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Encyclopedia > Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Conflict
Xinhai Revolution in Shanghai; Chen Qimei organized the civilians of Shanghai to start the uprising in Shanghai and was successful. The picture above is the Nanjing Road after the uprising, full with the Five Races Under One Union Flags then used by the revolutionaries.
Xinhai Revolution in Shanghai; The picture above is the Nanjing Road after the Shanghai uprising, full with the Five Races Under One Union Flags then used by the revolutionaries.
Date From October 10, 1911 to January 1, 1912, the establishment of the Provisional Government.
Location China
Result Victory of the Chinese Revolutionary Party; establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China
Belligerents
Flag of Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance
Commanders
Feng Guozhang,
Yuan Shikai,
and local Qing governors.
Li Yuanhong,
Huang Hsing,
Sun Yat-sen
Strength
200,000 100,000
Casualties and losses
unknowna[›] ~50,000
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

The Xinhai Revolution or Shinhai Revolution (Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài Gémìng), also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on February 12, 1912. The primary parties to the conflict were the Imperial forces of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui). The revolution is so named because 1911 is a Xinhai Year in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar. Image File history File links Xinhai_Revolution_in_Shanghai. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Nanjing Road is one of the worlds busiest shopping streets. ... The center flag is the Five-Colored Flag of the Republic of China. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ... Categories: 1858 births | 1919 deaths | Stub ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Li Yüan-hung Li Yuanhong Sun Yat-sen and Li Yuanhong at Wuchang, China in April 1912 Li Yuanhong (黎元洪 Pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng, courtesy Songqing 宋卿, 1864 - June 3, 1928) was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. ... Huang Hsing Huang Hsing or Huáng Xīng (S. Chinese: 黄兴, T. Chinese: 黃興; October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916), Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist and statesman, was the first arm commander-in-chief of Republic of China. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: WÇ”chāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ... The Chinese sexagenary cycle (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (天干; tiāngān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (地支; dìzhÄ«). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering days and years, not only in China... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ...


The immediate result of the revolution was not a republican form of government. The provisional central government was weak and the country was still politically fragmented. The monarchy was briefly and abortively restored twice, and there was a period of military rule. Though the revolution concluded on February 12, 1912, when the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty, internal conflict continued to persist within China. A failed Second Revolution, the Warlord Era and the Chinese Civil War would all come to pass before the People’s Republic of China would come to be officially established on October 1, 1949. Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó; Manchu: Dulimbai irgen gurun) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... People on the stairs to the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago In general, the English word people refers to a specific group of humans, or to persons in a general sense. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The issues surrounding the Xinhai Revolution are often a subject of politically-charged discussion, as the events that followed as a direct consequence of the Xinhai Revolution have roles in the histories of both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. The semi-documentary TV series Towards the Republic was banned in the PRC because of its portrayal of the Xinhai Revolution. Whether the Xinhai Revolution merely continued the corrupt practices of the hated Qing Dynasty in another form is also matter of contention. Nevertheless, the Xinhai Revolution was the first attempt to establish a republic in China that managed to successfully oust the previous government. Towards the Republic (走向共和) is a 60-episode Chinese television series produced by CCTV and subsequently banned by the Chinese government for portraying certain characters (i. ...


Today, the Xinhai Revolution is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day (Chinese: 雙十節). In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Many overseas Chinese also celebrate the anniversary, termed either "Double Ten Day" or "Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution", and events are usually held in Chinatowns across the world. A symbol often seen during Double Tenth Day (it is the combination of two characters for 10 (十) Double Tenth Day (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the national day of the Republic of China (ROC; now in Taiwan) and celebrates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of October 10, 1911 (1911-10... ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ...

Contents

Background

Self-Strengthening Movement

Main article: Self-Strengthening Movement

The First Opium War is generally considered the beginning of modern Chinese history, ending a long period of self-imposed Chinese isolation. Some Chinese officials and intellectuals became convinced that China needed to adopt the technologies and commercial practices of Western countries if it was to remain a sovereign nation. From the 1860s to the 1890s, the Qing dynasty instituted reforms known as the The Self-Strengthening Movement, which aimed to achieve these goals. However, the defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. Some of the problems with feudal society were illustrated in the banned 1905 manhua book, Journal of Current Pictorial. Self-Strengthening Movement (Traditional Chinese: ; c 1861–1894) was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Huang Hsing Huang Hsing or Huáng Xīng (S. Chinese: 黄兴, T. Chinese: 黃興; October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916), Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist and statesman, was the first arm commander-in-chief of Republic of China. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Li_Yuanhong. ... Image File history File links Li_Yuanhong. ... Li Yüan-hung Li Yuanhong Sun Yat-sen and Li Yuanhong at Wuchang, China in April 1912 Li Yuanhong (黎元洪 Pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng, courtesy Songqing 宋卿, 1864 - June 3, 1928) was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. ... This article is about standardised military dress. ... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Self-Strengthening Movement (Traditional Chinese: ; c 1861–1894) was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Manhua (Traditional Chinese: 漫畫; Simplified Chinese: 漫画; Pinyin: ) is a general term for comics produced in China, often including Chinese translations of Japanese manga. ... Journal of Current Pictorial Journal of Current Pictorial (Chinese: 時事畫報) was a manhua magazine published in 1905. ...


Hundred Days' Reform

Main article: Hundred Days' Reform

After 1895, non-government circles became more concerned with national affairs, leading to some calls from intellectuals for more far-reaching reforms. Some, including Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, advocated imitating the improvements shown by Japan and Russia regarding how best to work the political and social systems under the imperial power. In 1898, the Guangxu Emperor instituted several reforms. This reformation would eventually be termed the Hundred Days' Reform due to its short duration; it ended in a coup d'etat by conservatives in the dynasty 103 days later. Though some of the reformers were exiled, there were still some who advocated a constitutional monarchy similar to that of the United Kingdom, allowing the imperial family to remain in the political system, but shifting the focus of political power to the democratic government. The Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxÅ« biànfÇŽ, or 百日維新, bÇŽirì wéixÄ«n) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... Kang Youwei (Chinese: 康有為; March 19, 1858–March 31, 1927) was a Chinese scholar and political reformist. ... Portrait of Liang Qichao (Tung Wah News, 17 April 1901) Liang Qichao (Chinese: 梁啟超, Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如; Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公) (February 23, 1873–January 19, 1929) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian (載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... The Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxÅ« biànfÇŽ, or 百日維新, bÇŽirì wéixÄ«n) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Abolition of the Imperial examination

Main article: Imperial examination

After the strike of Boxer Rebellion and the Eight-Nation Alliance, the Qing government led by the Empress Dowager Cixi started to carry out the reforms advocated by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao in the Hundred Days' Reform. Among the changes, the one with the greatest influence was the abolishment of the imperial examination on September 2, 1905. The government started building modern colleges, and there were 60,000 of these by the time of the Xinhai Revolution. After the abolishment, traditional literati found they could no longer attempt to get government posts by merely succeeding in the examination, drastically changing the political environment. The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... The Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxū biànfǎ, or 百日維新, bǎirì wéixīn) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ...


Constitutionalism campaign

The Qing government announced an outline of the Constitutionalism campaign on September 1, 1906. Constitutionalists with high social status from each province urged the government to form a cabinet. In May 1911, the prime minister of the newly formed cabinet was announced to be Prince Qing. Moreover, 9 of the 13 members of the cabinet were Manchu, while 7 of them were from the imperial family. All of this came as a disappointment to the constitutionalists. As a result, constitutionalists from different provinces changed their tack, supporting revolution instead of constitutionalism in a campaign to save the nation. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Yikuang, the Prince Qing, in Imperial Robes Yikuang, the Prince Qing (Simplified Chinese:庆亲王奕劻, Wade-Giles:Prince Ching, February 1836 - January 1918) was a Manchu noble of the late Qing Dynasty. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ...


Formation of new armies

Beiyang Army in training
Beiyang Army in training

In the last years of the Qing dynasty, the old-fashioned armies from the Eight Banners had lost their strength. The quelling of Taiping Rebellion mainly relied on township forces (the militias of the local elite). After the first Sino-Japanese War, as a response to the datedness of the troops, the Qing government had planned to form 36 modern regiments to replace the old ones. Of the 36 regiments, 6 were to form the Beiyang Army controlled by Yuan Shikai. To foster new officers, many military schools were built in each province. Some new regiments appointed many overseas students to be officers; In contrast, Beiyang regiments rarely employed overseas students. Image File history File links Beiyang_Army. ... Image File history File links Beiyang_Army. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakÅ«n gÅ«sa, In Chinese: å…«æ—— baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ...


Anti-Manchu sentiment

The conflict between the Manchu and the Han Chinese had been nearly forgotten in the middle of the Qing dynasty due to the long period of peace under the Qing government. However, with the decline of the Qing government, the Manchu-Han problem began to surface again after the Taiping Rebellion. After 1890, writings concerning repulsion with the Manchus began to resurface. Books left over from the last years of Ming dynasty guided the influential intellectuals of the period. Many revolutionaries even promoted their cause by taking advantage of such ideas. Although some revolutionaries, like Sun Yat-sen, mentioned political and economic reform, rather than ethnic revolution, the main revolutionary forces in the early part of the 20th century were full of ideas of "Manchu repulsion". After the overthrow of the Qing government, the slogan of revolution was changed from "expelling the Manchus" to "harmony among different races" in an attempt to unify the country, which was then in fragments. The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... For other uses, see Ming. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: Sūn Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the...


Organization for revolution

Sun Yat-sen was the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912
Sun Yat-sen was the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912
Seal for the provisional government president of Republic of China
Seal for the provisional government president of Republic of China

The main revolutionary organizations were the Revive China Society (興中會), Hua Xing Hui (華興會), Guang Fu Hui (光復會), and the Tongmenghui (中國同盟會), which was founded later. As well as these, Gong Jin Hui (共進會) and Wen Xue She (文學社) were also important organizations. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (582x740, 84 KB) Photo taken 1912. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (582x740, 84 KB) Photo taken 1912. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 361 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Xinhai Revolution Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 361 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Xinhai Revolution Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Hsing-chung Hui flag was designed by Lu Hao-tung and is currently the KMT flag. ... The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ...


Tongmenghui launched their project in Huanan (華南), while Guang Fu Hui was active in Jiangsu (江蘇), Zhejiang (浙江) and Shanghai (上海). Hua Xing Hui mainly worked in Hunan(湖南) and Gong Jin Hui in the Yangtze River(長江) area. The Tongmenghui, founded later on, was a loose organization distributed across the country.   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ...


The main leaders of the organizations were Sun Yat-sen (孫中山), Huang Hsing (黃興), Sung Chiao-jen (宋教仁), Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei (蔡元培), Zhao Sheng (趙聲), Zhang Binglin (章炳麟) and Tao Cheng Zhang (陶成章). Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... Huang Hsing Huang Hsing or Huáng Xīng (S. Chinese: 黄兴, T. Chinese: 黃興; October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916), Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist and statesman, was the first arm commander-in-chief of Republic of China. ... Sung Chiao-jen Sung Chiao-jen (Chinese characters: 宋教仁, Pinyin: Sòng Jiàorén) (April 5, 1882–March 22, 1913) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader. ... Cài Yuánpéi Cài Yuánpéi (Chinese 蔡元培, Wade-Giles: Tsai Yüan-pei) (January 11, 1868 – March 5, 1940) was a Chinese educator and the chancellor of the Peking University, known for his critical evaluation of the Chinese culture that led to the influential... Zhang Binglin (章炳麟 Pinyin: Zhāng Bǐnglín) (December 25, 1868 - June 14, 1936) was a Chinese linguist, specializing in phonology and classics, who laid out the basis for Zhuyin. ...


Political views

The main political aim of the revolutionaries was to overthrow the rule of the Qing government, rebuild a Han Chinese government and construct a republic. The Revive China Society, founded in 1894, aimed to "expel the Manchus, restore the Han and found a united government". The Hua Xing Hui, founded in 1904, proposed "expelling the Manchus and restoring the Han". The Tongmenghui, founded in 1905, advocated "expelling the Manchus, restoring the Han, founding a republic and equally dividing the land ownership", which referred to the Three Principles of the People (三民主義, Nationalism, Democracy, and Socialism) promoted by Sun Yat-sen. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the...


However, when the revolutionary parties promoted their political view, "expelling the Manchus and restoring the Han" became the main element, since the anti-Manchurian emotions of the people were the easiest to arouse. The more important point was that nationalism could cohere with different kinds of power to overthrow the government. As for what kind of social system and revolution should be held after the demise of the Qing government, most people treated this as an issue that should only be considered after the overthrow.


History of development

During the 1890s, many people began to advocate for a violent revolution to ultimately overthrow the Qing Dynasty, and establish a republic similar to France and United States. The earliest revolutionaries generally gathered abroad, and the majority of them were students and young overseas Chinese. The earliest revolutionary organizations were established outside of China also. Yang Quyung's Furenwen Society was created in Hong Kong in 1890, while Sun Yat-sen's Revive China Society was established at Honolulu in 1894, with the main purpose of fundraising to pay for the cost of the revolution. In 1895, these two organizations were combined in Hong Kong, and continued to use the name of Revive China Society. In the same year on October 26, the first uprising was held in Guangzhou, but was unsuccessful. Yang and Sun were forced to flee abroad. Sun Yat-sen was kidnapped by agents from the Qing government the next year in London. This incident became an international headline, and Sun became famous on the international stage. Yang Quyung was assassinated in 1901, by Qing agents in Hong Kong. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... The Hsing-chung Hui flag was designed by Lu Hao-tung and is currently the KMT flag. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1900, the Boxer Rebellion broke out in northern China. The inability for the Qing Government to solve the incident drastically lowered the image of the government. After it signed the Boxer Protocol, Chinese intellectuals felt even more about the crisis that China was facing. Beginning after the First Sino-Japanese War, China began to send more students abroad, particularly to Japan, which at its height had 20,000 Chinese students. Most of them were sponsored by the government. The revolutionary thoughts spread across the students, and those who advocate revolution established all kinds of organizations and publications to preach for a democratic revolution. Among these students, Zhang Binglin, Zou Rong and Chen Tianhua were very active in Japan. Many of the students later returned to China, and became the backbone of revolutionary organizations inside the country. Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50... The Treaty of 1901, known as the Xinchou Treaty (辛丑条约) in China, and more commonly known as Boxer Protocol or Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China, was a peace treaty signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance: the United Kingdom... Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... Zhang Binglin (章炳麟 Pinyin: Zhāng Bǐnglín) (December 25, 1868 - June 14, 1936) was a Chinese linguist, specializing in phonology and classics, who laid out the basis for Zhuyin. ... Zou Rong (1885-1905, 鄒容 pinyin: Zōu Róng, Wade-Giles: Tsou Jung). ...


When the Russo-Japanese War began in Manchuria in 1904, the Qing Government decided to abandon certain territories for these two countries to fight over, while China stayed "neutral". The neglectful attitude of the Qing Government toward Chinese territory led to more calls for a revolution. The main ones were Huaxinghui, led by Huang Xing which was established in Changsha, 1904, with members like Huang Xing, Liu Kuiyi and Song Jiaoren, mainly youngsters from Hunan, as well as Guang Fu Hui, established by Tao Chenzhang, Cai Yuanpei October in Shanghai, 1904, consisted of members like Qiu Jin and Zhang Binglin, mainly youngsters from Zhejiang; there were also other all kinds of minor revolutionary organization such as Lizhi Xuehui in Jiangsu, Gongchanghui in Sichuan, Yiwenhui and Hanzhudulihui in Fujian, Yizhihui in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui in Anhui and Qunzhihui in Guangzhou. These organizations may not be connected, and majority of them were regionally influenced, but they generally had a common aim: to overthrow the Manchus, and restore the Hans to create a republic similar to United States. The anti-Manchurian stream was beneficial for the revolution, and many revolutionary sought to use aid from these societies, e.g., Hua Xin Hui and the Ge Lao Hui, Guang Fu Hui and Qing Ban, Revive China Society and Shahehui all had close relations; Sun Yat-sen himself was a member of Hongmen Zhigongtang. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Huang Hsing Huang Hsing or Huáng Xīng (S. Chinese: 黄兴, T. Chinese: 黃興; October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916), Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist and statesman, was the first arm commander-in-chief of Republic of China. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ... Sung Chiao-jen (Chinese characters: 宋教仁, Pinyin: Sòng Jiàorén) (1882–March 22, 1913) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Cài Yuánpéi (蔡元培, Wade-Giles: Tsai Yüan-pei) (January 11, 1868 - March 5, 1940) was a Chinese educator and the chancellor of the Peking University, and known for his critical evaluation of the Chinese culture that led to the May Fourth Movement. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Qiú Jǐn (秋瑾) (1875 - July 15, 1907) was a Chinese female anti-Qing Empire revolutionary killed after a failed uprising. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tiandihui (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Yale Cantonese: tin1 dei6 wui2; literally Heaven and Earth Society) is a fraternal organization that originated in China. ...


Sun Yat-sen successfully united the Revive China Society, Hua Xin Hui, and Guang Fu Hui in the summer of 1905 to establish Chinese Tongmenghui on 10 August 1905 in Tokyo. They called for: "Get rid of Manchus and restore China, establish the Republic and equalize the land." in Min Bao b[›] to state the view. Tongmenhui was active on publicizing their thoughts, and pushed forward to awaken the public. The democratic Min Bao and the royalist Xinmincong Bao began to unfold intense debates, and it became the base of the revolution. Even though Tongmenhui was divided again at one point (members disapproved Sun Yat-sen's refusal to accept financial support from the Japanese government, Guang Fu Hui withdrew. Sun Yat-sen and Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin re-established headquarters in southern Pacific; Huang Hsing continued to support Sun Yat-sen), it still had crucial impacts on the revolution. The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


In February 1906, Ri Zhi Hui convened a conference which many revolutionary leaders, like Sun Wu, Zhang Nanxian, He Jiwei and Feng Mumin, attended. Ri Zhi Hui emphasized the spread of new knowledge and revolutionary thoughts among students, new armies and other organizations. It later became Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei.


In July 1907, several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of Yangtze River. Liu Quiyi, Jiao Dafeng, Zhang Boxiang and Sun Wu established Gong Jin Hui. The nature and outline of Gong Jin Hui were essentially the same as Tongmenhui, but it does not belong to Tongmenhui directly. Gong Jin Hui was one of the leading organizations in the Wuchang Uprising. The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ...


On 30 January 1911, Zhengwu Xueshe was renamed as Wen Xue She, and Jiang Yiwu was chosen as the leader. Wen Xue She was organized by the young men in the new armies, and its main purpose was to infiltrate into the new armies, and to secure the military armaments. Wen Xue Hui was another of the leading organization in the Wuchang Uprising. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Strata and groups

The strength of the Xinhai Revolution consisted of many factors, including students and intellectuals that returned from abroad, as well as participants of the organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the news armies, local gentry, farmers and others.


Newly emerged intellectuals

The newly emerged intellectuals consisted mainly of overseas students and students of the new schools. After the abolition of the imperial examination, the Qing Government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people went into new schools or went abroad to study. Most people went in to Japan in particular for military studies.


In the 1900s, going to Japan was mainstream in China. Before the Xinhai Revolution, there were over ten thousand Chinese students in Japan, and many of them had anti-Manchu sentiments. When Tongmenhui was established in Tokyo in 1905, 90% of the participants were Chinese students in Japan. Members of Tongmenhui who were in Japan for military study also organized the Zhangfutuan. These Chinese students in Japan contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the Revolution such as Huang Hsing, Song Jiaoren, Hu Hanmin, Liao Zhongkai, Zhu Zhixin, and Wang Jingwei, were all Chinese students in Japan. Sung Chiao-jen (Chinese characters: 宋教仁, Pinyin: Sòng Jiàorén) (1882–March 22, 1913) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader. ... Hu Hanmin (Chinese:胡漢民(trad. ... Liao Zhongkai 廖仲凱 (1877-1925), Guomindang leader and financier, Liao Zhongkai was the principal architect of the first Guomindang-Chinese Communist Party (GMD-CCP) United Front in the 1920s. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ...


Abolishment of the imperial examination led to the appearance and rise of the new intellectual class. Those who had received western culture became leaders in the Xinhai Revolution.


Participants of organizations

Near the end of the Qing Dynasty, many secret organizations like Hong Men, Ge Lao Hui, Zhi Gong Tang, Sha He Hui and Hong Jiang Hui were the main strength on leading the public in the struggle to resist the Qing Government. The participants in these organizations included landowners, farmers, workers, merchants, soldiers, and civilians. The organizations, topped by landowners and gentry, generally promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming". For other uses, see Ming. ...


The Chinese Revival Society and Ge Lao Hui, Guang Fu Hui and Qing Bang, Revive China Society and Shan He Hui were all closely connected; Sun Yat-sen himself was mentioned, was a member of the Hong Men. Before 1908, revolutionaries were focused on connecting and utilizing the organizations to prepare to launch uprisings through this organizations, making them the main source of strength for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty.


After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen recalled the days of searching for revolutionary strength and said "Literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, were only considered lower class. In opposite, the organization of Shan He Hui were able to plant the ideas of resist Qing, and restore Ming."[1]


Overseas Chinese

Assistance from overseas Chinese was important in the Xinhai Revolution. They supported and actively participated in the Tongmenghui, funding revolutionary activities, especially by Southeast Asian Chinese. Some of them even returned to their homeland to establish revolutionary organizations, and participated in many of the armed uprisings. In the first year of the Revive China Society based in Honolulu during November 1894, around 20 of the first members were overseas Chinese.


The contributions of overseas Chinese were one of the most important factors for the success in Xinhai Revolution. Of the "72 martyrs of Huanghuagang," 29 were overseas Chinese.


Soldiers of the new armies

Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Revolutionary Frank Wu trained an army of rebels to attack an imperialist fortress. This set off many inspirations to rebel. The revolutionaries began to carry out revolutionary activities and propaganda. Because of the abolition of the imperial examination system, many young intellectuals joined the new armies and became their backbone.


Wen Xue Hui and Gong Jin Hui, two of the leading organizers of the Wuchang Uprising, established relations with the new armies very early.


Gentry and businessmen

From September to October 1907, the Qing Government set up some government apparatus for the gentry and businessman to participate in politics. The strength of gentry in local politics became apparent.


These people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they were disappointed with the Qing Government when the first cabinets were all members of the Qing dynasty. After the Wuchang Uprising, these people began to call for revolution.


Foreigners

Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of Xinhai Revolution were foreigners; the Japanese were the most active in participating Chinese revolution. Many of the revolutionary organizations were established and functioned in Japan; The Chinese Tongmenghui were brought together and established in Tokyo by Japanese supporters of the revolution. Some Japanese people even became members of Tongmenghui. In various uprisings, there were always Japanese who directly participated and some even lost their lives.


Preparation

During the years 1895 to 1911, the Revive China Society and the later Tongmenghui launched ten uprisings. Guang Fu Hui (Restoration Society) also launched several uprisings. These uprisings were short-lived, but they set up the possibility for a revolution in China. The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ...


First Guangzhou uprising and follow-up

In spring 1895, Revive China Society based in Hong Kong planned for the first Guangzhou Uprising, and Lu Haodong were assigned the design of the flag. On 26 October 1895, Yang Quyun and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang and Lu Haodong to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government. The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries including Lu Haodong, who ended up being executed. The first Guangzhou uprising declared its failure. Sun Yat-sen and Yang Quyun were wanted by the Qing Government. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade the entrance of these two people for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and engaging in fundraising for revolutionary expenses in Japan, the United States and Britain. The Hsing-chung Hui flag was designed by Lu Hao-tung and is currently the KMT flag. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Blue Sky with a White Sun flag is the Kuomintang (KMT) party flag and the ROC naval jack. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1900, the Boxer Rebellion unfolded in China, and the north was in anarchy. The revolutionaries, therefore, decided to prepare for a military uprising. In June, Sun Yat-sen along with Zhen Sholiang, Chen Shaobai, Yang Quyun and several Japanese people, such as Miyazaki Toten, Heiyama Shu and Ryohei Uchida, arrived in Hong Kong from Yokohama, but were declined for entrance by the British authority. With the support of a Japanese organization, Sun Yat-sen went to Taiwan via Shimonoseki on September 25, and gained the promised support of an uprising in Guangzhou by Japanese officers after meeting the Japanese governor. Sun Yat-sen as a result established commanding center for the uprising. On October 8, Sun Yat-sen ordered Zhen Shiliang and others to launch an uprising in Huizhou Sanzhoutian, also known as the Huizhou Uprising, Genji Uprising et cetera. The revolutionary army developed into 20,000 men at initial stage, but the Japanese officers changed their attitude and refused to support the revolution as promised. This uprising again ended up as a failure. Revolutionaries, such as Shi Jian and Yamada Ryusei, were killed as a result. Sun Yat-sen was deported from Taiwan back to Japan. Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50... Ryohei Uchida Ryohei Uchida (1877 - 1937, Uchida Ryohei) was a Japanese martial artist and a political activist. ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... Shimonoseki (下関市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 1907, the Revolutionary Party, along with Xu Xueqiu, Chen Yunshen, Chen Yongpo and Yu Jichen of Shan He Hui, launched the Huanggang Uprising and captured Huanggang city. Xu Xueqiu, Chen Yunsen served to help the Chinese Singaporeans to join Tongmenghui. After the unfold of the uprising, Qing Government immediately repressed the revolution with force. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed, and the Huanggang Uprising which spanned six days again failed. The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ...


In the same year, Sun Yat-sen sent assistants to Huizhou in Guangdong to echo the Huanggang Uprising. On June 2, Deng Zhiyu and Chen Chuan gathered up few members of Shan He Hui to intercept Qing arms in Qiniu Lake, 20 km away from Huizhou. They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei on the 5th. Qing Army escaped in disorder and the revolutionaries took the opportunity and captured several towns. They defeated the Qing Army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations echoed after the uprising, and the troops increased to 200 men at its height. The Qing Army hastily shifted more troops to repress the uprising. The revolutionaries fought nimbly which exhausted the Qing Army. However, after the failure of Huanggong Uprising, the revolutionaries here lost the hope of reinforcement and was dismissed in Lianhuaxu. Part of the revolutionaries exiled to Hong Kong while majority retreated into Rofu mountain areas. Huizhou (Simplified Chinese: 惠州; Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 6, 1907, Xu Xilin of Guang Fu Hui led for an uprising in Anqin, Anhui. Xu Xiling at the time was the manager of police office as well as the supervisor of the police school. At the graduation ceremony, he assassinated the Qing governor and led the students such as Chen Boping to fight with Qing Army. They were defeated after four hours of struggle, and Xu Xilin was executed after being arrested. Qiu Jin was apparently involved in the uprising and was executed as well. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qiú Jǐn (秋瑾) (1875 - July 15, 1907) was a Chinese female anti-Qing Empire revolutionary killed after a failed uprising. ...


On August, three counties in Guangdong Qinzhou (Belongs to Guangxi at present) resisted the government for heavy taxation. Sun Yat-sen sent Wang Heshun there to assist them and captured the county on September. After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, which they were unsuccessful. The eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam. Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: Guǎngxī; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū) is a Zhuang autonomous region of...


In December, Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang to monitor Zhennanguan. With the assist of echoed defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing and Hu Hanmin personally went to the tower to command for the battle. Qing Government sent 4,000 men to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into mountain areas. After the failure of Zhennanguan Uprising, Qing Government attempt to chase after Sun Yat-sen in Vietnam, and Sun was forced to move to Singapore, and did not step into Chinese mainland until the Wuchang Uprising. The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: Wǔchāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ...


On February 1908, Huang Xing launched from the base in Vietnam and attacked Qinzhou and Lianzhou in Guangdong. The struggle continued for 14 days and was known as the Qinzhou, Lianzhou Uprising.


On April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan Hekou. Huang Mingtan led 200 men from Vietnam and attacked Hekou on 30 April 1908. The defenders in Hekou echoed for the mutiny, and Huang Xing joined in to command. The fighting continued until the 26th when Qing Army captured Hekou, and part of the revolutionary army retreated back to Vietnam. In 1910, Huang Xing, Hu Hanmin and Ni Bingzhang of the New Army stirred for a mutiny of New Army in Guangzhou, but the Qing Government known their plan beforehand and the mutiny was unsuccessful. Yunan redirects here. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Second Guangzhou uprising

Main article: Huanghuagang Uprising

On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several backbones of Tongmenhui such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru, gathered up for a conference in the Malayas. Having experienced countless failures in previous uprisings, they were there to discuss for a decisive battle in Guangzhou against the Qing Government. The Huanghuagang Uprising (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the 3. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On 27 April, Zhao Shen and Huang Hsing unfold the uprising in Guangzhou. The revolutionaires had intense combat with the Qing Army in the streets, but were eventually outnumbered and lost. The 72 remains later collected by members of Tongmenhui were interred together at Huanghuagang. is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Revolutionary activities in Malaya

On December 16, 1911, Yat-sen arrived in Singapore for the last time. He resided in the Golden Bell Mansion (pictured).
On December 16, 1911, Yat-sen arrived in Singapore for the last time. He resided in the Golden Bell Mansion (pictured).

The revolutionary activities in Malaya refers to the activities related to the Xinhai Revolution that took place in Malaysia and Singapore. Outside of China, the Malaya region at the time had the most Chinese population, and many of these Oversea Chinese had strong financial capability. Thus, Sun Yat-sen traveled to Malaysia various times and called for the support of revolution from the local Chinese residents. Many of them responded with great support, and as a result, Malaya was one of the main centre for revolutionary activities in the late Qing era. On December 16, 1911, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Singapore for the last time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 586 KB) 1911年12月16日,孙中山和他的军事顾问荷马李将军住陈金钟大厦。这是孙中山最后一次到新加坡。阿仁拍摄。 from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 12:12 2005年11月9日 . . Seasurfer (Talk) . . 1280x960 (600354字节) (1911年12月16日,孙中山和他的军事顾问荷马李将军住陈金钟大厦。这是孙中山最后一次到新加坡。阿仁拍摄。 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 586 KB) 1911年12月16日,孙中山和他的军事顾问荷马李将军住陈金钟大厦。这是孙中山最后一次到新加坡。阿仁拍摄。 from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 12:12 2005年11月9日 . . Seasurfer (Talk) . . 1280x960 (600354字节) (1911年12月16日,孙中山和他的军事顾问荷马李将军住陈金钟大厦。这是孙中山最后一次到新加坡。阿仁拍摄。 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


Wuchang Uprising

Main article: Wuchang Uprising

Literature Society and Gong Jin Hui were revolutionary organizations of the newly surged modern intellectuals. The New Army were the potential strength to launch the revolution, and these two revolutionary organizations consistently work with the soldiers in the new armies. In March , new armies in Wuhan established their local organizations of Literature Society. Gong Jin Hui mainly focused on developing members in 32nd New Army. By the time Wuchang Uprising unfolded, there were more than 5000 soldiers that joined these two organizations, one third of the new armies in total. The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: Wǔchāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ...


On May 9, the Qing Government enforced several policies on nationalizing the railroads, and announced their plan on taking away the Yuehan Railway and Chunhan Railway, which was built by civilians. This action violently dissatisfied the people of Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan and Guangdong, and they launched a movement on protecting the roads, and it was particularly active in Sichuan. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On June 17, the civilian organizations in Sichuan established the "Sichuan Railroad Protection Society", and elected the head of the local Assembly Pu Dianjun as the president, and his assistant Ro Run as the vice president. They posted notices, made speeches around, and even went to Beijing to protest. Through August 5 to September, these civilians held several demonstrations and strikes. On September 7, the Qing Governor of Sichuan Zhao Erfeng arrested the leader of the Railroad Protection Society, and shut down the corporation and the Society. The result of this move was the massive demonstration in the Governor's office, in which Zhao ordered the soldiers to quell the protestors where 30 civilians were killed. On September 8, the member of the Society along with the local Ge Lao Hui and Tong Meng Hui organized an uprising, and besieged the provincial capital. The nearby counties followed the uprising soonly after, and the total participants grew to 200,000. On September 25, Wu Yuzhang, Wang Tianjie and other members of Tong Meng Hui led an another successful uprising in Rong county. Upon realizing that Chengdu was besieged as a result of the mass uprising, the Qing Government was terrified and immediately ordered Duan Fang to take the new armies in Hubei to go into Sichuan to suppress the revolution is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zhao Erfeng (趙爾豊; 1845—1911; style: 季和) was a Qing official and Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Jiang Yiwu (left) and Sun Wu (right)
Jiang Yiwu (left) and Sun Wu (right)

The new armies of Hubei was originally the "Hubei Army" trained by Zhang Zhidong, and many of the officers had been sent to Japan with government funding to study abroad, so the revolutionaries were active among these officers.。After the onset of the Railroad Protection Movement, Duan Fang led the new armies of Hubei and went into Sichuan to suppress the rebellions. At this point, the new armies in Wuhan were mostly transferred into Sichuan, and the defense of Wuhan was hollow. The revolutionaries decided that this was the perfect time for the uprising. Image File history File links Jiangyiwu&sunwu. ... Image File history File links Jiangyiwu&sunwu. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: SÅ«n Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an immensely influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... Zhang Zhidong (Chinese:张之洞; Wade-Giles: Chang Chih-Tung; Courtesy Xiaoda 孝达; Pseudonyms: Xiangtao 香涛, Xiangyan 香岩, Yigong 壹公, Wujing-Jushi 无竞居士, later Baobing 抱冰; Posthumous name: Wenxiang 文襄) (1837—1909) was an eminent Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who advocated for controlled reform. ...


On September 24, the Literature Society and Gong Jin Hui convenned a conference in Wuchang along with 60 representatives from the new armies. During the conference, they established the headquarter for the command of the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu and Sun Wu were elected as the commander and the chief of staff. Liu Gong of the Gong Jin Hui was in charge of the department of political preparations. The command post was set in Wuchuang while the preparation post was set in Hankou. The date of the uprising was decided to be on October 6, 1911. It was later postponed to October 16 due to insufficient preparations. is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 9, Sun Wu of the Gong Jin Hui had an accident while producing explosives in the Russian Concession of Hankou. Sun Wu was injured, and the Russian police came for an investigation. Sun Wu and others managed to escape, but the documents and banners for the uprising were taken away by the police along with several suspects. After being informed about this incident, the Qing Viceroy of Huguang Duan Zheng ordered curfew in the entire city to track down and arrest the revolutionaries. Jiang Yiwu of the Literature Society decided to launch the uprising that night as a result, and sent mails to each of the battalions of the new armies. However, the command post was revealed by the Qing Government and several members were arrested and executed on the morning of October 10. is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Squad leader Xiong Bingkun and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer. Company commander Wu Zhaolin acted as the Provisional chief commander of the uprising while Xiong acted as the staff officer. Around 8 p.m. on October 10, the first shot of Wuchang Uprising was fired,[2] and the sapper battalion of the new armies led the first wave and captured the armory in Chuwantai. Other groups of new armies that were affected by the revolutionary organizations mostly echoed after altogether. Wu Zhaolin and Xiong Binkun led the rebels and attacked the viceroy's office, and with the assistance of the South Lake Artillery, the revolutionaries captured the office before the morning of the next day. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang Duan Zheng escaped. Image File history File links Wuchangqiyi_paobing. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the morning of October 11, the revolutionaries gathered for a conference to discuss on the establishment of the military government, as well as the selection of the provincial governor. The conference came to a final decision on selecting Li Yuanhong as the governor, which the constitutionists strongly supported. Part of the revolutionaries agreed due to the absence of Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren and other crucial leaders. is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Flag of the iron blood and eighteen stars
Establishment of Republic of China Hubei Government in October 11, 1911
Establishment of Republic of China Hubei Government in October 11, 1911

The entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries by the morning of October 11. In the evening that day, they established the tactical headquarters, and with its assistance, they announced the establishment of the Military Government of Hubei of Republic of China, and also made other related announcements such as the new national title, "Republic of China", abolishing the Qing emperor's title and used the Huangdi Era, which is at the time the year of 4609. The Military Government established the tactics, military, politics and foreign affairs department. They used the Qing Government's Politic Department as the office building, and used the Banner of 18 stars as the military flag. The Tactics department announced to the entire nation the "The Telegram of the Announcement to the Nation", "Notices to All Provinces" and other documents under the name of the Military Government. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 378 × 252 pixelsFull resolution (378 × 252 pixel, file size: 7 KB, MIME type: image/gif) One form of the army flag of the early Chinese republic, ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 378 × 252 pixelsFull resolution (378 × 252 pixel, file size: 7 KB, MIME type: image/gif) One form of the army flag of the early Chinese republic, ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (827x633, 144 KB) Photo circa 1911. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (827x633, 144 KB) Photo circa 1911. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ...


On October 12, the Revolutionaries Hu Yuzhen, Qiu Wenbin and others led the new armies in Hanyang and unfolded their uprising, and captured the city of Hanyang; revolutionary Zhao Chenwu led the other new armies and captured Hankou. The three main cities of Wuhan were then all under the control of the revolutionaries. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the Wuchang Uprising

Echo from the provinces

After the successful Wuchang Uprising, the Qing Government sent the Beiyang Army south to assault Hankou, reinstating Yuan Shikai to stabilize the Beiyang Army, since Yuan was the head of the Beiyang system. The revolutionaries lost the battle in Hankou: around ten thousand were killed over forty-nine days of fighting. However, they held on to the city of Wuchang, and because of this, fifteen provinces announced their independence during these seven weeks. Local political activists led the uprising in most newly independent provinces, only in few places it was the revolutionaries who led the uprising. Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ...


On October 22, two members named Jiao Dafeng and Chen Zuoxin of the Hunan Gong Jin Hui led an armed group formed of party members and part of the new armies to unfold the uprising in Changsha. They captured the city and killed the Qing general in the city. Then, they announced the establishment of Hunan Military Government of the Republic of China, and announced their position against the Qing Government. At the same day, the Shaaxi Tong Meng Hui member Jing Meijiu, Jing Wumu and others along with Ge Lao Hui launched the uprising, and captured Xi'an after two days of struggle. They established the Qinlong Fuhan Military Government, and elected Zhang Fengxiang, member of the Yuanrizhi Society and officier of the new armies, as the military governor. is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 23, Lin Sen, Jiang Qun, Cai Hui and other members of the Jiangxi Tong Meng Hui plotted the new armies in Jiujiang to revolt. After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The Jiujiang Military Government was established the next day, electing Ma Yubao of the new armies as the military governor. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 29, Yan Xishan of the new armies along with Yao Yijie, Huang Guoliang, Wen Shouquan, Zhao Daiwen, Nan Guixin and Qiao Xi led an uprising in Taiyuan. They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi Lu Zhongqi, and announced the establishment of Shanxi Military Government, Yan Xishan as the military governor. is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 30, Li Genyuan of the Yunnan Tong Meng Hui united together with Cai E, Ruo Peijing, Tang Jiyao and other officers of the new armies, and launched an armed rebellion. They captured Kunming the next day, and established the Yunnan Military Government, electing Cai E as the military governor. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 31, Tong Meng Hui in Nanchang led the new armies to participate in the local uprising and succeeded. They established the Jiangxi Military Government and elected Li Liejun as the military governor. is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 3, Shanghai Tong Meng Hui, Guang Fu Hui and merchants led by Chen Qimei, Li Pingsu, Li Xie and Song Jiaoren organized armed rebellion in Shanghai. They recruited various squads, and managed to receive support from local police officers. The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th, and captured Shanghai soon after. On November 8, they established the Shanghai Military Government of the Republic of China, and elected Chen Qimei as the military governor. is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 4, Zhang Bailin of the revolutionary party in Guizhou led an uprising along with the new armies and students in the military academy. They immediately captured Guiyang, and established the Dahan Guizhou Military Government, electing Yang Jinchen and Zhao Dequan as the chief and vice governor. During the same day, the revolutionaries in Zhejiang urged the new armies in Hanzhou to launch the uprising with the reinforcements arrived from Shanghai and laid siege on Hanzhou. Zhu rei, Wu Enyu, Lu Gongwang of the new armies and Wang Jinfa of the dare-to-die squads captured the military supplies workshop. Another dare-to-die squads led by Chiang Kai-shek and Yin Zhirei along with others captured most of the government offices. On November 5, Hanzhou was in the control of the revolutionaries, and constitutionist Tang Shouqian was elected as the military governor. is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 5, Jiangsu constitutionists and gentry urged the Qing Governor Cheng De to announce independence, and established the Jiangsu Revolutionary Military Government, Cheng himself as the governor. Members of the Anhui Tong Men Hui also launched the uprising on that day, and laid siege on the provincial capital. The consitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao, Qing Governor of Anhui to announce independence. On November 8, the Anhui politics department presented Anhui's independence to the public, and elected Zhu Jiabao and Wang Tianpei as the chief and vice military governor. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 6, the Guangxi politics department made the decision to separate away from the Qing Government, announcing Guangxi's independence. The original Qing Governnor Shen Bingdan remains in position. However, it was taken away by a general named Lu Rongting through mutiny. is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 9, members of the Fujian Tong Men Hui along with Sun Daoren of the new armies launched an uprising against the Qing Army. The Qing viceroy Song Shou committed suicide, and on November 11, the entire Fujian province was in the hand of the revolutionaries. The Fujian Military Government was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming, Deng Keng, Peng Reihai and other members of the Guangdong Tong Meng Hui organized local militias to led the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui of the Guangdong province. On November 8, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin, general Li Huai and Long Jiguang of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution. The Qing viceroy of Liang-guang was forced to discuss with the local representatives on the matters of Guangdong's independence. They decided to announce Guangdong's independence the next day. On November 9, Chen Jiongming captured Huizhou. At the same day, Guangdong announced its independence, and established a military government. They elected Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming as the chief and vice governor. Chen Jiongming (陳炯明, 1878-1933) was a revolutionary figure in the early periods of the republic of China. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, c. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 13, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen and several other officers of the new armies, the Qing Governor of Shandong Sun Baoqi agreed to separate away from the Qing Government and announced Shandong's independence. is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 17, Ningxia Tong Men Hui launched the Ningsha Uprising, and established the Ningsha Revolutionary Military Government on the 17th. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess...


On November 21, Guanganzhou organized the Dahanshubei Military Government. The Xichuan Military Government was established in Chongqin the very next day. Two days on the 27th, the Hubei Army in Xichuan rebelled against the Qing Army. During the same day, the Dahan Xichuan Military Government was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianjun. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 8, plotted and supported by the Tong Meng Hui, Xu Shaozhen of the new armies announced the uprising in Molin Pass, 30 km away from Nanjing City. Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanjing together. On November 11, the united army headquarter was established in Zhenjiang. Between November 24 and December 1, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan, Mufushan, Yuhuatai, Tianbao City and many other strongholds of the Qing Army. On December 2, the Nanjing City was captured by the revolutionaries. At this point, the vast areas in south of Yangtze River is now held by the revolutionaries. The capture of Nanjing was especially important in stablizing the situation in the southern China. is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ...


Evacuation of Foreigners

During the Uprising a relief expedition of foreigners from Shaanxi province was headed up by English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby. The expedition's task was to rescue and lead to safety as many foreign missionaries as possible. Setting out in December 1911 they trekked to Xi'an. After a number of hair-raising experiences they were successful, returning to safety and Peking in early 1912.[3]   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Xian redirects here. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Provisional Government of Nanking

Qing Army surrendering to the revolutionaires.
Qing Army surrendering to the revolutionaires.

On 1 November, the Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet. Overseas Chinese and domestic critics believed that Yuan was qualified to be president. They advocated that the revolutionaries should convince Yuan to change his position, and then he would be selected as the first president of the republic. On 9 November, Huang Xing told Yuan it is hoped that he would step up and resist the imperial reign. On November 16, Sun Yat-sen telegrammed the revolutionary government and informed his agreement to select Yuan as the president. Image File history File links Xinhai01. ... Image File history File links Xinhai01. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Huang Hsing Huang Hsing or Huáng Xīng (S. Chinese: 黄兴, T. Chinese: 黃興; October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916), Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist and statesman, was the first arm commander-in-chief of Republic of China. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 1911, the revolutionary group in Wuchang led by Li Yuanhong came together with the revolutionary group in Shanghai led by Chen Qimei and Chen Dequan to prepare for the establishment of a Central government. On November 9, Li Yuanhong under the title of "Head of Wuchang Military Government" telegrammed all the independent provinces and requested them to send representatives to Wuchang for conference on the matters of establishing the Central Government. Two days later however, Chen Qimei and Chen Dequan telegrammed the provinces to come to Shanghai for the conference. On November 15, the provincial representatives met at Shanghai, in which Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian all participated. The revolutionary group in Wuchang insisted on moving the conference to Wuchang. Because the first uprising was held in Wuchang, a majority of the provincial representatives had already arrived in Wuhan. Tong Meng Hui leaders, such as Huang Xing and Song Jiaoren, were also stationed in Wuhan. The Shanghai revolutionary group yielded at last, agreeing that the provincial representatives should meet at Wuhan and set the conference date to be November 30 in Hankou. However, they requested that each province should leave a representative in Shanghai for communication purposes. (1878-1916) Chen Qimei was born on January 17, 1878, in Wuxing, Zhejiang, China, Chinese revolutionary activist. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By November 21, most provincial representatives were arrived in Wuchang. On November 30, they convened the first conference at the British concession in Hankou. Twenty-four representatives from the fourteen provinces participated, and they elected Tan Renfeng as the speaker. The conference decided that before the establishment of the Provisional Government, the Military Government of Hubei will act for Central Military Government's authority. On December 2, the representatives decided to frame the organization outline of the Provisional Government, and elected Lei Fen, Ma Junwu, Wong Zenting to prepare the draft. The conference passed the outline the very next day, which consisted three chapters and twenty-one clauses. All participating provincial representatives signed the paper and made the announcement. In the announcement, they made the decision on establishing the Provisional Government in Nanking; they also confirmed the administration system to be republic. It was also announced that the provincial representatives will meet in Nanking in seven days, and if Provisional Government receive the participation from more than ten provinces, they will convene the election for the Provisional president. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ma Junwu 馬君武 (1881 in Guilin – 1940 in Guilin) was a celebrated scientist and educator in China and first president of Guangxi University. ...


Instead of attending to Nanking's assembly, Song Jiaoren and Chen Qimei gathered the provincial representatives in Shanghai instead and held an assembly in the headquarter of Jiangsu Educational Society on December 4. The assembly voted and came to a decision to telegram Sun Yat-sen to return to China to direct the main political operation. They also elected Huang Xing and Li Yuanhong as the chief and vice generalissimo of the military government, and the chief generalissimo will be in charge of the Provisional Government. Huang Xing declined the position while Li Yuanhong opposed to his offered position as well as he did not want to be put below Huang Xing. When proceeded to the discussion on the national flag, the representatives from Hubei proposed the banner of 18 stars, the Fujian representatives proposed the Blue Sky with a White Sun banner and the Zhejiang representatives proposed for the banner of five stars. At the end, it was decided that the national flag would be the banner of five stars, the Iron Blood banner would be the flag of the land force while the Blue Sky with a White Sun banner would be the flag of the navy as the compromise proposal. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Blue Sky with a White Sun flag is the Kuomintang (KMT) party flag and the ROC naval jack. ...


On December 11, the representatives from seventeen provinces arrived in Nanking from Shanghai and Hankou, and they continued on the discussion of the matters regarding the establishment of the Central Government. On December 14, the representatives from the provinces met in Nanking, and decided to hold a presidential election in terms of the "Provisional Government Organization Outline". However, the representatives were divided into two factions of Li Yuanhong and Huang Xing, and the situation was to be at a deadlock. It came to a relief the next day when the representatives was informed that Yuan Shikai was willing to support the republic. As a result, they decided to halt the presidential election and wait for Yuan's movement. is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sun Yat-sen as the Provisional President.
Sun Yat-sen as the Provisional President.

On December 25, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Shanghai from Marseilles. Due to Sun's prestige, most revolutionary organization displayed their support for him and Sun was therefore the popular choice for the president. Even the constitutionist and conservatives believed that Sun would be the ideal choice for president before Yuan Shikai turn against the monarchy. On December 28, the preparation for the presidential election was held in Nanking and the actual election was held the next day. According to the first article of the "Provisional Government Organization Outline", the Provisional President was to be elected by representatives from provinces of China; the one that receives more than 2/3 of the votes will be elected. As for the voting, each province were limited to have one vote only. 45 representatives from seventeen provinces participated in this election, and Sun Yat-sen received 16 valid vote out of 17, and was elected as the first president of the Republic of China. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (582x740, 84 KB) Photo taken 1912. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (582x740, 84 KB) Photo taken 1912. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

A conference of the cabinets in Nanking Provisional Government
A conference of the cabinets in Nanking Provisional Government
Establishment of Nanking Provisional Senate
Establishment of Nanking Provisional Senate

On 1 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen announced the establishment of Republic of China in Nanking, and inaugurated as the Provisional president. In the "Inaugural Announcement of Provisional President", the unity of Chinese races as one was greatly emphasized. On 2 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen informed all provinces on the abolishment of the Yin calendar, and replaced it with the Yang calendar. The Republic of China Era was announced, and 1912 was the First Year of Republic of China Era. On January 3, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the Provisional vice president, and approved Sun Yat-sen's proposed candidates of the cabinet ministers. The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was officially established. Under the Provisional Government, it divided into ten branches in which Huang Xing was appointed as the Minister of the Land Force at the same time as the Chief of Staffs, Huang Zhongying as the Minister of the Navy, Wang Chonghui as the Minister of the Foreign Affairs, Wu Tingfang as the Minister of the Judiciary, Chen Jingtao as the Minister of the Finance, Cheng Dequan as the Minister of the Internal Affairs, Cai Yuanpei as the Minister of the Education, Zhang Jian as the Minister of the Business and Tang Soqian as the Minister of the Communications. Other than those, there were further appointments such as Hu Hanmin as the Secretary of the President, Song Jiaoren as the Director-general of Law-making and Huang Fushen as the Director-general of Printing. On January 11, the representatives from the provinces convenned an assembly, in which they passed the resolution to use "Organizational Outline of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China" as the outline of the nation, Nanking as the Provisional capital, and the five-color banner (red-yellow-blue-white-black) as the national flag to symbolize the unity of the five major races of China. On January 28, the representatives from the provinces established a Provisional senate, and the each participating province were given a seat as the senator. They elected Lin Sen, Chen Taoyi and the chief and vice speaker of the senate. On March 11, 1912, Sun Yat-sen signed and announced the "Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China". Image File history File linksMetadata Nanjinglinshizhengfu. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nanjinglinshizhengfu. ... Image File history File links Linshicanyiyuan. ... Image File history File links Linshicanyiyuan. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Huang Hsing Huang Hsing or Huáng Xīng (S. Chinese: 黄兴, T. Chinese: 黃興; October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916), Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist and statesman, was the first arm commander-in-chief of Republic of China. ... Wu Tingfang Wu Tingfang (Chinese: 伍廷芳; Pinyin: WÅ­ Tíngfāng; Wade-Giles: Wu Ting-fang) (1842-1922) was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. ... Cài Yuánpéi (蔡元培, Wade-Giles: Tsai Yüan-pei) (January 11, 1868 - March 5, 1940) was a Chinese educator and the chancellor of the Peking University, and known for his critical evaluation of the Chinese culture that led to the May Fourth Movement. ... Hu Hanmin (Chinese:胡漢民(trad. ... Sung Chiao-jen (Chinese characters: 宋教仁, Pinyin: Sòng Jiàorén) (1882–March 22, 1913) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lin Sen (Chinese: 林森, pinyin: Lín Sēn) (1868 – August 1, 1943), courtesy name Zichao (子超), sobriquet Changren (長仁), was Chairman of the National Government of the Republic of China from 1932 until his death. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... The first page of the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China After the victory in Xinhai Revolution, the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China, led by Sun Yat-sen, framed the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, which was an outline of basic regulations with the...


Peace negotiations between North and South

After the Wuchang Uprising, the dominant foreign powers in China remained indifferent, hoping to see which side would fulfill their best interest.


On 14 October, Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai, who was previously dismissed and sent home, as the Governor of Huguang and in charge of the Beiyang Army to attack Wuhan. After the Beiyang Army captured Hankou on 2 November, Yuan Shikai halted the advance and secretly began to negotiate peace with the revolutionaires in the south. He returned to Beijing with his guards afterwards. Yuan was appointed the Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet in November, and was recognized and supported by foreign nations. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Yuan Shikai as Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet
Yuan Shikai as Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet

On 26 November, Yuan asked Herbert Goffe, the British consul in Hankou, to announce the three conditions for peace negotiation: Armistice, abdication of the Qing Emperor, and selection of Yuan as the president. On 1 December, both sides signed the armistice pact, and the Wuhan region was under a ceasefire for three days starting at 08:00 on 3 December until 08:00 on 6 December. Peace negotiations commenced as the ceasefire came into effect on 3 December. Image File history File links Ysk2. ... Image File history File links Ysk2. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi as his representaive on 8 December, and on the very next day, Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with Li Yuanhong or his representaive for the situation. On the same day, representatives from provinces formally chosen Wu Tingfang as the representative on the peace negotiation matters for the militia forces. Tang Shaoyi (Chinese:唐绍仪, changed to 唐绍怡 to avoid taboo of Puyis name, later restored; Wade-Giles: Tang Shao-i; Courtesy Shaochuan 少川) (1859—1938) was a staunch supporter of Yuan Shikai, and Prime Minister of the ROC Government in 1912. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wu Tingfang Wu Tingfang (Chinese: 伍廷芳; Pinyin: Wŭ Tíngfāng; Wade-Giles: Wu Ting-fang) (1842-1922) was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. ...


With the intervention of foreign powers, Tang Shaoyi and Wu Tingfang began to negotiate for settlement at British concession in Shanghai. They made an agreement on that Yuan Shikai will force Qing Emperor to abdicate in exchange for the support of southern provinces to select Yuan as the president of the Republic. Considered that the new republic regime could possibly be defeated with a civil war or foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen agreed to Yuan's request on unifying China under Yuan Shikai's Peking government. In politics, a concession is the act of a candidate yielding to the other condidate. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


On 1 January 1912, Nanking Provisional Government was formally established, and Sun Yat-sen was inducted as the Provisional president. On 11, 17, and 19 January, the Nanking Government requested three times for the recognition of foreign powers, but received no response. On 2 January, after Yuan was informed that Sun Yat-sen was inducted as the president, he canceled the peace negotiation. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 16 January, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai was ambushed by a bomb attack organized by Tong Meng Hui in Tientsin, Peking. Yuan's guards suffered heavy losses while Yuan was not seriously injured. He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day to pledge his loyalty, and asked them to not organize any more assassination attempts against him. is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 20 January, Nanking Provisional Government officially delivered the perquisites conditions to Yuan Shikai on the abdiction of the Qing Emperor. On 22 January, Sun Yat-sen made an announcement that if Yuan Shikai supported the abdiction, he would resign and leave the presidency to Yuan Shikai. After Yuan received this promise, he sped up the process of forcing Qing Emperor's abdiction. He threatened Empress Longyu that if the revolutionaires comes to Peking, the lives of royal family could not be preserved. But if they agree to abdicate, they will receive perquistites conditions. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yehenara, Empress Long-Yu Yehenara, Empress Xiao Ding Jing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏); also known as the Long-Yu Empress, later the Long-Yu Empress Dowager (Chinese: 隆裕皇后; 隆裕皇太后), 1868 - 1913. ...


On 25 January, incited by Yuan Shikai, 47 Beiyang Army generals led by Duan Qirui telegramed the imperial apparatus together, announcing that the revolutionaries have accepted the perquistites condition on royal family. They requested the royal family to announce abdiction and led the republic take over because the revolution had spread across all provinces in the country and the Beiyang Army are struggling due to lack of reinforcement as they claimed. With the pressure, Qing Government convened an imperial conference on January 29 to discuss on the matter. On 3 February, Empress Longyu gave Yuan Shikai full permission to negotiate the condition for the abdiction of the Qing Emperor. is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Duan Qirui. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 6 February, the senate of Nanking passed the resolution of "Perquisites Condition" and the "Imperial Edict for Abdiction". The prequistites conditions included: is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  1. The title of Qing Emperor remains and will be treated as a foreign monarch by the Republic Government.
  2. The Republic will allocate 4,000,000 Yuan each year for royal expenses.
  3. The emperor will remain in the Forbidden City. Will transfer to Yeheyuan in the future.
  4. Royal temple and tombs will be guarded and taken care of.
  5. The expenses of Guangxu's tomb will be disbursed by the Republic.
  6. Royal employees will remain in the Forbidden City with the exception of eunuchs.
  7. Private property of the royal family will be protected by the Republic.
  8. Royal forces will be re-organized into the land force of the Republic.

Other than the perquisites conditions for Qing Emperor's abdication, there were seven regulations on the treatment of the royal family and Mongol tribes.


Abdication of the emperor

Imperial edict for abdication
Imperial edict for abdication

On February 12, 1912, after being compelled and persuaded by Yuan Shikai and other ministers, Emperor Xuantong Puyi and his mother Empress Longyu accepted the prerequisite terms for the royal family, issuing an imperial edict announcing the abdication of Xuantong. Yuan Shikai was authorized by the Qing court to arrange the provisional republican government. Image File history File links Qingtuiweizhaoshu. ... Image File history File links Qingtuiweizhaoshu. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Puyi (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... Yehenara, Empress Long-Yu Yehenara, Empress Xiao Ding Jing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏); also known as the Long-Yu Empress, later the Long-Yu Empress Dowager (Chinese: 隆裕皇后; 隆裕皇太后), 1868 - 1913. ...


This imperial edict of abdication was drafted by Zhang Jian, and was approved by the Provisional senate. But in the edict, the text "immediate authorization for Yuan Shikai to arrange Provisional republican government"[4] was added by the subordinates of Yuan. From this point on, the Republic of China officially began and replaced the Qing Dynasty, which had reigned over China for 268 years.


Yuan Shikai as the Provisional president

Yuan Shikai sworn as the Provisional president in Peking
Yuan Shikai sworn as the Provisional president in Peking

The Provisional senate selected Yuan as the Provisional president after the emperor's abdiction. On 10 March 1912, Yuan Shikai sworn as the second Provisional president of the Republic of China in Peking. Sun Yat-sen visited the senate on April 1 and announced the removal of his Provisional president status. Upon until now, the world powers began to recognize Republic of China. Yuan Shikai used mutiny in Peking as an excuse to move the capital of Republic of China back from Nanking to Peking. Image File history File links 3-10. ... Image File history File links 3-10. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Yuan was insistent on a centralized government, which prevents certain revolutionary from attempting to separate away from the central government and establish individual provincial independence. At the same time, Yuan negotiated with the world powers and to a certain extent preserved Chinese sovereignty over Mongolia and Tibet. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


In 1911 the Manchu Qing dynasty was overthrown and by the end of 1912 the last Manchu troops were escorted out of Tibet. Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama returned to Tibet in January, 1913 from Sikkim, where he had been residing. The new Chinese government apologised for the actions of the Qing dynasty and offered to restore the Dalai Lama to his former position. He replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks and was assuming spiritual and political leadership of Tibet.[5] The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933), sometimes spelled Thupten Gyatso, was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ...


The period from this point until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The government of Republic of China during this period was called the Beiyang Government. National flag 1912-1928 The Beiyang government (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. ...


In February 1913, China announced parliamental election according to the Provisional constitution for the first time. Kuomintang had the most seats, and Song Jiaoren was designated as the prime minister of the cabinet. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on 20 March 1913. Yuan Shikai was believed as the plotter. Sun Yat-sen launched the Second Revolution on July to attack Yuan with armed forces, but was defeated by Yuan. Yuan Shikai later attempted to restore monarchy, but ended up a failure. After Yuan's death, China entered the Warlord Era. Sun Yat-sen organized several governments in Guangzhou to "protect" the Provisional constitution, and China was divided up as north and south. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó; Manchu: Dulimbai irgen gurun) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan...


Influence

Historical significance

The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Manchu Government and 2000 years of monarchy. Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely in an attempt to establish a new political system — a Republic. The Xinhai Revolution established the first democratic republic in Asia — the Republic of China. The laws of the democratic republic were damaged separately by the Beiyang warlords, and at one time a monarchy was back in place for a short period of time. However the popular system of the republic could not be overturned. The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Beiyang was a province of China. ...


The Chinese revolutionaries at the time did not have a streamlined idea of ruling. As a result, they followed the American Constitution, American political system and implemented a presidential republic. This continued despite social limitations and despise of the provisional constitution enforced by government rulers. At one time, Sun Yat-sen modified the constitution to limit Yuan Shikai's power, while Yuan Shikai later annulled the constitution to proclaim himself emperor. During the early years of the Republic of China, democracy was not fully fledged. However it was the first time China had attempted to form a republic, which enforced the spread of democratic ideas in China. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... Republics with presidential systems are shown in blue A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ...


Long after the success of the Xinhai Revolution, the idea of monarchy and totalitarianism did not disappear in China, and at one time maintained its social influence. Even though the Communist Party of China claimed to have created the "people's democratic dictatorship" in 1949 with the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the true democracy (e.g. the separation of power in the United States) was never fully implemented by the Beiyang Government, the Nanjing Government led by the Nationalist Party, or the Government of the People's Republic of China.[citation needed] The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... Peoples democratic dictatorship is a phrase incorporated into the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China by Mao Zedong. ... It has been suggested that Fifth power be merged into this article or section. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the...


After each province echoed the successes of the Xinhai Revolution, China entered a long stage of turmoil and separation. Other than the time period after the Second Revolution where Yuan Shikai briefly unified the nation, the rest of the Chinese regimes were unable to unify China. For example, the Nationalist Government claimed itself the head of a unified China while it was only able to receive taxation from five provinces.[citation needed] It was not until 1950 that the Communist Party of China was able to re-unify China. The long separation and war were destructive to the economic development of China and the modernisation of its infrastructure. The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Pinyin: Zhōng huá mín guó) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ...


Social influence

The influence of Xinhai Revolution on Chinese society were not as wide as commonly perceived. Even though the Xinhai Revolution were often claimed to be the "Capitalist Revolution" of China", but China at the time actually lacked a powerful capitalist class, and the participants of the revolution were not mostly capitalists. The success of the revolution did not enforce the further development of the capitalist class, and in addressing the change of the traditional society, the Xinhai Revolution only ended the rule of the Manchu, but on the local gentries and old Han bureaucrats, they mostly gained status by changing their position in the revolution, and stabilized their position in the society. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ...


The Xinhai Revolution did have the effect of its Western counterparts that restructured the social structure. The participants of Xinhai Revolution were mostly military personnel, old type bureaucrats and local gentries. These kind of people still hold the regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. The Chinese civilians did not participate in the Xinhai Revolution, therefore after the Xinhai Revolution, the essential changes for the condition of survival did not occur.


The separation by the warlords, chaos caused by the wars and militant politics led to the decease of the strength in traditional gentries and bureaucrats. In replacements, the personnel with military background and local outlaws, began to rise.


Xinhai Revolution did not essentially change issues such as the sharp rise of population since the 18th century, the annexation of land near the end of Qing Dynasty and the oppression and economical invasion from the Western powers.


Effects on frontiers

Revolutionary organizations before the outburst of the Xinhai Revolution were mainly based in Han Chinese ideology. The creation of the Republic of China under the motto of "Rid of Tartars", often it only refers to the eighteen provinces which are dominated by the Han Chinese (This is evident from the 18-star banner used in Wuchang Uprising[citation needed]); the Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet were all excluded. After the outburst of the Xinhai Revolution, the authority of the Qing Dynasty lowed significantly, and were unable to look after its frontiers. The Western powers took advantage of this situation and supported the independence movements by the ethnicities of the frontiers, such as Russia supporting the Independence of Outer Mongolia (including Tannu Uriankhai), and these regions began the process of breaking away from China. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ...


In 1910, the Qing Government sent Zhao Erfeng along with two thousand men to station in Lhasa, which resulted in the Dalai Lama fleeing to India. The Qing Government cancelled the title of Dalai Lama once again. The Dalai Lama in began to get in touch with the British, hoping to gain more independence for Tibet via the assistance from Britain and India. After the outburst of Xinhai Revolution, mutinies occurred in nearly every province, and Zhao Erfeng was killed in Xichuan during the Railroad Protection Movement. The stationed army in Tibet also took action and captured the representative of Qing Government in Tibet, but were defeated and sent back to inland China after the later clash with the Tibetan army. On January 1913, the Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa. Yuan Shikai telegramed and expressed his desire to restore Dalai Lama's title, and Dalai Lama in response, re-stated his full authority on the ruling of Tibet. Many Tibetans regarded this as their "Declaration of Independence". The effect of the inland China on Tibet lowered rapidly, and after "Rid of Han" incidents occurred in various places in Tibet. To prevent further army of inland China from entering Tibet, the Gexia Government began to purchase armfire from Britain, and majority of Tibetan Army were stationed in Xikong. This move led to the defense of northern Tibet to become unsupported, and because of the increase in military expenditures, the contradition in internal Tibet affairs increased rapidly. The Republic of China were involved in various wars, and applied mostly diplomatic strategies on Tibet, especially on laying emphasis on Tibet's sovereignty in the international stage. Even though Britain did not support the full independence of Tibet, but the Gexia Government in Tibet held high hopes in regards to it. On 1914, the both sides made an agreement, in which the Gexia Government agreed to cede the "Special Region of the Northeast Frontier", known in present day as the Arunachal Pradesh region. Regarding this agreement, the Republic of China and the later establishyed People's Republic of China both refused to recognize it. Zhao Erfeng (趙爾豊; 1845—1911; style: 季和) was a Qing official and Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... The 13th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso (Tibetan: ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་) (born February 12, 1876; died December 17, 1933), also spelled Thupten Gyatso, was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet. ... Xichuan County (Chinese: :淅川县; Pinyin: XÄ«chuān Xiàn) is a county of Nanyang, Henan, China. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ...


Influence in Malaysia

The Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore were significantly involved in the revolution. Although the revolutionary activities were aimed at changing the government in China, they had a profound influence on the Chinese population in the Malay Peninsula, such as a rise in nationalism and greater national unity, the emergence of new ideas, and the influence of party politics. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ...


When Sun Yat-sen inaugurated as the new president on December 29, 1911 in Nanking, many ethnic Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore who were previously moderates or monarchists began to support Sun. After the Wuchang Uprising, many Malay and Singaporean Chinese cut their queue of hair (a symbol of the Qing Dynasty). Also,responding to Sun and Tongmenghui's urge, many Chinese there donated money to support the revolutionary movement. is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: WÇ”chāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Tongmenghui (Chinese: 同盟會; Pinyin: Tóngménghuì; Wade-Giles: Tung-meng Hui; ), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. ...


In 1911,after the success of the revolution,nationalism became the main shared guiding principle between China and the Malay and Singaporean Chinese. Thousands of those young Chinese in Malay Peninsula went back to China to support the revolution. Also the revolution had contributed the anti-colonial sentiment among people. hey, frank the tank rocks ur mom. ...


Before Sun Yat-sen began to unfold the revolution among the Malayas and Singapore, the local Chinese were very disorganized. There were often clashes among clans and Ancestral home. The disorganization obstructed the spread of revolutionary thoughts, and the clashes between the clans affected the economical growth of the Chinese society and halted the cooperation with different organizations. See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... The Ancestral Home (Dom Ojczysty) is a political party in Poland, founded after the elections. ...


While hosting the establishment ceremony of the Tong Meng Hui branch in Kuala Lumpur on 1906, Sun Yat-sen warned that the disorganization of the local Chinese will eventually led to the collapse of the Chinese society. Because of so, the Tong Meng Hui initiated different kinds of propaganda, such as magazines, night schools, dramatic performances, and allowed groups with different ancestral home to work together with Sun Yat-sen for the revolution. This allowed Chinese with different ancestral home to learn to understand each other and cooperate as a team to solve common difficulties. Through various connections, the team work of Chinese and the national citizen awareness began to increase and develop further. Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


One of the most important development was the spread of Standard Chinese in the schools of Malay Peninsula and Singapore. This targeted toward breaking the tradition of dialect lecture. As a result, this led to Chinese with different ancestral home to have a common language. Standard Mandarin refers to the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. ...


The revolutionary trend of Sun Yat-sen brougth new ideas to Malay Peninsula and Singapore, which clashed the old traditions of the Chinese society. The ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity spread non-stoppingly, and encouraged the establishments of all-girl schools. Women were allowed to participate in social activities as well as joining the revolution.


After the success of the revolution, the Nationalist Party was established in August 13, 1912. With the permission of the British colonial government, the Malaya branch of the Nationalist Party was established. Later, when the British authority recognized that the Nationalist Party was not meant to resist its rule, they granted permission on establishing another Nationalist Party branch in Singapore on December 18. The Nationalist Party continued to do legal activitiies in Malaya until 1925 when its registration was cancelled due to insufficient information provided as claimed by the local government. However, the Nationalist Party continued to be active in Malaya, and secretly remain existing. The activities of the Nationalist Party in Malaya and Singapore provided wide influences on the future Second Sino-Japanese War and the political movements in Malaya and Singapore. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio...


Evaluation

In the early years of Republic of China, the intellectuals in China and the participants of the Xinhai Revolution were excited on how successfully the revolution had been to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty, and had high hopes for the revolution. However, because democracy had not been enforced in reality after the Xinhai Revolution, people began to develop different perspectives. Sun Yat-sen mentioned the following in a mail to the Russian ambassador in 1921 "Now that our friends recognizes that: My resignation was a huge political mistake". Sun also urged in his will that "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrades still needs to strive for the future".[citation needed] The intellectuals at the time thought that political revolutions could not save China itself, and cultural reformation must be made in advance.


After the 1920s, the two dominant parties of Nationalist Party and Communist Party had higher evaluation on Xinhai Revolution. The Nationalist Party recognizes Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation, and recognizes him as the leader that led the Xinhai Revolution to success. They have given Xinhai Revolution relatively high appraisal, stating the Xinhai Revolution as the beginning point of the modern history of China, and was the key element that enables China to develop into a democratic and modernized nation.


On the other hand, the Communist Party thought that the Xinhai Revolution merely overthrew the totalitarian rule of the Qing Dynasty. It did not advocate anti-Imperialism nor anti-Feudalism due to the claimed compromising and feeble nature of the bourgeois class, and therefore did not create a republic system. The land system were not reformed to equalize the distribution, and a deeper social revolution were not achieved. The revolution ended up yielding to the Western powers, and compromised with Yuan Shikai, who represented the old regime. At the same time however, they recognized that the Xinhai Revolution was a revolution that had great achievement for the initial stage, and set the basis for further revolutions. Liu Shaoqi was quoted "Xinhai Revolution inserted the concept of republic into common people".[citation needed] Zhou Enlai pointed out that "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended the 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of furture reovlution. This is a great victory".[citation needed] He Xiangning thought that "Xinhai Revolution was a great victory, it destroyed the 2000 years of monarchy, and spread the seed of the thoughts of a republic among the people, and promoted new development for the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people".[citation needed] Later Marxist historians mainly recognized the Xinhai Revolution as the Chinese bourgeois revolution, which is the necessary revolution in the stage before a socialist revolution. These positive recognitions of Xinhai Revolution were both the main trend in Mainland China and Taiwan after the 1950s. An anti-Liu Shaoqi poster, 1968. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... ...


The change on the concept of positive nature of revolutions began in late 1980s and 1990s. Zhang Shizhao was quoted that "When talking about Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to over emphasize. The word ‘success’ was way overused". Chinese historians such as Li Zehou, Liu Zhaifu and others thought that China in the early 20th century were better off in preserving the gradual constitutional monarchist reformation than spreading a violent revolution. The former was said be better in ensuring China to develop steadily. The concept of constitutional monarchy advocated by Yuan Shikai, Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao and Yang Du were more suitable to the China at that time. The Taiwanese historians also began to re-examine some of the alleged "myths" of Xinhai Revolution, and began to re-evaluate the value of Xinhai Revolution and its effects.[citation needed] Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Kang Youwei (Chinese: 康有為; March 19, 1858–March 31, 1927) was a Chinese scholar and political reformist. ... Portrait of Liang Qichao (Tung Wah News, 17 April 1901) Liang Qichao (Chinese: 梁啟超, Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如; Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公) (February 23, 1873–January 19, 1929) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and...


Western scholars, Chinese specialists and historians have researched the Xinhai Revolution to a great extent. Famous Chinese specialist Fe Zhengqing evaluated the Xinhai Revolution as merely a "change of political system", which was "essentially a failure". Gao Muke thought that Xinhai Revolution was a revolution that was greater than all its leaders, and was a "revolution without a real leader".[citation needed]


Professor Nathaniel Petter of the Columbian University criticized the Xinhai Revolution and its attempt on building a republic: The George Washington University (GWU) is a private university in Washington, D.C., founded in 1821 as The Columbian College. ...

The replica of American system of republic built by China in 1911 was absurd and ridiculous. […] That system of republic was a major failure, because it had no basis in Chinese history, tradition, politics, system, nature, beliefs or habits. It was a foreign product, hollow, and was forcibly added on China. It was quickly removed as the time passed. It did not represent political thoughts, but comics of political thoughts, coarse and premature comics. […] This system of republic ended miserably, which meant it failed miserably. However, the failure was not on the system of the republic […] it was a whole generation.

[citation needed]

See also

The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan) maintains a large military establishment, which accounted for 16. ... Xinhai Lhasa Turmoil refers to the racial clash in the Lhasa region of Tibet and various mutinies as a result of the Wuchang Uprising. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the...

Notes

^ a: Many of the Qing soldiers with Han background turned to support the revolution during the uprisings, so the actual casualties are hard to trace.
^ b: Clipping from Min Bao (People's Papers). Originally the publishing of Hua Xin Hui and was named "China of the Twentieth Century", it was renamed after the establishment of Tongmenhui.

Citations

  1. ^ "Complete works of Sun Yat-sen"《總理全集》 First edition, page 920
  2. ^ Dr Sun & 1911 Revolution: Wuchang Uprising — The Success of the Xinhai Revolution.
  3. ^ Borst-Smith, Ernest F. (1912). Caught in the Chinese Revolution. T Fisher Unwin. 
  4. ^ "即由袁世凱以全權組織臨時共和政府
  5. ^ Mayhew, Bradley and Michael Kohn. (2005). Tibet, p. 32. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 1-74059-523-8.

References

Primary sources

  • Wu Xinghan (Chinese: 吳醒漢), Three Day Journal of Wuchang Uprising (Chinese: 武昌起義三日記)

Secondary sources

English

  • Goldstein, Melvyn C. (1991). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951:The Demise of the Lamaist state. University of California Prp. ISBN-13: 978-0-520-07590-0. 
  • Stavrianos, L.S. (1998). A Global History: From Prehistory to the 21st Century (7th Edition). Prentice Hall; 7 edition. ISBN-13: 978-0139238970. 

Chinese

  • Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (1998). The Late 50 years of Qing: Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen and Xinhai Revolution. Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-3513. 
  • Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (2002). The Rule of Yuan Shikai (袁氏當國). Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-4680-5. 
  • Zhang (張), Yufa (玉法) (1998). The History of the Republic of China (中華民國史稿). Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). ISBN 957-08-1826-3. 
  • Lin (林), Yushen (毓生) (1983). <The Anti-tradition Trends of May Forth Era and the Future of Libertarianism in China> included in "Personage and their thoughts" (<五四時代的激烈反傳統思想與中國自由主義的前途> 收入"思想與人物"). Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). 
  • Zhou (周), Weimin (伟民); Tang (唐), Linlin (玲玲) (2002). The History of Cultural Interactions of China and Malaysia (中国和马来西亚文化交流史). Haikou: Hainan (海南). ISBN 7-5443-0682-8. 
  • Li (李), Zehou (澤厚); Liu (劉), Zhaifu (再復) (1999). A Farewell to the Revolutions - Records of Discussions in 20th Century China (告別革命-二十世紀中國對談錄). Taipei: Maitian (麥田). ISBN957-708-735-3. 

Haikou on the map of China Haikou, situated at the north of Hainan island, is the capital of Hainan Province of the Peoples Republic of China and has an estimated population of 830,192 (2006), therefore by far the largest city on the island. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Xinhai Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1308 words)
The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution (Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài Gémìng), also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, was a republican revolution which overthrew China's ruling Qing Dynasty, occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, and which saw the establishment of the Republic of China.
Since 1911 is a Xinhai Year in the sexagenary cycle of Chinese calendar, "Xinhai" became the name of the revolution.
The revolution began with the armed Wuchang Uprising and the spread of republican insurrection through the southern provinces, and culminated in the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor after lengthy negotiations between rival Imperial and Republican regimes based in Beijing and Nanjing respectively.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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