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Encyclopedia > Xinjiang
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Uyghur : شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايون
Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni
Chinese : 新疆维吾尔自治区
Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
Abbreviations: 新  (pinyin: Xīn)
{{{Name}}} is highlighted on this map
Origin of name 新 xīn - new
疆 jiāng - territory
"new territory"
Administration type Autonomous region
Capital
(and largest city)
Ürümqi
Official languages Mandarin
Uyghur
Designated Minority Uyghur
CPC Ctte Secretary Wang Lequan
Chairman Nur Bekri (努尔·白克力)
Area 1,660,001 km² (1st)
Population (2004)
 - Density
19,630,000 (24th)
11.8/km² (29th)
GDP (2006)
 - per capita
CNY 301.9 billion (25th)
CNY 14,871 (14th)
HDI (2005) 0.757 (medium) (14th)
Nationalities percentage Uyghur - 45%
Han - 41%
Kazakh - 7%
Hui - 5%
Kyrgyz - 0.9%
Mongol - 0.8%
Dongxiang - 0.3%
Tajik - 0.2%
Xibe - 0.2%
Prefecture-level 14 divisions
County-level 99 divisions
Township-level 1005 divisions
ISO 3166-2 CN-65
Official website
http://www.xinjiang.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese)
Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
As at December 31, 2004

Xinjiang (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ, Shinjang; Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang) is an autonomous region (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region) of the People's Republic of China. It is a large, sparsely populated area (spanning over 1.6 million sq. km) which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and the Pakistan- and India-controlled parts of Kashmir to the west. It administers most of Aksai Chin, a region claimed by India as part of Jammu and Kashmir. Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新绛县; pinyin: XÄ«njiàng Xiàn) is a county in the province of Shanxi in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... An autonomous region, used in the context of China, translates for zizhiqu (自治区 z qū), which are province-level divisions with a designated ethnic minority, and are guaranteed more rights under the constitution than provinces. ... Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... Wang Lequan is the current secretary of the Communist Party of China of the Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C.) , including all provinces, autonomous regions, special administrative regions, and municipalities, in order of their total areas. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Map showing the population of the first-order administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total population density in 2003. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total gross domestic product in 2003. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), including all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, in order of their total gross domestic product per capita in 2004. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map showing the HDI of the first-order administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tajiks. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, township is the standard English translation of the Chinese 乡 (xiāng). ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... An autonomous region, used in the context of China, translates for zizhiqu (自治区 z qū), which are province-level divisions with a designated ethnic minority, and are guaranteed more rights under the constitution than provinces. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ...


"Xinjiang" or "Ice Jecen" in Manchu, literally means "New Frontier", a name given during the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China.[1] It is home to a number of Turkic ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Uyghurs. The region is often referred to in older English references (in particular past reference works) as Chinese Turkestan[2] or sometimes East Turkestan. The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Xinjiang

// [edit] Struggle between Xiongnu and Han China Traversed by the Silk Road, Xinjiang is the Chinese name for the Tarim and Dzungaria regions of what is now northwest China. ...

Early history

According to JP Mallory, the Chinese describe the existence of "white people with long hair" or the Bai people in the Shan Hai Jing, who lived beyond their northwestern border.[3] Shanhaijing illustration of Nüwa Shanhaijing illustration of Nine-tailed Fox, companion of Xi Wangmu The Shan Hai Jing (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan Hai Ching; literally Classic of the Mountains and Seas) is a Chinese classic text that is at least 2,000 years old. ...


The very well preserved Tarim mummies with Caucasoid features, often with reddish or blond hair, today displayed at the Ürümqi Museum and dated to the 3rd century BCE, have been found in precisely the same area of the Tarim Basin. Various nomadic tribes, such as the Yuezhi were part of the large migration of Indo-European speaking peoples who were settled in eastern Central Asia (possibly as far as Gansu) at that time. The Ordos culture situated at northern China east of the Yuezhi, are another example. A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location of the archaeological finds of the Ordos culture. ...


Nomadic cultures such as the Yuezhi are documented in the area of Xinjiang from the 1st millennium BCE. The first known reference to the Yuezhi was made in 645 BC by the Chinese Guan Zhong in his Guanzi 管子(Guanzi Essays: 73: 78: 80: 81) . He described the Yuzhi 禺氏, or Niuzhi 牛氏, as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains of Yuzhi 禺氏 at Gansu.[4] The supply of jade[5] from the Tarim Basin from ancient times is indeed well documented archaeologically: "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty, more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BCE the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China." (Liu (2001), pp. 267-268). Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Guan Zhong (管仲) (born 725 BC, died in 645 BC) was a politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... guanzi, see Guan (instrument). ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Mosque in Khotan. ...


The nomadic tribes of the Yuezhi are also documented in detail in Chinese historical accounts, in particular the 2nd-1st century BCE "Records of the Great Historian", or Shiji, by Sima Qian. According to these accounts: (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ...

"The Yuezhi originally lived in the area between the Qilian or Heavenly Mountains (Tian Shan) and Dunhuang, but after they were defeated by the Xiongnu they moved far away to the west, beyond Dayuan, where they attacked and conquered the people of Daxia and set up the court of their king on the northern bank of the Gui [= Oxus] River. A small number of their people who were unable to make the journey west sought refuge among the Qiang barbarians in the Southern Mountains, where they are known as the Lesser Yuezhi."[6]

According to Han accounts, the Yuezhi "were flourishing" during the time of the first great Chinese Qin emperor, but were regularly in conflict with the neighbouring tribe of the Xiongnu to the northeast. The Qilian mountain range is located in the south of the Gansu area of western China. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Ideograms for Ta-Hia. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ...


Struggle between Xiongnu and Han China

Traversed by the Northern Silk Road,[7] Western Regions or Xinjiang is the Chinese name for the Tarim and Dzungaria regions of what is now northwest China. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220), the region was subservient to the Xiongnu, a powerful nomadic people based in modern Mongolia. In the 2nd century BC, Han China sent Zhang Qian as an envoy to the states in the region, beginning several decades of struggle between the Xiongnu and Han China over dominance of the region, eventually ending in Chinese success. In 60 BC Han China established the Protectorate of the Western Regions (西域都護府) at Wulei (烏壘; near modern Luntai) to oversee the entire region as far west as the Pamir. The Western Regions (西域) is a historical region of Central Asia which corresponds roughly with the modern Chinese province of Xinjiang. ... The Tarim River (Mandarin Dayan) is the principal river of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Dzungaria (also Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar, Chinese: 準噶爾, Russian: Džungarija) is a geographical region covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bayingholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese:巴音郭楞蒙古自治州, Pinyin: BāyÄ«nguōlèng MÄ›nggÇ” Zìzhìzhōu, Mongolian in Cyrillic script: Баянголын Монгол өөртөө засах тойрог, Uyghur: بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ...


During the usurpation of Wang Mang in China, the dependent states of the protectorate rebelled and returned to Xiongnu domination in 13. Over the next century, Han China conducted several expeditions into the region, re-establishing the protectorate from 74-76, 91-107, and from 123 onward. After the fall of the Han Dynasty (AD 220), the protectorate continued to be maintained by Cao Wei (until 265) and the Western Jin Dynasty (from 265 onwards). Wang Mang (王莽, pinyin: Wáng Măng) (45 BC–October 6, 23), courtesy name Jujun (巨君), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded Xin (or Hsin) Dynasty (新朝, meaning new dynasty), ruling AD 8–23. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ...


A summary of Classical sources on the Seres (Greek and Romain name of China) (essentially Pliny and Ptolemy) gives the following account: Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...

" The region of the Seres is a vast and populous country, touching on the east the Ocean and the limits of the habitable world, and extending west nearly to Imaus and the confines of Bactria. The people are civilised men, of mild, just, and frugal temper, eschewing collisions with their neighbours, and even shy of close intercourse, but not averse to dispose of their own products, of which raw silk is the staple, but which include also silk stuffs, furs, and iron of remarkable quality." (Henry Yule, "Cathey and the way thither")

A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sir Henry Yule (May 1, 1820 - December 30, 1880), was a British Orientalist. ...

A succession of peoples

A Buddha statue from Tumshuq, Xinjiang. 5th century. This is an example of Serindian art.
A Buddha statue from Tumshuq, Xinjiang. 5th century. This is an example of Serindian art.

The Western Jin Dynasty succumbed to successive waves of invasions by nomads from the north at the beginning of the 4th century. The short-lived non-Han Chinese kingdoms that ruled northwestern China one after the other, including Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, and Western Liáng, all attempted to maintain the protectorate, with varying extents and degrees of success. After the final reunification of northern China under the Northern Wei empire, its protectorate controlled what is now the southeastern third of Xinjiang. Local states such as Shule, Yutian, Guizi and Qiemo controlled the western half, while the central region around Turpan was controlled by Gaochang, remnants of a state (Northern Liang) that once ruled part of what is now Gansu province in northwestern China. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (956 × 1376 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (956 × 1376 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A Buddha statue from Tumshuq, Xinjiang. ... Categories: Asian art | Stub ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Former Liang (Chinese character: 前凉, Hanyu pinyin Qián Liáng) (320-376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Former Qin (Chinese character: 前秦, Hanyu pinyin Qiánqín) (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Later Liang (Simplified Chinese character: 后凉, Traditional Chinese character: 後凉, Hanyu pinyin Hòu Liáng) (320-376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Western Liang (Chinese: 西凉; Pinyin: ; 400-421) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgar, (Uyghur: قەشقەر/K̢ǝxk̢ǝr; Chinese: 喀什; pinyin: , 39°28′ N 76°03′ E), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yutian may refer to Yutian County, Hebei (玉田县) - a county in Hebei, China Keriya County (于田县) - a county in Xinjiang, China Keriya (于田) - a town in Keriya County, Xinjiang, China or may be a typing error for Yuxi in China ( such as this site ) Category: ... Look up 鬼佬, gweilo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Qiemo is a town located in Xinjiang, China. ... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ruins of Gaochang Gaochang (高昌) was an ancient city, located 30 km SE of modern Turpan in Xinjiang, China. ... The Northern Liang (Chinese character: 北凉, Hanyu pinyin BÄ•i Liáng) (397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Turk Empire

In the late 5th century the Tuyuhun and the Rouran began to assert power in southern and northern Xinjiang, respectively, and the Chinese protectorate was lost again. In the 6th century the Turks began to emerge in the Altay region, subservient to the Rouran. Within a century they had defeated the Rouran and established a vast Turk Empire, stretching over most of Central Asia past both the Aral Sea in the west and Lake Baikal in the east. In 583 the Turks split into western and eastern halves, with Xinjiang coming under the western half. In 609, China under the Sui Dynasty defeated the Tuyuhun, gaining control of southeastern Xinjiang. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Rouran (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Jou Jan, literally Soft-like), Juan Juan (Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally meaning the Wriggling Insects, a name given by the Toba ruling elites of northern China), or Ruru (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Ju Ju, literally meaning Fodder) was the name of a confederation of nomadic tribes on the... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Altay or Altai may refer to: Altay, Xinjiang, also spelled Aletai, a city in Xinjiang, China Altay, Govi-Altay, a city in Govi-Altay Province, Mongolia Altay Mountains Altay language Altay (sheep), a sheep breed Altai Republic, a federal subject of Russia Altai Krai, a federal subject of Russia This... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Baikal redirects here. ... Categories: 583 ... Events The Pantheon is consecrated to the Virgin Mary and all saints (or 610). ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ...


The Tang Dynasty and the Khanates

The Tang Dynasty was established in 618, and would prove to be one of the most expansionist dynasties in Chinese history. Starting from the 620's and 630's, Tang China conducted a series of expeditions against the Turks, eventually forcing the surrender of the western Turks in 657. Xinjiang was placed under the Anxi Protectorate (安西都護府; "Protectorate Pacifying the West"). The protectorate did not outlast the decline of Tang China in the 8th century. During the devastating Anshi Rebellion, Tibet invaded Tang China on a wide front from Xinjiang to Yunnan, sacking the Tang capital in 763, and taking control of southern Xinjiang by the end of the century. At the same time, the Uyghur Khaganate took control of northern Xinjiang, as well as much of the rest of Central Asia, including Mongolia. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events June 2 - Pope Eugene I dies and is subsequently canonized. ... The Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the West (安西大都护府) (640-790) was a military government established by Tang Dynasty China in 640 to manage regions of Tian Shan and Pamir Mountains. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Anshi Rebellion (安史之亂 pinyin: an1 shi3 zhi1 luan4) occurred in China, during the Tang Dynasty, from 756 to 763. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Yunan redirects here. ... Events Ciniod succeeds Bridei V as king of the Picts. ... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ...


Both Tibet and the Uyghur Khaganate declined in the mid-9th century. The Kara-Khanid Khanate, which arose from a confederation of Turkic tribes scattered after the destruction of the Uyghur empire, took control of western Xinjiang in the 10th century and the 11th century. Meanwhile, after the Uyghur khanate in Mongolia had been smashed by the Kirghiz, branches of the Uyghurs established themselves in the area around today's Turfan and Urumchi in 840. This Uyghur state would remain in eastern Xinjiang until the 13th century, though it would be subject to various overlords during that time. Some scholars have argued, that the Kara-Khanids were likewise "Uyghurs," as some of the components in the Kara-Khanid federation were likewise from the ruling clans of the Uyghur empire. The Kara-Khanids converted to Islam, whereas the Uyghur state in eastern Xinjiang remained Manicheaean, while tolerating Buddhism and Christianity. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


In 1132, remnants of the Khitan Empire from Manchuria entered Xinjiang, fleeing the onslaught of the Jurchens into north China. They established an exile regime, the Kara-Khitan Khanate, which became overlord over both Kara-Khanid-held and Uyghur-held parts of the Tarim Basin for the next century. Events Diarmaid Mac Murrough has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned and the abbess raped. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liaó) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as Liao Dynasty). ...


Arrival of the Mongols

After Genghis Khan had unified Mongolia and began his advance west, the Uyghur state in the Turfan-Urumchi area sensibly offered its allegiance to the Mongols in 1209, contributing taxes and troops to the Mongol imperial effort. In return, the Uyghur rulers retained control of their kingdom. By contrast, Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire conquered the Kara-Khitan in 1218. Because the Kara-Khitan had persecuted Islam, the Mongols were met as liberators in the Kashgar area. After the break-up of the Mongol Empire into smaller khanates, Xinjiang, though nominally ruled by the Chagatai Khanate, one of the successor states of the empire, in fact was fought over by successor regimes based in Mongolia and in China. In the 15th century the Chagatai Khanate disintegrated into separate states in Gulja, Yarkand, and Turpan. This article is about the person. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Map of Asia and Europe circa 1200 C.E. The Kara-Khitan Khanate, or Western Liao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , 1124[1]-1218) was a Khitan empire in Central Asia. ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Yining (also Kuldja, Kulja, Gulja, Ghulja, Ining) (Simplified Chinese: 伊宁; Traditional Chinese: 伊寧; pinyin: Yízhù) is a city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. ... Yarkand, 1868, showing city walls and gallows Yarkand (modern Chinese name 莎車), pinyin: ShāchÄ“ also written SuōchÄ“. Altitude about 1,189 m. ... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In the 17th century, the Dzungars (Oirats, Kalmyks) established an empire over much of the region. Kalmyks controlled a vast area known as Grand Tartary or the Kalmyk Empire to Westerners, which stretched from the Great Wall of China to the Don River, and from the Himalayas to Siberia. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


The Qing Dynasty

The Qing Empire, established by the Manchus in China, gained control over eastern Xinjiang as a result of a long struggle with the Zunghars (Dzungars) that began in the seventeenth century. In 1755, the Manchu Empire attacked Ghulja, and captured the Zunghar khan. Over the next two years, the Manchus and Mongol armies of the Qing destroyed the remnants of the Zunghar khanate, and attempted to divide the Xinjiang region into four sub-khanates under four chiefs. Similarly, the Qing made members of a clan of sufi shaykhs known as the Khojas, rulers in the western Tarim Basin, south of the Tianshan Mts. In 1758-59, however, rebellions against this arrangement broke out both north and south of the Tian Shan mountains. The Qing was thus forced, contrary to its initial intent, to establish a form of direct military rule over both Zungharia (northern Xinjiang) and the Tarim Basin (southern Xinjiang). The Manchus put the whole region under the rule of a General of Ili (Chinese: 伊犁将军, Yili Jiangjün), headquartered at the fort of Huiyuan (the so-called "Manchu Kuldja", or Yili), 30 km west of Ghulja (Yining). The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Yining (also Kuldja, Kulja, Gulja, Ghulja, Ining) (Simplified Chinese: 伊宁; Traditional Chinese: 伊寧) is a city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The townnship of Huiyuan (Chinese: ) is located within Huocheng County, in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Peoples Republic of China. ... Yining (also Kuldja, Kulja, Gulja, Ghulja, Ining) (Simplified Chinese: 伊宁; Traditional Chinese: 伊寧) is a city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. ...


By the mid-19th century, the Russian Empire was encroaching upon Qing China along its entire northern frontier. The Opium Wars and Taiping and other rebellion's in China proper had severely restricted the dynasty's ability to maintain its garrisons in distant Xinjiang. In 1864 both Chinese Muslims (Hui) and Uyghurs rebelled in Xinjiang cities, following an on-going Chinese Muslim Rebellion in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces further east. Qing control of the region was swept away. In 1865, Yaqub Beg, a warlord from the neighbouring Khanate of Kokand, entered Xinjiang via Kashgar, and conquered nearly all of Xinjiang over the next six years. In 1871, Russia took advantage of the chaotic situation and seized the rich Ili River valley, including Gulja. By then, Qing China held onto only a few strongholds, including Tacheng. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese:维吾尔 or 維吾爾 ; in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. ... The Hui Minorities War, is the modern term used by the Peoples Republic of China for what used to be called the Dungan Revolt or Muslim Rebellion. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Night interview with Yakub Beg, King of Kashgaria, 1868 Yakub Beg (1820 - May 16, 1877) was a Tajik adventurer who became head of the kingdom of Kashgaria. ... The Khanate of Kokand is a formar state in Asia that existed from 1709-1876 within the territory of modern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Ili River is a river in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... Yining (also Kuldja, Kulja, Gulja, Ghulja, Ining) (Simplified Chinese: 伊宁; Traditional Chinese: 伊寧; pinyin: Yízhù) is a city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. ... Tacheng or Qoqek (Chinese:塔城; pinyin: TÇŽchéng), is a city (1994 est. ...


Yaqub Beg's rule lasted until General Zuo Zongtang (also known as General Tso) reconquered the region between 1875 and 1877 for Qing China. In 1881, Qing China recovered the Gulja region through diplomatic negotiations (Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881)). In 1884, Qing China established Xinjiang ("new frontier") as a province, formally applying onto it the political system of China proper. Portrait of General Tso, by Piassetsky, 1875 ZuÇ’ Zōngtáng (左宗棠, Styled Jigao 季高) (November 10, 1812-September 5, 1885), spelled Tso Tsung-tang in Wade-Giles and known simply as General Tso or General Tsuo to Westerners, was a gifted Chinese military leader born in Wenjialong, north of Changsha... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Yining (also Kuldja, Kulja, Gulja, Ghulja, Ining) (Simplified Chinese: 伊宁; Traditional Chinese: 伊寧; pinyin: Yízhù) is a city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. ... The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) was the treaty between the Russian Empire and the Chinese Empire, signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 12 (24) February 1881. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ...


After the Qing Dynasty

In 1912 the Qing Dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Yuan Dahua, the last Qing governor of Xinjiang, fled. One of his subordinates Yang Zengxin (杨增新), acceded to the Republic of China in March of the same year, and maintained control of Xinjiang until his assassination in 1928. Following insurgencies against Governor Jin Shuren (金树仁) in the early 1930s in Eastern Sinkiang, a rebellion in Kashgaria in February, 1933 led to declaring by Southern Sinkiang (94% population of which were at this time ethnic Uyghurs) on November 12, 1933 its Independence and establishment at Kashgar of the short-lived self-proclaimed Turkish Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan or Republic of Uyghurstan , known also as First East Turkistan Republic (1st ETA). Xinjiang was eventually brought in 1934 under the control of Han Chinese Sheng Shicai (盛世才), who ruled Xinjiang for the next decade with close support from the Soviet Union, many of whose ethnic and security policies Sheng instituted in Xinjiang. Sheng invited a group of Chinese Communists to Xinjiang, including Mao Zedong's brother Mao Zemin, but in 1943, fearing a conspiracy, Sheng killed all communists, including Mao Zemin, in Xinjiang. A Second East Turkistan Republic (2nd ETA, also known as the Three Districts Revolution) existed from 1944-1949 with Soviet support in what is now Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northern Xinjiang. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Yang Zengxin (Chinese: 楊增新/杨增新, 1859-1928), born in Mengzi County in Yunnan in 1859, was the local paramount leader of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his death in 1928, whose reign make the region relatively peaceful compared to other parts of Mainland China which were war-torn at... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese:维吾尔 or 維吾爾 ; in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The First Eastern Turkistan Republic (ETR) was a short-lived break-away constitutional republic founded in 1933 and centered around the city of Kashgar in what is today the Peoples Republic of China-administered province of Xinjiang. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Sheng Shicai (Chinese: 盛世才; Pinyin: Shèng Shìcái; Wade-Giles: Sheng Shih-tsai) (1897 - 1970) was a Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mao redirects here. ... Mao Zemin (毛泽民, courtesy name YÇ’nglián 咏莲) (April 03, 1896 - September 27, 1943) was the elder of Mao Zedongs two younger brothers. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Eastern Turkestan Republic, usually known simply as the East Turkistan Republic, was a short-lived Soviet-backed separatist republic in what is now the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 伊犁哈薩克自治州, Pinyin: YÄ«lí Hāsàkè zìzhìzhōu, Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى / Іле Қазақ автономиялы облысы, Uyghur: ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى / Ili ĶazaÄ· aptonom wilayiti), in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Second East Turkistan Republic came to an end when the People's Liberation Army (PLA) entered Xinjiang in 1949. According to the PRC interpretation, the 2nd ETA was Xinjiang's revolution, a positive part of the communist revolution in China; the 2nd ETA acceded to and welcomed the PLA when they entered Xinjiang, a process known as the Peaceful Liberation of Xinjiang. However independence advocates view the ETA as an effort to establish an independent state, and the subsequent PLA entry as an invasion. The autonomous region of the PRC was established on October 1, 1955, replacing the province. The PRC's first nuclear test was carried out at Lop Nur, Xinjiang, on October 16, 1964. Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Lop Nur (ear-shaped) from space, September 1992 Lop Nur (Lake Lop; alternately Lop Nor, Lo-pu po or Taitema Lake) is a group of small, now seasonal salt lakes and marshes between the Taklamakan and Kuruktag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Continued tensions

There continues to be concern over tensions in the region, centering upon Uyghur cultural aspirations to independence, and resentment towards what Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch describe as repression of non-Han Chinese culture.[citation needed] For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Conversely, many Han Chinese perceive PRC policies of ethnic autonomy as discriminatory against them (see autonomous entities of China). Independence advocates view Chinese rule in Xinjiang, and policies like the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps as Chinese imperialism. The US and the UN have labelled the East Turkestan Independence Movement as a terrorist group. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ... The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Simplified Chinese: 新疆生产建设兵团; Traditional Chinese: 新疆生產建設兵團; pinyin: ), also known as XPCC or Bingtuan for short, is a unique economic and semi-military governmental organization existing in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Peoples Republic of China. ... Historically, ancient China has been one of the worlds oldest empires. ...


The tensions have occasionally resulted in major incidents and violent clashes during the PRC period. For example, in 1962 60,000 Uyghur and Kazak refugees fled northern Xinjiang into the Soviet Union, escaping famine and political purges of the Great Leap Forward era; in the 1980s there was a scattering of student demonstrations and riots against police action that took on an ethnic aspect; and the Baren Township riot in April, 1990, an abortive uprising, resulted in more than 50 deaths. Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers...


A police round-up of suspected separatists during Ramadan resulted in large demonstrations that turned violent in February 1997, and episode known as the Ghulja / Yining Incident and led to in at least 9 deaths [1]. The Urumqi bus bombs of February 25, 1997, perhaps a response to the crackdown that followed the Ghulja Incident, killed 9 and injured 68. Despite much talk of separatism and terrorism in Xinjiang, especially after the 9-11 attacks in the United States and the US invasion of Afghanistan, the situation in Xinjiang was quiet from the late nineties through mid-2006, though inter-ethnic tensions no doubt remained. This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Three bombs exploded in Ürümqi, Xinjiang, China at 18h30 February 25, 1997. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ...


On January 5, 2007 the Chinese Public Security Bureau raided a "terrorist" training camp in the mountains near the Pamir Plateau in southern Xinjiang. According to the reports, 18 terrorists were killed and another 17 captured in a gun battle between the East Turkestan Independence Movement and PRC forces. One Police Officer was killed and "over 1,500 hand grenades... were seized." [2] is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Subdivisions

Xinjiang is divided into two prefecture-level cities, seven prefectures, and five autonomous prefectures. (Two of the seven prefectures are in turn part of Ili, an autonomous prefecture.) These are then divided into eleven districts, twenty county-level cities, sixty-two counties, and six autonomous counties. Four of the county-level cities do not belong to any prefecture, and are de facto administered by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Xinjiang, an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, is made up of the following administrative divisions: 14 prefecture-level divisions 2 prefecture-level cities 7 prefectures 5 autonomous prefectures 99 county-level divisions 20 county-level cities 62 counties 6 autonomous counties 11 districts 1009 township-level... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Simplified Chinese: 新疆生产建设兵团; Traditional Chinese: 新疆生產建設兵團; pinyin: ), also known as XPCC or Bingtuan for short, is a unique economic and semi-military governmental organization existing in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Conventional[8] Uyghur
(kona yezik̡)
Uyghur Latin
(yengi yezik̡)
Hanzi Pinyin Remarks
Prefecture-level cities
Ürümqi ئۈرۈمچى شەھرى Ürümqi Xəh̡ri 乌鲁木齐市 Wūlǔmùqí Shì
Karamay قاراماي شەھرى K̡aramay Xəh̡ri 克拉玛依市 Kèlāmǎyī Shì
Directly administered county-level cities
Shihezi شىخەنزە شەھرى Xihənzə Xəh̡ri 石河子市 Shíhézǐ Shì Administered de facto by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps
Tumxuk تۇمشۇق شەھرى Tumxuk̡ Xəh̡ri 图木舒克市 Túmùshūkè Shì
Aral ئارال شەھرى Aral Xəh̡ri 阿拉尔市 Ālā'ěr Shì
Wujiaqu ئۇجاچۇ شەھرى Wujiaqü Xəh̡ri 五家渠市 Wǔjiāqú Shì
Prefectures
Turpan Prefecture تۇرپان ۋىلايىتى Turpan Vilayiti 吐鲁番地区 Tǔlǔfān Dìqū
Kumul Prefecture قۇمۇل ۋىلايىتى K̡umul Vilayiti 哈密地区 Hāmì Dìqū
Hotan Prefecture خوتەن ۋىلايىتى Hotən Vilayiti 和田地区 Hétián Dìqū
Aksu Prefecture ئاقسۇ ۋىلايىتى Ak̡su Vilayiti 阿克苏地区 Ākèsū Dìqū
Kashgar Prefecture قەشقەر ۋىلايىتى K̡əxk̡ər Vilayiti 喀什地区 Kāshí Dìqū
Tacheng Prefecture تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى Tarbaƣatay Vilayiti 塔城地区 Tǎchéng Dìqū subordinate to Ili Prefecture
Altay Prefecture ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى Altay Vilayiti 阿勒泰地区 Ālètài Dìqū
Autonomous prefectures
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى K̡izilsu K̡irƣiz Aptonom Oblasti 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州 Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu
Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Bayinƣolin Mongƣol Aptonom Oblasti 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州 Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Sanji Huizu Aptonom Oblasti 昌吉回族自治州 Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu
Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture بۆرتالا موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Bɵrtala Mongƣol Aptonom Oblasti 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州 Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Ili K̡azak̡ Aptonom Oblasti 伊犁哈萨克自治州 Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu

Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Ürümqi Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... Karamay or Karamai (Uyghur: قاراماي / ; Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Wade-Giles: Ko-la-ma-i) is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... Shihezi (Chinese: 石河子; pinyin: Shíhézǐ) is a sub-prefecture-level city in northern Xinjiang. ... The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Simplified Chinese: 新疆生产建设兵团; Traditional Chinese: 新疆生產建設兵團; pinyin: ), also known as XPCC or Bingtuan for short, is a unique economic and semi-military governmental organization existing in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tumushuke (simplified Chinese: 图木舒克) is a sub-prefecture-level city in the northern part of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in the Peoples Republic of China, it is located in western Xinjiang. ... Alar (simplified Chinese: 阿拉尔; traditional Chinese: 阿拉爾; Pinyin: Ālāěr; Uyghur: ئارال شەھرى / Aral Xəhri)[1] is a sub-prefecture-level city in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wujiaqu (五家渠)是中华人民共和国新疆维吾尔自治区直辖的县级市,位于新疆北部,乌鲁木齐以北,准噶尔盆地南端。 List of Xinjiang County-level divisions Categories: Prefecture-level divisions of Xinjiang | Mainland China geography stubs | Xinjiang | Cities in Xinjiang ... Turfan Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 吐鲁番地区; pinyin: Tulufán Dìqū; Uyghur: تۇرپان ۋىلايىتى) is located in eastern Xinjiang, China. ... Hami Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 哈密地区; pinyin: Hāmì Dìqū; Uyghur: قۇمۇل ۋىلايىتى) is located in eastern Xinjiang, China. ... The Khotan Prefecture(Chinese: “和田”; Pinyin: Hétián Dìqū; Uyghur: خوتەن ۋىلايىتى)is located in the south-western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. ... Aksu, city (1994 est. ... Kashgar Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 喀什地区; pinyin: Kāshí Dìqū; Uyghur: قەشقەر ۋىلايىتى) is located in mid-western Xinjiang, China. ... Tacheng Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 塔城地区; pinyin: Tǎchéng Dìqū; Uyghur: تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى) is located in northern Xinjiang, China. ... Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 伊犁哈薩克自治州, Pinyin: Yīlí Hāsàkè zìzhìzhōu, Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى / Іле Қазақ автономиялы облысы, Uyghur: ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى / Ili Ķazaķ aptonom wilayiti), in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Altay Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 阿勒泰地区; pinyin: Ālètài Dìqū; Uyghur: ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى / Altay Vilayiti) is located in northern Xinjiang, China. ... Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture (Chinese:克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州, Pinyin: Kèzīlèsū Kēěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu, Uyghur: قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Bayingholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese:巴音郭楞蒙古自治州, Pinyin: Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu, Mongolian in Cyrillic script: Баянголын Монгол өөртөө засах тойрог, Uyghur: بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Changji Hui prefecture (simplified Chinese:昌吉回族自治州 , Pinyin: Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu, Uyghur: سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of Xinjiang in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州, pinyin: Bóěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu, Mongolian in Cyrillic script: Борталын Монгол өөртөө засах тойрог) is a Mongol autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 伊犁哈薩克自治州, Pinyin: Yīlí Hāsàkè zìzhìzhōu, Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى / Іле Қазақ автономиялы облысы, Uyghur: ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى / Ili Ķazaķ aptonom wilayiti), in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Geography and geology

Xinjiang is the largest political subdivision of China — it accounts for more than one sixth of China's total territory and a quarter of its boundary length. It is divided into two basins by Mount Tianshan. Dzungarian Basin is in the north, and Tarim Basin is in the south. Xinjiang's lowest point is the Turfan Depression, 155 metres below sea level (lowest point in the PRC as well). Its highest peak, K2, is 8611 metres above sea level, on the border with Kashmir. Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Dzungaria (also Junggar, Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria) is a physical region, covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... The Turfan Depression or Turpan Depression (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Uighur: تۇرپان ئويمانلىغى, Turpan OymanliÄŸi) is a fault located around and south of the city-oasis of Turfan, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China, about 150 km southeast of the provincial capital Ãœrümqi. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Makalu and Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...

Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang

Most of Xinjiang is young geologically, having been formed from the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, forming the Tian Shan, Kunlun Shan, and Pamir mountain ranges. Consequently, Xinjiang is a major earthquake zone. Older geological formations occur principally in the far north where the Junggar Block is geologically part of Kazakhstan, and in the east which is part of the North China Craton. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 236 KB) 5/10/2005 es: Gente de la etnia kirguiz en Oytak, junto a la Autopista del Karakórum en la provincia de Xinjiang (China). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 236 KB) 5/10/2005 es: Gente de la etnia kirguiz en Oytak, junto a la Autopista del Karakórum en la provincia de Xinjiang (China). ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Kazakhstania, also known as the Kazakhstan Block, is a small continental region in the interior of Asia. ... The North China Craton is one of the smaller continental cratons of the Earth. ...


Xinjiang has within its borders the point of land remotest from the sea, the so-called Eurasian pole of inaccessibility (Lat. 46 degrees 16.8 minutes N, Long. 86 degrees 40.2 minutes E) in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, 1,645 miles (2648 km) from the nearest coastline (straight-line distance). This is a list of lists of extreme points of the world, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries. ... A remote, arid, and rugged area of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Tian Shan mountain range marks the Xinjiang-Kyrgyzstan border at the Torugart Pass (3752 m). The Karakorum highway (KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistan with Kashgar over the Khunjerab Pass. The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The Torugart Pass is a pass in the Tian Shan mountain range. ... The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is the highest international road in the world. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Khunjerab Pass from Pakistani side Snow leopard, an endangered species, is found in the Khunjerab National Park The Khunjerab Pass is a high mountain pass on the northern border of Pakistan with the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Rivers include:

Deserts include: // Diversifolious Poplar trees along the Tarim River in Yuli County, Xinjiang, China. ...

Major Cities: A remote, arid, and rugged area of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Dust storm in Taklamakan Desert from space, June 25, 2005 The Taklamakan Desert (also Taklimakan) is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچى; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Chinese: 烏魯木齊; Pinyin: Wūlǔmùqí; population about 1. ... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Karamay or Karamai (Uyghur: قاراماي / ; Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Wade-Giles: Ko-la-ma-i) is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... Town square in Yining/Ghulja, July 2005 Yining (Simplified Chinese: 伊宁; Traditional Chinese: 伊寧; Hanyu Pinyin: Yíníng; Uighur كۇلژا Kulja; also Kuldja, Gulja, Ghulja, Ining) is a city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. ... Shihezi (Chinese: 石河子; pinyin: Shíhézǐ) is a sub-prefecture-level city in northern Xinjiang. ... Qinggir is a population center located in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. ...

Politics

List of Secretaries of the CPC Xinjiang Committee The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ...

  1. Wang Zhen (王震): 1949-1952
  2. Wang Enmao (王恩茂): 1952-1967
  3. Long Shujin (龙书金): 1970-1972
  4. Seypidin Azizi (赛福鼎·艾则孜): 1972-1978
  5. Wang Feng (汪锋): 1978-1981
  6. Wang Enmao (王恩茂): 1981-1985
  7. Song Hanliang (宋汉良): 1985-1994
  8. Wang Lequan (王乐泉): 1994-incumbent

List of Chairmen of Xinjiang Government Wáng Zhèn (王震) (1908—March 12, 1993), Chinese political figure, one of the Eight Immortals of the Communist Party of China. ... Wang Lequan is the current secretary of the Communist Party of China of the Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region. ...

  1. Seypidin Azizi (赛福鼎·艾则孜): 1955-1967
  2. Long Shujin (龙书金): 1968-1972
  3. Seypidin Azizi: 1972-1978
  4. Wang Feng (汪锋): 1978-1979
  5. Ismail Amet (司马义·艾买提): 1979-1985
  6. Tomur Dawamat (铁木尔·达瓦买提): 1985-1993
  7. Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit (阿不来提·阿不都热西提): 1993-2003
  8. Ismail Tiliwaldi (司马义·铁力瓦尔地): 2003-2007
  9. Nur Bekri (努尔·白克力): 2007-incumbent

Ismail Tiliwaldi (simplified Chinese: 司马义•铁力瓦尔地; Uyghur: سماىلى ۋاندىىلىت) (born November, 1944, born in Shufu) is the chairman of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Economy

A panoramic view of Urumqi's city center taken from Red Mountain (Hong Shan).
A panoramic view of Urumqi's city center taken from Red Mountain (Hong Shan).

Xinjiang is known for its fruits and produce, including grapes, melons, pears, cotton, wheat, silk, walnuts and sheep. Xinjiang also has large deposits of minerals and oil. Image File history File links Urumqi_panorama. ... Image File history File links Urumqi_panorama. ... Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچى; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Chinese: 烏魯木齊; Pinyin: Wūlǔmùqí; population about 1. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Xinjiang's nominal GDP was approximately 220 billion RMB (about 28 billion USD) in 2004, and increased to 302 billion RMB (about 38 billion USD) in 2006, due to the China Western Development policy introduced by the State Council to boost economic development in Western China. Its per capita GDP for 2006 was 14,871 RMB (1,865 USD). GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... China Western Development (西部大开发 Pinyin: Xībù Dàkāifā), also Chinas Western Development or Western China Development, is a policy adopted by the Peoples Republic of China to boost its underdeveloped western regions. ...


Oil and gas extraction industry in Aksu and Karamay is booming, with the West-East Gas Pipeline connecting to Shanghai. The oil and petrochemical sector account for 60% of Xinjiang's local economy.[9] For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Position of Aksu in China. ... Karamay or Karamai (Uyghur: قاراماي / ; Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Wade-Giles: Ko-la-ma-i) is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... The West-East Gas Pipeline is a 4,000-kilometers long pipeline, which runs from Lunnan in Xinjiang to Shanghai. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


Xinjiang's exports amounted to 3.047 billion USD, while imports turned out to be 2.589 billion USD in 2004. Most of the overall import/export volume in Xinjiang was directed to and from Kazakhstan through Ala Pass [3]. China's first border free trade zone (Horgos Free Trade Zone) was located at the Xinjiang-Kazakhstan border city of Horgos [4]. Horgos is the largest land port in China's western region and it has easy access to the Central Asian market. Xinjiang will also open its second border trade market to Kazakhstan in March 2006, the Jeminay Border Trade Zone. [5] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Demographics

The languages of Xinjang.
The languages of Xinjang.

Xinjiang is home to several Muslim Turkic groups including the Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatars and the Kazakhs, and a few Indo-European Iranic groups, such as the Tajiks and the Sarikolis/Wakhis (often mis-identified as Tajiks). Other PRC minority ethnic groups include Hui Chinese, the Mongols, the Russians, the Xibes, and the Manchus. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1188x665, 839 KB) This map shows the language areas of the largest peoples in the Chinese part of the old Turkistan (so-called East-Turkistan and/or Chinese Turkistan) with the adjacent states. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1188x665, 839 KB) This map shows the language areas of the largest peoples in the Chinese part of the old Turkistan (so-called East-Turkistan and/or Chinese Turkistan) with the adjacent states. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tajiks. ... Sarikoli is member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken in the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in southern Xinjiang Province, China. ... Wakhi may be: The Wakhi language; the language of the majority of the people of Wakhan, also spoken by some Tajiks in China Wakhi (ethnic group), an ethnic group in Pakistan and Tajikistan An adjective; of or relating to Wakhan, the extreme northeastern region of Afghanistan that borders China, Tajikistan... Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ...

The "Kokbayraq" flag. This flag is used by Uyghurs as a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement. It is almost identical to the flag of Turkey except with a blue background. The Chinese government prohibits using the flag in the country.
The "Kokbayraq" flag. This flag is used by Uyghurs as a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement. It is almost identical to the flag of Turkey except with a blue background. The Chinese government prohibits using the flag in the country.

The percentage of ethnic Han Chinese in Xinjiang has grown from 6 percent in 1949[10] to an official tally of over 40 percent at present. This figure does not include military personnel or their families, or the many unregistered migrant workers. Much of this transformation can be attributed to the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC), a semi-military organization of settlers that has built farms, towns, and cities over scattered parts of Xinjiang. The demographic transformation is held by Uyghur independence advocates as a threat to Uyghurs and other non-Han ethnicities in maintaining their culture, similar to the case of Tibet. While at the same time, the minorities of Xinjiang were exempted from the One-Child Policy and many Uyghur people emigrated out of Xinjiang to other parts of China, the percentage of Uyghur people in the total population of China has increased steadily. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of the East Turkestan Republic. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Simplified Chinese: 新疆生产建设兵团; Traditional Chinese: 新疆生產建設兵團; pinyin: ), also known as XPCC or Bingtuan for short, is a unique economic and semi-military governmental organization existing in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ...

Ethnic groups in Xinjiang, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Uyghur 8,345,622 45.21
Han 7,489,919 40.58
Kazakh 1,245,023 6.74
Hui 839,837 4.55
Kirghiz 158,775 0.86
Mongol 149,857 0.81
Dongxiang 55,841 0.30
Tajik 39,493 0.21
Xibe 34,566 0.19
Manchu 19,493 0.11
Tujia 15,787 0.086
Uzbek 12,096 0.066
Russian 8935 0.048
Miao 7006 0.038
Tibetan 6153 0.033
Zhuang 5642 0.031
Daur 5541 0.030
Tatar 4501 0.024
Salar 3762 0.020

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5) Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. ... The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tajiks. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ... Language(s) Hmong/Mong Religion(s) Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (pronounced ) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... The Zhuang (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; Traditional Chinese: 壯族; Hanyu Pinyin: ; own name: BouчcueÅ‹ÑŒ/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ...

Image:Xinjiang ethnic groups by prefecture 2000.png
Map of Xinjiang indicating leading nationality in each prefecture-level division.

In general, Uyghurs are the majority in western Xinjiang, including the prefectures of Kashgar, Khotan, Kizilsu, and Aksu, as well as Turpan prefecture in eastern Xinjiang. Han Chinese are the majority in eastern and northern Xinjiang, including the cities of Urumqi, Karamay, Shihezi and the prefectures of Changji, Bortala, Bayin'gholin, Ili (especially the city of Kuitun), and Kumul. Kazakhs are mostly concentrated in Ili prefecture in northern Xinjiang. For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture (Chinese:克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州, Pinyin: KèzÄ«lèsÅ« KÄ“Ä›rkèzÄ« Zìzhìzhōu, Kirghiz: قىزىلسۇ قىرعىز اۋتونوم وبلاستى / Кыргыз Кызылсу aвтономиялы oбласты, Uyghur: قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Aksu, city (1994 est. ... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچى; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Chinese: 烏魯木齊; Pinyin: Wūlǔmùqí; population about 1. ... Karamay or Karamai (Uyghur: قاراماي / ; Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Wade-Giles: Ko-la-ma-i) is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... Shihezi (Chinese: 石河子; pinyin: Shíhézǐ) is a sub-prefecture-level city in northern Xinjiang. ... Changji Hui prefecture (simplified Chinese:昌吉回族自治州 , Pinyin: Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu, Uyghur: سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of Xinjiang in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州, pinyin: BóěrtÇŽlā MÄ›nggÇ” Zìzhìzhōu, Mongolian in Cyrillic script: Борталын Монгол өөртөө засах тойрог) is a Mongol autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Bayingholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese:巴音郭楞蒙古自治州, Pinyin: BāyÄ«nguōlèng MÄ›nggÇ” Zìzhìzhōu, Mongolian in Cyrillic script: Баянголын Монгол өөртөө засах тойрог, Uyghur: بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 伊犁哈薩克自治州, Pinyin: YÄ«lí Hāsàkè zìzhìzhōu, Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى / Іле Қазақ автономиялы облысы, Uyghur: ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى / Ili ĶazaÄ· aptonom wilayiti), in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kuitun (Chinese: 奎屯; pinyin: Kuítún) is a county-level city with about 144,000 residents in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang. ... Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل/K̢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 伊犁哈薩克自治州, Pinyin: YÄ«lí Hāsàkè zìzhìzhōu, Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى / Іле Қазақ автономиялы облысы, Uyghur: ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى / Ili ĶazaÄ· aptonom wilayiti), in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Major ethnic groups in Xinjiang by region, 2000 census
Uyghurs Han Chinese Kazakhs others
Xinjiang 45.2% 40.6% 6.7% 7.5%
Ürümqi PLC 12.8% 75.3% 2.3% 9.6%
Karamay PLC 13.8% 78.1% 3.7% 4.5%
Turpan Prefecture 70.0% 23.3% <0.1% 6.6%
Kumul Prefecture 18.4% 68.9% 8.8% 3.9%
Changji AP + Wujiaqu DACLC 3.9% 75.1% 8.0% 13.0%
Bortala AP 12.5% 67.2% 9.1% 11.1%
Bayin'gholin AP 32.7% 57.5% <0.1% 9.7%
Aksu Prefecture + Alar DACLC 71.9% 26.6% <0.1% 1.4%
Kizilsu AP 64.0% 6.4% <0.1% 29.6%
Kashgar Prefecture + Tumushuke DACLC 89.3% 9.2% <0.1% 1.5%
Khotan Prefecture 96.4% 3.3% <0.1% 0.2%
Ili AP1 16.1% 44.4% 25.6% 13.9%
- Kuitun DACLC 0.5% 94.6% 1.8% 3.1%
- former Ili Prefecture 27.2% 32.4% 22.6% 17.8%
- Tacheng Prefecture 4.1% 58.6% 24.2% 13.1%
- Altay Prefecture 1.8% 40.9% 51.4% 5.9%
Shihezi DACLC 1.2% 94.5% 0.6% 3.7%

1—Ili AP is composed of Kuitun DACLC, Tacheng Prefecture, Aletai Prefecture, as well as former Ili Prefecture. Ili Prefecture has been disbanded and its former area is now directly administered by Ili AP.
Source: 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料,民族出版社,2003/9 (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
Does not include members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
P = Prefecture; AP = Autonomous prefecture; PLC = Prefecture-level city; DACLC = Directly-administered county-level city For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... Karamay or Karamai (Uyghur: قاراماي / ; Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Wade-Giles: Ko-la-ma-i) is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل/K̢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. ... Changji Hui prefecture (simplified Chinese:昌吉回族自治州 , Pinyin: Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu, Uyghur: سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of Xinjiang in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wujiaqu (五家渠)是中华人民共和国新疆维吾尔自治区直辖的县级市,位于新疆北部,乌鲁木齐以北,准噶尔盆地南端。 List of Xinjiang County-level divisions Categories: Prefecture-level divisions of Xinjiang | Mainland China geography stubs | Xinjiang | Cities in Xinjiang ... Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州, pinyin: BóěrtÇŽlā MÄ›nggÇ” Zìzhìzhōu, Mongolian in Cyrillic script: Борталын Монгол өөртөө засах тойрог) is a Mongol autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Bayingholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese:巴音郭楞蒙古自治州, Pinyin: BāyÄ«nguōlèng MÄ›nggÇ” Zìzhìzhōu, Mongolian in Cyrillic script: Баянголын Монгол өөртөө засах тойрог, Uyghur: بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Aksu, city (1994 est. ... Alar (simplified Chinese: 阿拉尔; traditional Chinese: 阿拉爾; pinyin: Ä€lāěr) is a sub-prefecture-level city in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture (Chinese:克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州, Pinyin: KèzÄ«lèsÅ« KÄ“Ä›rkèzÄ« Zìzhìzhōu, Uyghur: قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى) is an autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tumushuke 图木舒克市是中华人民共和国新疆维吾尔自治区直辖的县级市,位于新疆西部,塔里木盆地西端,喀什以东。叶尔羌河和喀什噶尔河经过。南疆铁路穿过城市附近。 List of Xinjiang County-level divisions Categories: Prefecture-level divisions of Xinjiang | Mainland China geography stubs | Xinjiang | Cities in Xinjiang ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 伊犁哈薩克自治州, Pinyin: YÄ«lí Hāsàkè zìzhìzhōu, Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى / Іле Қазақ автономиялы облысы, Uyghur: ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى / Ili ĶazaÄ· aptonom wilayiti), in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kuitun (Chinese: 奎屯; pinyin: Kuítún) is a county-level city with about 144,000 residents in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang. ... Tacheng Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 塔城地区; pinyin: TÇŽchéng DìqÅ«; Uyghur: تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى) is located in northern Xinjiang, China. ... Altay Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 阿勒泰地区; pinyin: Ä€lètài DìqÅ«; Uyghur: ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى / Altay Vilayiti) is located in northern Xinjiang, China. ... Shihezi (Chinese: 石河子; pinyin: Shíhézǐ) is a sub-prefecture-level city in northern Xinjiang. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ...


Some Uighur scholars claim descent from both the Turkic Uighurs and the pre-Turkic Tocharians (or Tokharians, whose language was Indo-European), and relatively fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among them. In general Uyghurs resemble those peoples who live around them in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan. In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%) and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall growth rate was 10.9‰, with 16.3‰ of birth rate and 5.4‰ mortality rate. The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ...


HIV/AIDS

With a population of about 20 million and an officially estimated 60,000 infections, Xinjiang has one-tenth of China’s AIDS cases and the highest HIV infection rate in the country. Chinese authorities estimate that Kashgar Prefecture, with a population of about three million, has 780 cases, but public health experts here say the real figure is probably four times that and rising fast.[citation needed] For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Kashgar Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 喀什地区; pinyin: Kāshí DìqÅ«; Uyghur: قەشقەر ۋىلايىتى) is located in mid-western Xinjiang, China. ...


Until recently, addicts were largely left to the police, who regarded them as simple criminals whose drug use was to be combated mercilessly. Resistance to treating drug addiction as a public health concern has been high, mirroring what some international health experts say was, more generally, a slow response to HIV/AIDS in China.[11] == [[ This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Media

The Xinjiang Networking Transmission Limited operates the Urumqi People Broadcasting Station and the Xinjiang People Broadcasting Station, broadcasting in the Mandarin (dialect), Uyghur (dialect), Kazak and Mongolian. Xinjiang Networking Transmission Limited (Chinese: 新疆广电传输网络有限责任公司) consists of media broadcasting to Urumqi and the Xinjiang province area. ... Urumqi Ren Min Guangbo Dian Tai, (Chinese: 乌鲁木齐人民广播电台) which translates as Urumqi People Broadcasting Station consists of radio broadcasting news to Urumqi and the Xinjiang province area. ... Xinjiang Dian Shi Tai (Chinese: 新疆电视台), which translates to Xinjiang Television Station, is a television network broadcasting to the Urumqi, in the Xinjiang Province area. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The words kazaks, kazak may be a transliteration from Russian language of Kazakhs, people of Kazakhstan Cossacks (Russian: kazak) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Sports

Professional sports teams in Xinjiang include:

The Chinese Basketball Association (CBA; Chinese 中国男子篮球职业联赛) is the premier professional basketball league in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang Guanghui Flying Tigers (新疆广汇飞虎) or Xinjiang Flying Tigers or Xinjiang Guanghui are a basketball team in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball Association, based in Urumqi, Xinjiang. ...

See also

Combatants Jushi Han Dynasty Commanders Wugui Zheng Ji Sima Xi Strength Unknown 1,500 Han garrison with 10,000 Tarim Basin allies The Battle of Jushi was a battle between the Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu over the Turpan Basin in 67 BC. The battle was a success for the... Flag of the East Turkestan Republic. ... Ruins of Gaochang Gaochang (高昌) was an ancient city, located 30 km SE of modern Turpan in Xinjiang, China. ... The Jiaohe Ruins is the site of ancient Chinese ruins found in the Yarnaz Valley, 10 km west of the city of Turfan, Xinjiang province, China. ...

Notes

  1. ^ (Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online.
  2. ^ Turkestan. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV. Published 1912. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ "The strange creatures of the Shanhai jing: (...) we find recorded north of the territory of the "fish dragons" the land of the Whites (Bai), whos bodies are white and whose long hair falls on their shoulders. Such a description could accord well with a Caucasoid population beyond the frontiers of ancient China and some scholars have identified these Whites as Yuezhi." JP Mallory, "The Tarim Mummies", p55 ISBN 0500051011
  4. ^ "Les Saces", Iaroslav Lebedynsky, ISBN 2877723372, p59
  5. ^ China: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary, by Michael Dillon
  6. ^ Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Han Dynasty II. Translated from the Shiji of Sima Qian. Chapter 123: "The Account of Dayuan," Columbia University Press. Revised Edition. ISBN 0-231-08166-9; ISBN 0-231-08167-7 (pbk.), p. 234.
  7. ^ C.Michael Hogan, Silk Road, North China, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham (2007)
  8. ^ Zhōngguó dìmínglù 中国地名录 (Beijing, Zhōngguó dìtú chūbǎnshè 中国地图出版社 1997); ISBN 7-5031-1718-4.
  9. ^ (2005) The China Business Handbook 2005 (8th Edition). Alain Charles. ISBN 780951251287. 
  10. ^ China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang. Human Rights Watch Backgrounder. Human Rights Watch (October 2001). Retrieved on 04, 2007. Retrieved on 11, 2007.
  11. ^ AIDS China, Avert.

Logo of Peoples Daily The Peoples Daily (Chinese: ; pinyin: Rénmín Rìbào) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

  • "The Tarim mummies", J.P. Mallory. ISBN 0500051011
  • "Les Saces", Iaroslav Lebedynsky, ISBN 2877723372
  • Millward, James A. Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007; London: Hurst, Co., 2007. ISBN 0231139241
  • Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. "Records of the Grand Historian of China: Han Dynasty II". Translated from the Shiji of Sima Qian. Columbia University Press. Revised Edition. ISBN 0-231-08166-9; ISBN 0-231-08167-7 (pbk.),

External links

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Travel info
Culture, history, photos
  • The Opposite End of China (Xinjiang Blog)
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  • Uyghur Culture and History
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Catalogues
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Administrative Divisions of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Provincial Capital:Ürümqi City)
Prefecture-level Cities, Regional District, Autonomous Prefectures Urban Area Districts, County-level Cities, Counties, Autonomous Counties
Ürümqi City Tianshan District | Saybagh District | Xinshi District | Shuimogou District | Toutunhe District | Dabancheng District | Dongshan District | Ürümqi County
Karamay City Karamay District | Dushanzi District | Baijiantan District | Urho District
Turfan Prefecture Turfan City | Toksun County | Piqan County
Hami Prefecture Kumul City | Yiwu County | Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County
Hotan Prefecture Hotan City | Hotan County | Lop County | Minfeng County | Pishan County | Qira County | Keriya County | Karakax County
Aksu Prefecture Aksu City | Wensu County | Xayar County | Baicheng County | Awat County | Kuqa County | Kalpin County | Toksu County | Uqturpan County
Kashgar Prefecture Kashgar City | Maralbishi County | Poskam County | Peyziwat County | Kargilik County | Yopurga County | Shule County | Mekit County | Yengisar County | Yarkent County | Shufu County | Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County
Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture Artux City | Akqi County | Ulugqat County | Akto County
Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Korla City | Hejing County | Yuli County | Hoxud County | Qiemo County | Bohu County | Luntai County | Ruoqiang County | Yanqi Hui Autonomous County
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture Changji City | Fukang City | Miquan City | Qitai County | Manas County | Jimsar County | Hutubi County | Mori Kazakh Autonomous County
Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Börtala City | Jinghe County | Wenquan County
Autonomous Regional Districts directly under the jurisdiction of the County-level Cities Shihezi City | Aral City | Tumushuke City | Wujiaqu City

Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture

(The Tacheng Prefecture and Altay Prefectures are under the provincial jurisdiction of the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture.)
Autonomous Territories Yining City | Kuitun City | Yining County | Tekes County | Nilka County | Zhaosu County | Xinyuan County | Huocheng County | Gongliu County | Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County
Tacheng Prefecture Tacheng City | Wusu City | Emin County | Yumin County | Shawan County | Toli County | Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County
Altay Prefecture Altay City | Qinggil County | Jeminay County | Fuyun County | Burqin County | Fuhai County | Habahe County
This article is about the autonomous region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...

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Xinjiang (4054 words)
Xinjiang's educational undertakings continue to develop; basic education is continuously strengthened and various adult education approaches further developed.
The third stage was from 1962 to 1978 with an annual increase of 3.61% and the fourth stage was from 1978 to the present, a period with a slow population increase.
In 1949, the sex ratio was 107.49, in 1953 it increased to 110.21 and increased to a peak of 123.23 in 1960.
Xinjiang - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2479 words)
Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and the Pakistan- and India-controlled parts of Kashmir to the west.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was in control of western Xinjiang in the 10th century and the 11th century, while branches of the Uyghurs established themselves in central Xinjiang in the same time period.
Xinjiang's nominal GDP was approximately 187 billion RMB (about 23 billion USD) in 2003, and increased to 220 billion RMB in 2004, due to the China Western Development policy introduced by the State Council.
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