman, Jr., and John K. Fairbank (Cambridge, Mass., 1974).
  16. ^ This view was put forward to Wang Mang in AD 14: Han Shu (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju edition) 94B, p. 3824.
  17. ^ Pritsak, Omeljan: Die bulgarische Fürstenliste und die Sprache der Protobulgaren. 1955. Wiesbaden.

The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Wang Mang (王莽, pinyin: Wáng Măng) (45 BC–October 6, 23), courtesy name Jujun (巨君), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded Xin (or Hsin) Dynasty (新朝, meaning new dynasty), ruling AD 8–23. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Ban Gu (班固), Han shu (漢書). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1962.
  • Fan Ye (范曄) et al., comp. Hou Han shu (後漢書). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1965.
  • Sima Qian (司馬遷) et al., Shi ji (史記). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1959.

Secondary sources

  • de Crespigny, Rafe. Northern frontier: The policies and strategies of the Later Han empire. Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No. 4, Faculty of Asian Studies. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-86784-410-8. See[1] for chapter 1 The Government and Geography of the Northern Frontier of Later Han. (Internet publication April 2004. This version includes a general map and some summary annotations but no characters or detailed notes).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. The Division and Destruction of the Xiongnu Confederacy in the first and second centuries AD, [Turkish: "Hun Konfederasyonu'nun Blnmesi ve Yikilmasi"], being a paper published in The Turks [Yeni TrkiyeMedya Hismetleri-Murat Ocak], Ankara 2002, 256-243 & 749-757. [2](Internet publication April 2004. This version includes a map and notes but no characters).
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[3]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [4]
  • Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1979. ISBN 90-04-05884-2.
  • Ma, Liqing (2005). Original Xiongnu, An Archaeological Explore on the Xiongnu's History and Culture. Hohhot: Inner Mongolia University Press. ISBN 7-81074-796-7.
  • Zhang, Bibo and Dong, Guoyao (2001). "Cultural History of Ancient Northern Ethnic Groups in China". Harbin: Heilongjiang People's Press. ISBN 7-207-03325-7.
  • Wang, Zhonghan (2004). "Outlines of Ethnic Groups in China". Taiyuan: Shanxi Education Press. ISBN 7-5440-2660-4.
  • Yü Ying-shih, "Han foreign relations", Cambridge History of China: volume 1, The Ch'in and Han empires 221 B.C. – A.D. 220 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.], 1986, pp. 377-462. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Vovin, Alexander. "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language?". Central Asiatic Journal 44/1 (2000), pp. 87-104.
  • de la Vaissière, E., "Huns et Xiongnu". Central Asiatic Journal 49/1 (2005), pp. 3-26.

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