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Encyclopedia > Xiangqi
Xiangqi
The board of Xiangqi
Xiangqi board, with pieces in their starting positions
Players 2
Setup time < about 1 minute
Playing time Standard "home plays": ~1 hour
Blitz games: up to 10 minutes
Random chance None
Skills required Tactics, Strategy
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Xiangqi (Chinese: 象棋; pinyin: xiàngqí; Wade-Giles: hsiang4-ch'i2; listen ), is a two-player Chinese board game in the same family as Western chess, chaturanga, shogi and janggi. The present-day form of Xiangqi originated in China and is therefore commonly called Chinese chess in English. The first characterXiàng here has the meaning "image" or "representational", hence Xiangqi can be literally translated as "representational chess". The game is sometimes called "elephant chess" after an alternative meaning of 象 as "elephant". Chinese chess may refer to: Xiangqi, a two-player Chinese game in a family of strategic board games of which Western chess, Indian chaturanga, Japanese shogi, and the more similar Korean janggi are also members. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 543 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 732 pixels, file size: 220 KB, MIME type: image/png) Includes the following GFDL images: Image:Xiangqi General. ... Blitz chess (also known as speed chess or blitzkrieg chess) is a game of chess where each side is given very little time to make all of their moves. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Image File history File links Xiàngqí.ogg The word 象棋 xiàngqí, uttered by User:Chamaeleon for Wikipedias article on the game. ... A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a board (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Chaturanga. ... Shogi ), or Japanese chess, is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan. ... Janggi is one of a family of strategic board games of which Western chess, Japanese Shogi, and the very similar Chinese Xiangqi are also members. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Xiangqi has a long history. Though its precise origins have not yet been confirmed, the earliest indications reveal that the game has been played as early as the 4th century BC in China. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Xiangqi is one of the most popular board games in the world. Distinctive features of Xiangqi include the unique movement of the pao ("cannon") piece, a rule prohibiting the generals (similar to chess kings) from facing each other directly, and the river and palace board features, which restrict the movement of some pieces. A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a board (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). ... This article is about the Western board game. ...

Contents

Rules of the game

Board

Xiangqi is a common pastime in Chinese cities such as Beijing
Xiangqi is a common pastime in Chinese cities such as Beijing

Xiangqi is played on a board that is 9 lines wide by 10 lines long. In a manner similar to the game Go (Weiqi 圍棋), the pieces are played on the intersections, which are known as points. The vertical lines are known as files, while the horizontal lines are known as ranks. With a few awkward substitutions, it is possible to play this game using a standard chess set. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 3046 KB) Chinese Culture - Chinese Chess is commonly played outside in yards and parks by the mid. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 3046 KB) Chinese Culture - Chinese Chess is commonly played outside in yards and parks by the mid. ... Peking redirects here. ... Go is a strategic board game for two players. ...


Centered at the first through third ranks of the board is a square zone also mirrored in the opponent's territory. The three point by three point zone is demarcated by two diagonal lines connecting opposite corners and intersecting at the center point. This area is known as 宮 gōng (listen), the palace or fortress.


Dividing the two opposing sides (between the fifth and sixth ranks) is 河 , the river. The river is often marked with the phrases 楚河 chǔ hé (listen), meaning "Chu River", and 漢界 (in Traditional Chinese) or 汉界 (in Simplified Chinese) hàn jiè (listen), meaning "Han border", a reference to the Chu-Han War. Although the river provides a visual division between the two sides, only a few pieces are affected by its presence: soldiers are promoted after crossing, and elephants cannot cross the river. State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Chu-Han contention (&#26970;&#28450;&#30456;&#29229; or &#26970;&#28450;&#26149;&#31179;, 206&#8211;202 BC) was a post-Qin Dynasty interregnum period in China. ...


The starting points of the soldiers and cannons are marked with small crosses.


Pieces

The two players take command of pieces on either side of the river. One player's pieces are usually painted red (or, less commonly, white), and the other player's pieces are usually painted black (or, less commonly, blue or green). Which player moves first has varied throughout history, and also varies from one part to another of China. Some xiangqi books state that the black side moves first; others state that the red side moves first. Also, some books may refer to the two sides as north and south; which direction corresponds to which color also varies from source to source. Generally, red goes first in most modern formal tournaments.[1] For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ...


Xiangqi pieces are represented by disks marked with a Chinese character identifying the piece and painted in a colour identifying to which player the piece belongs. Modern pieces are usually made with plastic, though some sets use pieces made of wood, and more expensive sets may use pieces made of jade. In more ancient times, many sets were simple unpainted woodcarvings; thus, to distinguish between the pieces of the two sides, most corresponding pieces use characters that are similar but vary slightly between the two sides. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ...


The oldest Xiangqi piece found to date is in Henan Provincial Museum - a 俥 piece.


In Mainland China, most sets still use traditional characters for the pieces.


Marshal/General

General and advisors
General and advisors

The generals are labelled with the Chinese character 將 (trad.) / 将 (simp.) jiàng (listen) (general) on the black side and 帥 (trad.) / 帅 (simp.) shuai (listen) (marshal) on the red side. These pieces are equivalent to the kings of Western chess. Legend has it that originally the pieces were known as emperors, but when an emperor of China heard about the game, he executed two players for "killing" or "capturing" the emperor piece. Future players called them generals instead. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ...


The general starts the game at the midpoint of the back edge (within the palace). The general may move one point either vertically or horizontally, but not diagonally. The general cannot leave the palace under any circumstances; thus, the general can only move to and stay on the 9 points within the palace.


When a general is threatened by an enemy piece, the general is said to be "in check." When the general is in check and unable to escape check on the player's move, it is said to be checkmated, and the player loses the game. A player also loses when his or her general is not threatened, but he or she can make no legal move that doesn't put the general in check; a stalemate rule does not exist. In games such as chess, shogi and xiangqi, a check is an immediate threat to capture the king. ... For other uses, see Checkmate (disambiguation). ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ...


If a player makes a move that leaves the two generals facing one another on the same file with no other pieces placed in between, then the general is in check. This is a very important feature of the Xiangqi game and is often forgotten by new players of the game. It is important because the general often plays a role in enforcing checkmate, especially when many of the other pieces have been taken and the board is wide open. Indeed, a win remains possible as long as a player has at least a single horse, chariot, or soldier not on the last rank. If a player forgets this rule and moves a piece that exposes a clear line between his or her general and his opponent's, he or she loses the game if his or her opponent notices what has happened.


Advisor/Guard

The advisors (also known as guards or ministers, and less commonly as assistants, mandarins, or warriors) are labelled 士 shì (listen) ("scholar", "gentleman", "officer") for black and 仕 shi (listen) ("scholar", "official") for red. Rarely, sets use the character 士 for both colours. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ...


While their origin is probably not the same as that of the queen in Western chess (from the mantri in Chaturanga), their powers are distinct from those of the queen (but similar to that of the mantri). Chaturanga. ...


The advisors start to the sides of the general. They move one point diagonally and may not leave the palace. This effectively means they can only move to five of the points within the palace. They serve to protect the general/marshal.


Minister/War Elephant

The elephants are labelled 象 xiàng (elephant) for black and 相 xiàng (minister) for red. They are located next to the advisors. These pieces move exactly two points diagonally and may not jump over intervening pieces. They may not cross the river; thus, they serve as defensive pieces. There are only seven possible points on the board to which they can move. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Because of an elephant's limited movement, it can be easily trapped or threatened. A chariot can threaten one just by moving to a space where all brown spaces available to the elephant are threatened. Since one elephant could be easily captured, it depends on the other for protection.


The Chinese characters for "minister" and "elephant" are homophones (listen) and both have alternative meanings as "appearance" or "image". However, both are referred to as elephants in the game. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ...


Horse/Cavalry

The red horse may take the black horse, but the black horse cannot take the red horse because its movement is obstructed by another piece
The red horse may take the black horse, but the black horse cannot take the red horse because its movement is obstructed by another piece
Green moves are legal; red ones are illegal because another piece is obstructing the movement of the horse
Green moves are legal; red ones are illegal because another piece is obstructing the movement of the horse

The horses are labelled 馬 (listen) for black and 傌 (listen) for red in sets marked with Traditional Chinese characters and 马 (listen) for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese characters. Some traditional sets use 馬 for both colours. They begin the game next to the elephants. It moves one point vertically or horizontally and then one point diagonally away from its former position. It is important to note that the horse does not jump. Thus, if there were a piece lying on a point one point away horizontally or vertically from the horse, then the horse's path of movement is blocked and it is unable to move in that direction. Note, however, that a piece two points away horizontally or vertically or a piece a single point away diagonally would not impede the movement of the horse. The diagram on the left illustrates the horse's movement. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Diagram illustrating movement of the horse piece in the game xiangqi. ... Image File history File links Diagram illustrating movement of the horse piece in the game xiangqi. ... Image File history File links Diagram illustrating movement of the horse piece in the game xiangqi. ... Image File history File links Diagram illustrating movement of the horse piece in the game xiangqi. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ...


Since horses can be blocked, it is sometimes possible to trap the opponent's horse. A horse if blocked when there is a piece in front of it on the line that it [will] move 2 points. It is possible for one player's horse to attack the opponent's horse while the opponent's horse is blocked from attacking, as seen in the diagram on the right.

Chariot/Rook

The chariots are labelled 車 for black and 俥 for red in sets marked with Traditional Chinese characters and 车 for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese characters. Some traditional sets use 車 for both colors. Rarely, simplified sets use 伡. All of these characters are pronounced as (listen). The chariot moves and captures vertically and horizontally any distance. The chariots begin the game on the points at the corners of the board. Their placement and movement is similar to that of a rook in western chess. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ...


The chariot/rook piece is considered to be the strongest piece in the game.


Cannon/Catapult

The cannons are labelled 砲 pào (listen) for black and 炮 pào (listen) for red. They are homonyms. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the specialised use of homonym in scientific nomenclature, see Homonym (botany) and Homonym (zoology). ...


pào means a "catapult" for hurling boulders. pào means "cannon" [4]. The 石 radical of 砲 means 'stone', and the 火 part of 炮 means 'fire'. However, both are referred to as cannon in the game. Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ...


In Xiangqi, each player has two cannons. The cannons start on the row behind the soldiers, two points in front of the horses. Cannons move like the chariots, horizontally and vertically, but capture by jumping exactly one piece (whether it is friendly or enemy) over to its target. When capturing, the cannon is moved to the point of the captured piece. The piece over which the cannon jumps is called the 炮台 pào tái — "cannon platform". Any number of unoccupied spaces may exist between the cannon and the cannon platform, or between the cannon platform and the piece to be captured, including no spaces (the pieces being adjacent) in both cases. Cannons are powerful at the beginning of the game when platforms are plentiful, and are typically used in combination with chariots to effect mate.


Private/Soldier

Each side has five soldiers, labelled 卒 (listen) (pawn/private) for black and 兵 bīng (listen) (soldier) for red. Soldiers are placed on alternating points, one row back from the edge of the river. They move and capture by advancing one point. Once they have crossed the river, they may also move (and capture) one point horizontally. Soldiers cannot move backward, and therefore cannot retreat; however, they may still move sideways at the enemy's edge. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Approximate relative values of the pieces

Piece Point(s)
The soldiers Soldier before crossing the river 1
The soldiers Soldier after crossing the river 2
The advisors Advisor 2
The elephants Elephant 2
The horses Horse 4 - 5
The cannons Cannon 4 - 5
The chariots Chariot 9

These advisory values do not take into account positional advantages. For example, the chariot at the corner in the beginning of the game is not very useful, but it can be moved to points where it affects the game much more, for example near the center of the board or the opponent's palace. Also, the value of a cannon drops as the game goes on due to having fewer platforms for use in capturing, while the value of the horse increases slightly due to fewer obstructions. Despite the chariot having the highest value of 9 points, it should be pointed out that often, players will, at certain game scenarios, value a cannon/horse on or exceeding the level of a chariot due to the piece's unique attack style. What's left on the board is also important to value of piece. For example, in a mid or late game, if red still have two rooks and black has one advisor left, that advisor is very valuable for black because it is very easy for red to checkmate with two rooks if black does not have an advisor. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Ending the game

"Checkmate!" (assuming the cannon is safe) Note that the horse is not actually needed for this to be checkmate.
"Checkmate!" (assuming the cannon is safe) Note that the horse is not actually needed for this to be checkmate.

The game ends when one player successfully takes the general, or checkmates the other player — that is, when one player successfully threatens the opposing general with a piece and the player with the threatened general has no legal moves which would prevent the general from being threatened. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Checkmate (disambiguation). ...


A player without legal moves loses the game, instead of drawing as in Western chess.


In Chinese, to say check, one says 將 (trad.) / 将 (simp.) jiāng (listen), and to say checkmate, one says 將軍 (trad.) / 将军 (simp.) jiāngjūn (listen). The two calls are sometimes interchangeable. There is no requirement to inform the other player that you have them in check, but nevertheless many players say check throughout the game. In games such as chess, shogi and xiangqi, a check is an immediate threat to capture the king. ...


In Xiangqi, a player (often with material or positional disadvantage) may attempt to check or chase pieces in a way that the moves fall in a cycle, forcing the opponent to draw the game. The following special rules are used to make it harder to draw the game by endless checking and chasing (regardless of whether the positions of the pieces are repeated or not):

  • The side that perpetually checks with one piece or several pieces will be ruled to lose under any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual checking.
  • The side that perpetually chases any one unprotected piece with one or more pieces will be ruled to lose under any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual chasing. Chases by generals and soldiers are allowed however.[2]
  • If one side perpetually checks and the other side perpetually chases, the perpetually checking side has to stop or be ruled to lose.
  • When neither side violates the rules and both persist in not making an alternate move, the game can be ruled as a draw.
  • When both sides violate the same rule at the same time and both persist in not making an alternate move, the game can be ruled as a draw.

The above rules to prevent perpetual checking and chasing are popular, but they are by no means the only rules. There are a large number of confusing end game situations.[3]


Notation

Notational system 1

The book The Chess of China[4] describes a notational system of absolute positional references in which the ranks of the board are numbered 1 to 10 from closest to farthest away, followed by a digit 1 to 9 for files from right to left. Both values are relative to the moving player. Moves are then indicated as follows:


[piece name] ([former rank][former file])-[new rank][new file]


Thus, the most common opening in the game would be written as:

  1. 炮 (32)–35, 馬 (18)–37

Notational system 2

A notational system partially described in A Manual of Chinese Chess[5] and used by several computer software implementations describes positions in relative terms as follows:


[single-letter piece abbreviation][former file][operator indicating direction of movement][new file, or in the case of purely vertical movement, new rank]


The file numbers are counted from each player's right to each player's left.


The initials are as follows:

Piece Initial(s)
The advisors Advisor A
The cannons Cannon C
The chariots Chariot R (for Rook, because using C would conflict with the letter for Cannon)
The elephants Elephant E
The generals General G or K (for King)
The horses Horse H
The soldiers Soldier S or P (for Pawn)

Direction of movement is indicated via an operator symbol. A plus sign is used to indicate forward movement. A minus sign or hyphen is used to indicate backwards movement. A dot or period or equal sign is used to indicate horizontal or lateral movement. If a piece (such as the horse or elephant) simultaneously moves both vertically and horizontally, then the plus or minus sign is used rather than the period. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The plus (+) and minus (&#8722;) signs are used universally to represent the operations of addition and subtraction, and have been extended to many other meanings, more or less analogous. ... The plus (+) and minus (&#8722;) signs are used universally to represent the operations of addition and subtraction, and have been extended to many other meanings, more or less analogous. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... For other uses, see Full stop (disambiguation). ... See also the disambiguation page title equality. ...


Thus, the most common opening in the game would be written as:

  1. C2.5 H8+7

Gameplay and strategy

The long-range threat of the cannon
The long-range threat of the cannon

Xiangqi is a fast game for several reasons. First, the barrier of pawns is reduced dramatically. Second, the cannons jump to capture, making them a long-range threat early in the game. In addition, since the general is confined to only moving within the palace, it can be checkmated more easily unless it is protected by other pieces. Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Self-drawn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Because of the size of the board and the relative low number of long-range pieces, it may take time to move one's army of pieces from place to place on the board, and there is a tendency for the battle to focus on a particular area of the board. Common strategies used in Western chess such as forking with horse and pinning with chariot (sometimes the cannon and general can also pin) are also applicable in xiangqi. This article is about the Western board game. ...


Usually, the soldiers do not support each other unless the player has no better move. This is because from the initial position, it takes a minimum of 5 moves of a soldier to allow twin soldiers to protect each other.


Defensively, a common configuration is to leave the general at his or her starting position, deploy one advisor and one elephant on the two points directly in front of the general, and to leave the other advisor and the other elephant in their starting positions, to the side of the general. In this setup, the paired-up advisors and elephants support each other, and the general is immune from attacks by cannons. However, with the loss of a single advisor or elephant, the general becomes vulnerable to cannons, and this setup may need to be abandoned. The defender may move advisors or elephants away from the general, or even sacrifice them intentionally, to ward off attack by a cannon.


The two chariots are not normally lined up together as they are the most powerful piece and in doing so, a player risks the chances of losing at least one chariot to an inferior piece of the enemy. Depending on the situation, it may be advantageous to position a chariot at one of the corners of the enemy's side of the board, where it is very difficult to dislodge, and threatens the enemy general.


It is common to use the cannons independently to control particular ranks and files. Using a cannon to control the middle file is often considered vital strategy, because it helps to lock certain pieces such as the advisors and elephants in certain positions to prevent a check. The two files adjacent to the middle rank are also considered important and knights and chariots can be used to push for mate here.


It is also common to pull an early checkmate on beginning players, using the double cannon technique. This checkmate may be executed in four moves from the beginning of the game. However, it is easily countered by the horse reply. A double cannon technique involves 2 cannons of the same side lining up with the enemy general with no other pieces in between. This results in a check as the rear cannon uses the front cannon as cannon platform. The opponent cannot get away by placing a piece in front of the general to block the rear cannon because the front cannon will use that newly-moved piece as cannon platform to capture the general. The solution is to nullify the 2nd cannon either by taking it out or placing a piece between the two cannons.


Openings

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
a b c d e f g h i


Dāng tóu pào:
Red moves his or her cannon over from h3 to e3.
(Noted as "炮(32)–35" or "C2.5") Image File history File links Xiangqi-rdca. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hdst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-edst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-adstl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-gdst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-adstr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-edst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hdst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-rdcb. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cde. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-cdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cda. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cdb. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-cdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdsl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdsr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_ra. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rb. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rc. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slsl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slsr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-clmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cdd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-clmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cdc. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cde. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-rlcd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hlsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-elsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-alsdl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-glsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-alsdr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-elsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hlsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-rlcc. ...

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
a b c d e f g h i


Mǎ lái tiào:
Black moves his or her horse out from h10 to g8
(Noted as "馬(18)–37" or "H8+7") Image File history File links Xiangqi-rdca. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hdst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-edst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-adstl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-gdst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-adstr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-edst. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_st. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-rdcb. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cde. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-cdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cda. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cdb. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-cdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdsl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-sdsr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_ra. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rtp. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rb. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rdn. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_rc. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slsl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-slsr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-clmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cdd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-clmd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cdc. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_cde. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_md. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-_sr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-rlcd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hlsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-elsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-alsdl. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-glsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-alsdr. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-elsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-hlsd. ... Image File history File links Xiangqi-rlcc. ...

Since the left and right flank of the starting setup are symmetrical and therefore equivalent, it is customary to always make the first move from the right flank. Starting on the left flank is considered to be needlessly confusing.


The most common opening is to move the cannon to the central column, an opening known as 當頭炮 (trad.) / 当头炮 (simp.) dāng tóu pào. The most common reply is to advance the horse on the same flank. Together, this move-and-response is known by the rhyme 當頭炮,馬來跳 (trad.) / 当头炮,马来跳 (simp.) dāng tóu pào, mǎ lái tiào (listen). The notation for this is "1. 炮 (32)–35, 馬 (18)–37" or "1. C2.5 H8+7". See also the diagrams to the right.


This is usually followed by the most common second move, 出車 (trad.) / 出车 (simp.) chū jū — "chariot sortie" — in which the first player moves a chariot forward one space (usually the right one).


The most common reply is to move the right advisor diagonally. 上士 shàng shì. This is to prevent a series of events that leads to the first player quickly checkmating the second.


Less common first moves include:

  • moving an elephant to the central column
  • advancing the soldier on the third or seventh file
  • moving a horse forward
  • moving either cannon behind the 2nd pawn from the left or right

General advice for the opening includes rapid development of at least one chariot, because it is the most powerful piece and the only long-range piece besides the cannon. It may not be a bad move to develop one horse to the edge of the board, for example, to avoid being blocked by one of one's own pawns that cannot advance. Usually, at least one horse should be moved to the middle.


History

Xiangqi has a long history. Though its precise origins have not yet been definitely confirmed, the earliest indications reveal the game may have been played as early as the 4th century BC, by Tian Wen (田文), the Lord of Mengchang (孟嘗君) for the state of Qi, during the Warring States Period. (See chess in early literature or timeline of chess.) Judging by its rules, Xiangqi was apparently closely related to military strategists in ancient China. The ancient Chinese game of Liubo may have had an influence as well. State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... One of the most common ways for chess historians to trace when the board game chess entered a country is to look at the literature of that country. ... It has been suggested that Chess During World War II be merged into this article or section. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Liubo (or Liu bo or Liu po as alternates) is an ancient Chinese board game. ...


The word Xiàngqí's meaning "figure game" can also be treated as meaning "constellation game". Sometimes the xiàngqí board's "river" is called the "heavenly river", which may mean the Milky Way; that previous xiàngqí game may have been based on movements of sky objects. This article is about the star grouping. ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ...


During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, wars were fought for years running. A new strategy board game was patterned after the array of troops (according to a hypothesis by David H. Li, this was developed by Han Xin in the winter of 204 BC-203 BC to prepare for an upcoming battle). This was the earliest form of Xiangqi. The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... David H. Li, born 1928 in Ningbo, China, moved to the United States of America in 1949. ... Han Xin (Simplified Chinese:韩信;Traditional Chinese:韓信; pinyin: Hán Xìn) (?-196 BC), aka Marquess of Huaiyin (淮陰侯), was a capable Chinese general under Liu Bang. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC - 204 BC - 203 BC 202 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC - 203 BC - 202 BC 201 BC...


During the Cao Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties, a kind of strategy game was popular among the people. It laid a foundation for the finalized pattern of Xiangqi. In ancient times, both highbrows and lowbrows enjoyed Xiangqi. The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... This article is about China. ...


During the reign of Suzong of the Tang Dynasty, Prime Minister Niu Sengru wrote a fictional story about Xiangqi. That occurred during the Baoying period, so it was named Baoying. Baoying had six pieces and produced a significant influence on Xiangqi in subsequent years. Emperor Tang Suzong (è‚…å®— (711-762, r. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


Three forms of the game took shape after the Song Dynasty. One of them consisted of 32 pieces. They were played on a board with 9 vertical lines and 9 horizontal lines. Popular in those days was a board without a river borderline; the Korean game of janggi is derived from this earlier riverless version. The river borderline was added later, and this form of the game has lasted to the present day. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Janggi is one of a family of strategic board games of which Western chess, Japanese Shogi, and the very similar Chinese Xiangqi are also members. ...


With the economic and cultural development during the Qing Dynasty, Xiangqi entered a new stage. Many different schools of circles and players came into prominence. With the popularization of Xiangqi, many books and manuals on the techniques of playing the game were published. They played an important role in popularizing Xiangqi and improving the techniques of play in modern times. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Modern play

Tournaments and leagues

In Europe and Asia, there are significantly more Xiangqi leagues and clubs than in the United States. Each European nation generally has its own governing league; for example, in Britain, Xiangqi is regulated by the United Kingdom Chinese Chess Association. Asian countries also have nationwide leagues, such as the Malaysia Chinese Chess Association in Malaysia. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


In addition, there are also several international federations and tournaments. For example, the Chinese Xiangqi Association hosts several tournaments every year, including the Yin Li and Ram Cup Tournaments.[6] There is also an Asian Xiangqi Federation[7] and a World Xiangqi Federation,[8] which hosts tournaments and competitions bi-annually, though most are limited to players from member nations.


Xiangqi has spread from Asia into the United States, where it has gained increasing popularity. However, there remains no official league or nationwide club for Xiangqi in the U.S.,[9] and Xiangqi is mainly played recreationally or at local clubs, usually located in Chinatowns. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ...


Rankings

The Asian Xiangqi Federation and its corresponding member associations also rank players in a number format similar to the rankings of chess. The best player in China, according to the 2006 Chinese National Ratings, is Xu Yinchuan with a rating of 2628.[10] Other strong players include Lu Qin and Hu Ronghua. Chess Go The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Xu Yinchuan is currently considered to be one of the worlds strongest players in Xiangqi, or Chinese Chess. ... Hu Ronghua (b. ...


The Asian Xiangqi Federation also bestows the title of grandmaster to select individuals around the world who have excelled at xiangqi or have made special contributions to the game. Though there are no specific criteria for becoming a grandmaster, the list of grandmasters is limited to fewer than a hundred people.[11]


Computers

As of 2005, the world's best human xiangqi players remain better than the world's best computer players. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The game-tree complexity of xiangqi is approximately 10150, so in 2004 it was projected that a human top player will be defeated before 2010.[12] Combinatorial game theory has several ways of measuring game complexity. ...


And in the Computer-Human Xiangqi Dual Meet in 2006[5], the final score was Computer 5,5 - Human 4,5


Variations

Variations of the game have been created, such as Blitz games, Supply Chess and two variations "blind" chess. Blitz chess (also known as speed chess or blitzkrieg chess) is a game of chess where each side is given very little time to make all of their moves. ...


In Blitz games, each player only has around 5-10 minutes each (depending on rules), leading to a fast-paced game with no room for thought and moves have to be made by instinct.


In Supply Chess, a team of two players plays against another team, with one person taking the black pieces and another taking the red pieces. Any pieces obtained by killing the opponent's pieces is given to the teammate. These pieces can be deployed by the teammate to give him an advantage over the other player, so long as he observes the following rules:

  1. The piece can only be on your own side
  2. The piece cannot cause your opponent to be in check

There have been instances of Blitz-Supply chess, but such competitions are usually friendly or small scale, as much criticism has arose over these variations of chess. Players often use tactics such as rapidly exchanging pieces to force out a draw in blitz games.


In supply chess, one player often exchanges all his pieces with his opponent to allow his teammate to confuse his opponent with the large number of pieces on the board. Four cannons or rooks on the board would lead to an almost unbreakable control of key lanes, virtually assuring victory.


In blind chess, played by two, all of the pieces are jumbled, flipped so the character of the piece is concealed and placed on the squares on only one side of the river. The players assume a colour and take alternate turns. The object of the game is to capture all of your opponent's pieces. Banqi (Chinese: 半棋; Pinyin: bànqí), or Half Chess, is a two-player Chinese board game played on a 4x8 grid, or half of the Xiangqi (Chinese Chess) board. ...


At each turn, the player can do one of three things. They may choose to uncover a concealed piece, move one of their own pieces to an empty square (pieces can only move to an adjacent square and not diagonally regardless of its movement style in original Xiangqi) or they may choose to capture one of their opponents pieces. There are limitations for the last option however.


Each piece, although move the same way, has a "rank" that enables it to capture pieces beneath its rank. The general is the highest rank and can capture any piece apart from the soldier. The chariot can capture all other pieces apart from the general. The horse may capture all pieces apart from the general and the chariot. The cannon may capture the elephant, advisor and soldiers and the elephant may capture the advisor and soldiers. Soldiers, is the lowest rank but also one of the most important as it is the only piece that can capture generals (which is the most powerful piece in blind chess)


The game continues until one of the players has lost all of their pieces. Blind chess is mostly a game of luck as the player cannot choose where their pieces are set up. They can only increase their chances by moving pieces and uncovering appropriately, calculating the odds that the uncovered piece next to them can be friend or foe, superior or inferior. This game is more well known in Hong Kong than in mainland China.


A second variation of blind chess involves playing without a visible chess board. The players have to memorize the positions of the pieces on the chess board. A third person is occasionally asked to keep track of the game with an actual chess board in case of disputes. The players calls out their moves with four character notations in the format [piece name][former file][advance/retreat/horizontal][new file/ranks advanced]. For example, if a horse was in rank 3 file 3 and it was to move to rank 4 file 5, the notation used would be the chinese words "horse 3 advances to 5". If a chariot was to move from rank 3 file 3 to rank 3 file 6, it would be "chariot 3 horizontal to 6". If a piece advances forward without changing file, the number of steps forward or back is used instead.


Notes

  1. ^ Xiangqi: Chinese Chess ([1])
  2. ^ CXQ Chinese Chess Rules ([2])
  3. ^ Asian Chinese Chess Rules ([3])
  4. ^ Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China: Mei Ya, 1978. (getCITED.org listing)
  5. ^ Wilkes, Charles Fred. A Manual of Chinese Chess. 1952.
  6. ^ From rec.games.chinese-chess FAQ #21 “What are some of the top tournaments in the world?”
  7. ^ Asian Xiangqi Federation homepage includes English translations of Asian tournament results, rules, etc.
  8. ^ World Xiangqi Federation homepage.
  9. ^ From rec.games.chinese-chess FAQ #20
  10. ^ http://chess.ourgame.com/info/info.asp
  11. ^ rec.games.chinese-chess FAQ lists the International Grandmasters by country.
  12. ^ Yen, Chen, Yang, Hsu, 2004, Computer Chinese Chess.

Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Lau, H. T. Chinese Chess. Tuttle Publishing, Boston, 1985. ISBN 0-8048-3508-X.
  • Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China: Mei Ya, 1978.
  • Li, David H. First Syllabus on Xiangqi: Chinese Chess 1. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1996. ISBN 0-9637852-5-7.
  • Li, David H. The Genealogy of Chess. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-2-2.
  • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Cannon: Chinese Chess 2. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-7-3.
  • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Elephant: Chinese Chess 3. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2000. ISBN 0-9637852-0-6.
  • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Pawn: Chinese Chess 4. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2002. ISBN 0-9711690-1-2.
  • Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Horse: Chinese Chess 5. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2004. ISBN 0-9711690-2-0.
  • Sloan, Sam. Chinese Chess for Beginners. Ishi Press International, San Rafael, Tokyo, 1989. ISBN 0-923891-11-0.
  • Wilkes, Charles Fred. A Manual of Chinese Chess. 1952.

David H. Li, born 1928 in Ningbo, China, moved to the United States of America in 1949. ... David H. Li, born 1928 in Ningbo, China, moved to the United States of America in 1949. ... David H. Li, born 1928 in Ningbo, China, moved to the United States of America in 1949. ... David H. Li, born 1928 in Ningbo, China, moved to the United States of America in 1949. ... David H. Li, born 1928 in Ningbo, China, moved to the United States of America in 1949. ... David H. Li, born 1928 in Ningbo, China, moved to the United States of America in 1949. ... Samuel Howard Sloan (b. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Xiangqi
  • Computer Chinese ChessPDF (221 KiB) (Yen, Chen, Yang, Hsu) — review
  • Introduction to Chinese Chess
  • An Introduction to Xiangqi for Chess Players
  • Essentials of Chinese Chess and of Korean ChessPDF (217 KiB)
  • Qianhong Xiangqi — freeware Chinese Chess game for Windows

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Xiangqi: Chinese Chess (1119 words)
Photo's of a Xiangqi set with three dimensional pieces, (instead of the usual flat disks.) Includes photo's of cannon and elephant.
It is believed that both Xiangqi and Orthodox Chess derive from the original Indian game of Chanturanga.
Unlike orthodox Pawns, the Xiangqi Pawn's passive move and capture move are always the same.
Xiangqi - Free Encyclopedia (1096 words)
Xiangqi (&#35937;棋 pinyin xiang4 qi2, pronunciation resembles "see-ahng chi"), also called Chinese chess or elephant chess, is a game that is similar to shogi and chess and goes back to the same origins: the Indian game Chatrang, from about 1400 years ago.
The game-tree complexity of Xiangqi is approximately 10
Xiangqi plays faster then western chess, because the barrier of pawns is reduced dramatically, and also because the Cannons (see below) jump to capture, which makes them a threat early in the game.
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