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Encyclopedia > Xia Dynasty
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
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907–1125
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960–1279
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(on Taiwan) The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... The Tiefu (Simplified Chinese character: 铁弗, Traditional Chinese character: 鐵弗, pinyin: TiÄ›fú) was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...


Timeline of Chinese history
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The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: 夏朝; pinyin: xià cháo; Wade-Giles: hsia-ch'ao), ca. 2070 BC1600 BC,[1] of China is a quasi-legendary dynasty and the first to be described in the Records of the Grand Historian and unofficial Bamboo Annals, which record the names of seventeen kings over fourteen generations lasted 431 or 471 years. The dynasty was preceded by the mythological Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, and followed by the Shang Dynasty. The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: HànyÇ”; 华语/華語, HuáyÇ”; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2112 BC — 2095 BC — Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu. ... The Lion Gate at Mycenae, the center of Mycenean Greece 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... The Bamboo Annals (Zhushu jinian) is a chronicle of ancient China. ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...

Contents

History

According to the official history, the Xia Dynasty was founded when Shun abdicated the throne in favor of his minister Yu, whom Shun viewed as the perfect civil servant. Instead of passing power to the person deemed most capable of rulership, Yu passed power to his son, Qi, setting the precedence for dynastic rule. The Xia Dynasty thus began a period of family or clan control. Shun (Traditional Chinese: ) was a legendary leader of ancient China, among the Three August Ones and the Five Emperors. ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... Qi (Chinese: ) was the son of Yu the Great and the second sovereign of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ...


The Skeptical school of early Chinese history (yigupai) in the twenties, started by Gu Jiegang, was the first to seriously question within China the traditional story of its early history: “the later the time, the longer the legendary period of earlier history... early Chinese history is a tale told and retold for generations, during which new elements were added to the front end”[2] Yun Kuen Lee's criticism of nationalist sentiment in developing an explanation of Three Dynasties chronology focuses on the dichotomy of evidence provided by archaeological versus historical research, in particular the claim that the archaeological Erlitou Culture is also the historical Xia Dynasty. “How to fuse the archaeological dates with historical dates is a challenge to all chronological studies of early civilization.”[3] The Yigupai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Skeptical School) refers to a group of scholars and writers who show doubts and uncertainty of antiquity in the Chinese academia. ... Gu Jiegang or Ku Chieh-kang (顧頡剛) (1893-1980) was a Chinese historian who is known best for his seven volume work Gushi Bian (古史辨 Debates on Ancient History). In his work, he used textual criticism to challenge traditional Chinese historiography. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ...


According to traditional Chinese proponents of the Dynastic cycle, it was during this period that Chinese civilization developed a benign civilian government and harsh punishment for legal transgressions. From this the earliest forms of Chinese legal codes came into being. According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through a dynastic cycle: A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. ...


Jie, the last ruler, was said to be a corrupt king. He was overthrown by Tang, the leader of Shang people from the east. Jie (Chinese: 桀) was the last emperor of the Xia dynasty of China, and is blamed for its fall. ... King Tang of Shang of China, in chinese:湯, born Zi Lu, in chinese:子履,(1617 BC - 1588 BC). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...


Archaeological records

Bronze cup found at Erlitou site in 1963

Archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the possible existence of the Xia dynasty at locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. There exists a debate as to whether or not Erlitou culture was the site of the Xia dynasty. Radiocarbon dating places the site at ca. 2100 to 1800 BC, providing physical evidence of the existence of a state contemporaneous with and possibly equivalent to the Xia Dynasty as described in Chinese historical works.[4] In 1959, a site located in the city of Yanshi was excavated containing large palaces that some archaeologists have attributed as capital of the Xia Dynasty. Though later historical works mention the Xia dynasty, no written records dated to the Xia period have been found to confirm the name of the dynasty and its sovereigns. At a minimum, the archaeological discoveries marked an evolutionary stage between the late neolithic cultures and the typical Chinese urban civilisation of the Shang Dynasty. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... Cao Mao, ch. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...

See also: Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project

A multi-year, multi-discipline project commissioned by the Peoples Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty. ...

Mythical Opposite of Shang

In her work, The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art and Cosmos in Early China, Sarah Allen noted that many aspects of the Xia are simply the opposite of traits held to be emblematic of the Shang. Classical Chinese historians such as Sima Qian had access to records going only as far back as the Western Zhou Dynasty. The implied dualism between the Shang and Xia, Allen argues, is that while the Shang represent fire or the sun, birds and the east, the Xia represent the west and water. The development of this mythical Xia, Allen argues, is a necessary act on the part of the Zhou Dynasty, who justify their conquest of the Shang by noting that the Shang had supplanted the Xia. Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


Sovereigns of the Xia Dynasty

Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號)1
Order Reign2 Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Notes
01 45 also Yu the Great (大禹; dà yǔ)
02 10  
03 29 太康 Tai Kang  
04 13 仲康 Zhòng Kāng  
05 28 Xiāng  
06 21 少康 Shào Kāng  
07 17 Zhù  
08 26 Huái  
09 18 Máng  
10 16 Xiè  
11 59 不降 Bù Jiàng  
12 21 Jiōng  
13 21 Jǐn Guoyu: jìn, putonghua: jǐn
14 31 孔甲 Kǒng Jiǎ  
15 11 Gāo  
16 11  
17 52 Jié also Lu Gui (履癸 lǚ guǐ)
1 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Xia (夏), for example Xia Yu (夏禹).
2 Possible length of reign, in years.

A posthumous name (諡號/謚號 Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... Qi (Chinese: ) was the son of Yu the Great and the second sovereign of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zhong Kang (Chinese: ) was the fourth sovereign of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Xiang (Chinese: 相), is the name of a ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty who is said to have reigned during the 3rd millennium BC. He was the fifth ruler of the Xia Dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zhu (杼) was the seventh ruler of the Xia Dynasty. ... Huai (槐) was the eighth ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Máng (芒) was the ninth ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Xie (泄) was the 10th ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Bu Jiang (不降) was the 11th ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Jiong (扃) was the 12th ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Jin (廑) was the 13th ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Guoyu (國語, Wade-Giles: Kuo-yü) can refer to: a classical history book of ancient China. ... Standard Mandarin refers to the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. ... Kong Jia (孔甲) was the 14th ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Gao (çš‹) was the 15th ruler of the legendary Xia Dynasty. ... Fa was the ruler of the Xia dynasty before Jie. ... Jie (Chinese: 桀) was the last emperor of the Xia dynasty of China, and is blamed for its fall. ...

See also

This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been discovered by archaeologists, sorted in chronological order from the earliest founding to the latest. ...

Notes:

  1. ^ http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/China/ancient-history.htm
  2. ^ Building the Chronology of Early Chinese History. Journal article by Yun Kuen Lee; Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific, Vol. 41, 2002
  3. ^ Building the Chronology of Early Chinese History. Journal article by Yun Kuen Lee; Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific, Vol. 41, 2002
  4. ^ Fairbank, John K. China: A New History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992, page 35.

John King Fairbank (1907-1991) was among the most renowned American scholars of East Asia in the twentieth century. ...

References

Wikisource
Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Shiji (in Chinese)
  • Deady, Kathleen W. and Dubois, Muriel L., Ancient China. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2004.
  • Lee Yuan-Yuan and Shen, Sinyan. Chinese Musical Instruments (Chinese Music Monograph Series). 1999. Chinese Music Society of North America Press. ISBN 1-880464039
  • Sarah Allen (1991), The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art and Cosmos in Early China

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinese Dynasties (2064 words)
At minimum, the Xia period marked an evolutionary stage between the late neolithic cultures and the typical Chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty.
Shang dynasty endured roughly from 1700 to 1027 B.C. The Shang dynasty (also called the Yin dynasty in its later stages) is believed to found by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler.
The Zhou dynasty had its capital at Hao, near the city of Xi'an, or Chang'an, as it was known in its heyday in the imperial period.
Xia Dynasty (2205-1806 B.C.) (384 words)
Xia Yu was first awarded the land of Xia Bo by Di Shun.
Xia Qi Xia Yu gave his throne to his follower Yi, but he did not win popularity among his people.
A official Guan-Long Feng urged Xia Jie to repent and was imprisoned and executed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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