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Encyclopedia > Xi'an

Coordinates: 34°16′00″N, 108°54′00″E Xian may refer to: Xian (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsi-an), city in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Xī ān
西安市
长 安 Chang'an
Night view of Xi'an
Location of Xi'an
Coordinates: 34°16′N 108°54′E / 34.267, 108.9
Province Shaanxi
Government
 - Type Sub-provincial city
 - CPC Xi'an Sun Qingyun (孙清云)
 - Mayor Chen Baogen (陈宝根)
Area
 - City 9,983 km²  (3,854.5 sq mi)
 - Land 9,983 km² (3,854.5 sq mi)
 - Water 0 km² (0 sq mi)
 - Urban 1,166 km² (450.2 sq mi)
 - Yangling 94 km² (36.3 sq mi)
Elevation 405 m (1,329 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 2,670,000 (city proper)
 - Density 666/km² (1,724.9/sq mi)
 - Metro 8.252 million
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
Postal code 710000 - 710090
Area code(s) +86/29
GDP (2006)
- Total ¥147,368 billion
- Per capita ¥18,493
License plate prefixes 陕A
City flower Guava flower
City tree Black locust
Website: http://www.xa.gov.cn/

Xi'an (Chinese: 西安; pinyin: Xī'ān; Wade-Giles: Hsi-An; Postal System Pinyin: Sian), is the capital of Shaanxi province in China and a sub-provincial city. As one of the most important cities in Chinese history, Xi'an is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China for it has been the capital of 13 dynasties, including the Zhou, Qin, Han, and the Tang. Xi'an is also renowned for being the eastern terminus of the Silk Road and for the location of the Terracotta Army made during the Qin Dynasty. The city has more than 3,100 years of history. It was called Chang'an (traditional Chinese: 長安; simplified Chinese: 长安; pinyin: Cháng'ān; literally "Perpetual Peace") in ancient times. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 362 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 463 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tang Paradise and Giant Wild Goose Pagoda,Qujiang,Xian I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Xian_location. ... For other province-level divisions, see Political divisions of China. ... Not to be confused with the neighboring province of Shanxi Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: Shǎnxī; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a northwestern province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions... A sub-provincial city (副省级城市), or deputy-provincial city, in the Peoples Republic of China, is a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Certain regions of eastern Asia, including Greater China, observe a time zone eight hours ahead of UTC (UTC+8), and currently do not observe daylight saving time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... ISO 4217 Code CNY User(s) Mainland of the Peoples Republic of China Inflation 1. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total gross domestic product in 2003. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blue PRC licence plates of the 1992 standard (August 2004 image). ... Species About 100 species, see text. ... Binomial name Robinia pseudoacacia L. Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... In the early twentieth century, China (starting with the dying Qing Empire) used Postal (Office) System Pinyin (Traditional Chinese:郵政式拼音 Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) (unrelated to the modern Hanyu Pinyin), based on Wade-Giles (in particularly, Herbert Giless A Chinese-English Dictionary) for postal purposes, especially for... Not to be confused with capitol. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... For other province-level divisions, see Political divisions of China. ... A sub-provincial city (副省级城市), or deputy-provincial city, in the Peoples Republic of China, is a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law. ... The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Sì Dà GÇ”dÅ«) traditionally refers to Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, and Xian. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of interior China especially for the central and northwest regions, the City of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational center of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. The economies of the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau are separate from the rest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... The space program of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) began in 1956 with the cooperation of the USSR and continued as an indigenous nuclear deterrent program after the Sino-Soviet split in 1960. ...

Contents

Origin of Name

The two Chinese characters in the name "Xi'an" literally mean Western Peace. The local Xi'anese pronunciation of Xi'an is almost the same as the Standard Mandarin pronunciation in Hanyu Pinyin. This name derives from the period of the Ming Dynasty when the city's name changed from its former title of "Chang'an". In fact, the naming conventions used for the city have often changed throughout time. The city was named Fenghao (丰镐) in the Zhou (周) Dynasty beginning around 1046 BC. The city was named Xianyang (咸阳) during the Qin (秦) Dynasty, or rather the State of Qin in 383 BC. It was renamed Chang'an (长安) during the Han (汉) Dynasty in 206 AD. It was then renamed as Daxing (大兴) during the Sui (隋) Dynasty in 581 AD, while it was again renamed Chang'an during the Tang Dynasty beginning in 618 AD. It was given other names in later periods as well, such as Fengyuan (奉元), then Anxi (安西), then Jingzhao (京兆) during the Yuan (元) Dynasty. Finally, it was named Xi'an in the year 1369 AD — the first time that it was called Xi'an — during the Ming Dynasty. It retained the name of Xi'an until 1928, until it was named Xijing (西京) in 1930. It was once again reverted back to its Ming era name of Xi'an in the year 1943. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Xianyang (Simplified Chinese: 咸阳; Traditional Chinese: 咸陽; pinyin: ) was the capital of the state of Qin during the Warring States Period in Chinese history, and remained to be capital during the short-lived Qin Dynasty. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Changan   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chángān; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... ... Parthia empire at its greatest extent The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BC and 224 AD. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the East and it limited... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... City nickname: Changan Location Image:Map of city xian. ...


Xi'an's abbreviations in Chinese are Hao (镐) or Tang (唐). The former is derived from the ancient name Fenghao of the Zhou Dynasty. The latter is derived from the name of Tang Dynasty. Hao can have several different meanings: Used in reference to Chinese culture, hao is the word for a courtesy name. Hao is also the name of a coral atoll in the central part of the Tuamotu Archipelago. ... Tang could refer to: Tang Dynasty of China Tang (Shang dynasty ruler) A transliteration of Chinese family names such as 唐,湯,鄧,é‚“,滕 Tang Clan of Hong Kong, the first inhabitants to leave China and settle in Hong Kong. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


Xi'an is known as "the Cradle of Chinese Nationality".


History

Xi'an has a rich history of cultural significance, both natural and man-made. The Lantian Man was discovered in 1963 at Lantian County (蓝田县; pinyin: Lántián Xiàn), just 50 km southeast of Xi'an. This finding dates back at least 500,000 years ago, and was followed by the discovery of a 5,000 year old Neolithic village at Banpo (半坡) in 1954, just outside the current city limits to the east. Trinomial name Homo erectus lantianensis (J.K.Woo, 1964) The Lantian Man, Homo erectus lantianensis, initially Sinanthropus lantianensis, (and sometimes Lantien Man) refers to an ancestral human whose discovery in 1963 was first described by J.K.Woo in 1964. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Qin Dynasty

Xi'an became a cultural and industrial center of China in 11th century BCE, with the founding of the Zhou Dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in Fēng (沣/灃) and Hào (镐/鎬), both located just west of contemporary Xi'an. Following the several century long Warring States Period, Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) unified China for the first time and the capital was Xianyang (咸阳), just northwest from modern Xi'an. Before his death, Emperor Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum which is located in the city's suburb. This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Xianyang (Simplified Chinese: 咸阳; Traditional Chinese: 咸陽; pinyin: ) was the capital of the state of Qin during the Warring States Period in Chinese history, and remained to be capital during the short-lived Qin Dynasty. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty...

Terracotta Army inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, 3rd century BC.
Terracotta Army inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, 3rd century BC.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty...

Han Dynasty and the Silk Road

In 202 BCE, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han Dynasty established Chang'an County as the capital; his first palace Changle Palace (长乐宫/長樂宮, perpetual happiness) was built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. This is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an, or Xi'an. Two years later, Liu Bang would built Weiyang Palace (未央宫) north of modern Xi'an. The original Xi'an city wall was started in 194 BCE, the construction took 4 years to finish and the wall measured 25.7 km in length, 12-16 m in thickness at the base. The area within the wall was ca. 36 km². In year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo moves the court from Luoyang to Chang'an in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him. (Redirected from 202 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu, personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only two dynasty founders who emerged from... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Weiyang Palace (未央宫) was a palace constructed by Emperor Liu Bang in Changan. ... Events A part of Rome burns, and emperor Commodus orders the city to be rebuilt under the name Colonia Commodiana First year of Chuping era of Chinese Han Dynasty Births 190 is a number Deaths Athenagoras of Athens, Christian apologist Categories: 190 ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: DÇ’ng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Han Dynasty saw the rise of the Silk Road, a great transcontinental route linking the Roman Empire in the West with the imperial court of China in the East. The ancient route started at Chang’an (the ancient name of Xi'an), the capital of the Han Dynasty, reached the Yellow River at Lanzhou, then skirted westward along deserts and mountains before dividing into three routes at the oasis of Dunhuang. Walking through Xinjiang, brave ancient merchants traveled westward all the way to Rome. The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ...


Sui Dynasty

Following another few hundreds of years of unrest, Sui Dynasty united the country again in 582 and the emperor ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing (大兴/大興, great excitement). It consisted of three sections: the Xi'an Palace, the Imperial City, and the civilian section. The total area within the wall was 84 km², The main street Zhuque Avenue measured 155 m in width. It was the largest city in the world. The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Maurice I succeeds Tiberius II Constantine as Byzantine Emperor. ... Xian Palace was the palace of the Sui Dynasty and built under the order of the Emperor in 582. ...


Tang Dynasty

The city was renamed Chang'an in Tang Dynasty. In the mid-7th century, after returning from his pilgrimage to India, Buddhist monk Xuan Zang (popularly known as Tang Sanzang) established a translation centre for Sanskrit scriptures. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Construction of the Da Yan Pagoda (大雁塔, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda) began in 652. It measured 64 m in height. This pagoda was constructed for the storage of the translations of Buddhist sutras obtained from India by the Xuan Zang. In 707, construction of the Xiao Yan Pagoda (小雁塔, Small Wild Goose Pagoda) began, it measured 45 m in height at the time of completion. The earthquake of 1556 damaged the tower and reduced its height to 43.4 m. Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China The Big Goose Pagoda, or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔; pinyin: ), is located in southern Xian, China. ... Events Khazaria becomes an independent state (approximate date) Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards Births Clotaire III, king of the Franks Deaths Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammed, progenitor of the Abbasids Saint Ida of Nivelles, widow of Pippin of Landen, monastic foundress Rothari... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... 707 A south Australian counter-strike team consisting of fbz, bl1zz, carnage, ic3solo and Jonevo. ... Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 小雁塔; pinyin: ), is one of two significant pagodas in the city of Xian, China. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...


The Huaqing Palace and the Huaqing Hot Spring has undergone four large reconstructions during its long history. The first could be dated back to the Western Zhou Dynasty of over 3,000 years ago. The second time was during the Qin Dynasty. By the time of the Western Han Dynasty it had become a popular destination for the Han emperors.

The site of the Hanyuan Hall in Daming Palace

During the Tang Dynasty, large number of palaces were built along the mountain slopes and in the surrounding area. It was then renamed the “Huaqing Palace”. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ...


The Daming Palace was commissioned and financed by Emperor Tang Taizong in 634, the 8th year of the reign of “Zhen’guan”, became a summer resort for his father, the former Tang Gaozong, Li Yuan. The palace is the largest to be built in the Tang dynasty, roughly 4.5 times larger than the forbidden city in Beijing. The Hanyuan Hall served as the main hall of the Daming Palace and it was used by the emperor to handle his routine affairs and grant audiences to officials or foreign envoys. The original survey indicated that the hall was built on a terrace over 3 meters high and extends some 75.9 meters in length from east to west and 42.3 meters in width from north to south. Emperor Taizong of Tang China (January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... “Peking” redirects here. ...


The Xingqing Palace was once a palace built for the Emperor Xuanzong and the Lotus Palace which was once famous for its beautiful sceneries.


During the Tang Dynasty, Japanese overseas students arrived in Chang'an to study the ways of the Tang dynasty. When they went back to Japan, they brought with them books, religion, technologies, Chinese characters (on which Japanese characters were based on). Some Japanese even lived out their lives in Chang'an. Following the Japanese envoys Kukai who came to Chang'an in 804, he first stayed in the Ximing Temple and later followed Monk Huiguo of the Blue Dragon Temple to study Esoteric Buddhism. He returned to Japan in 806 after he had finished his studies and established the True Word Sect of Buddhism in Japan and finally became a great master in establishing the "Eastern Esotericism".

Chang'an was largely destroyed at the end of the Tang Dynasty in 904. Residences were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied after the destruction. Events Accession of Sergius III Destruction of Changan, the capital of Tang Dynasty and the largest city in the ancient world. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Ming Dynasty

During the Ming Dynasty, the 3rd year of Emperor Hongwu's reign, a new wall was constructed in 1370 .The new wall and a moat outside the walls protect a much smaller city measures 11.9 km in circumference, 12 m in height, and 15-18 m in thickness at the base. It is the most intact citywall of the world.

Modern History

In late Qing Dynasty, foreign troops attacked Beiping (modern-day Beijing). The queen mother Cixi escaped from Beiping to Xi'an, living in Huaqing Palace at Lishan. Local officials wanted to please her and built a building named Liangbao Lou (亮宝楼) to place her jewels in the West Street. Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a... Yesan County (Yesan-gun) is a county in South Chungcheong Province, South Korea. ...


Just before the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1936, the Xi'an Incident took place inside the city walls. General Yang Hucheng and General Zhang Xueliang forced President Jiang Jieshi to cooperate with CPC at Lishan. It brought the Communist Party of China and Kuomintang to a truce to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion. Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang around the time of the Xian Incident. ... Yang Hu-cheng (d. ... Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... CPC may be an acronym for: Canada Post Corporation Choroid plexus cyst Clinical-Pathological Conference College Preparatory Center Communist Party of China Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Communist Party of Canada Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) Computer Process Controls Conservative Party of Canada Community Patent Convention Cost Per Click Custom... Yesan County (Yesan-gun) is a county in South Chungcheong Province, South Korea. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan. ...

Geography and Climate

Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the central part of China with the average elevation of 400 meters above sea level. Its annual precipitation is 1100 millimeters. The urban area of Xi'an, located at 34°16′00, N°108′54


Xi'an is nested between a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams, most of which have been polluted to be used as sources of fresh water.River Hei is the tap water provider to the city.


The city borders the northern foot of the Qinling Mountains to the south, and the banks of Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km away to the east of the city.


In the beginning of Han Dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang suggested the emperor, Liu Bang, to choose Guanzhong as the capital area of Han: 'Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long Plain and Shu Plain. Land, of thousands miles and rich in harvest, can be found here, as if this place is belongs to the nation of the heaven.' ("关中左崤函, 右陇蜀, 沃野千里, 此所谓金城千里, 天府之国也" 《史记·留侯世家》) Since then, Guanzhong is also known as 'Nation of the Heaven'.


National Time Service Centre

It's Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory was established in 1966. In 1975, according to the Geodetic Origin Report, the People's Republic of China: 'in order to avoid bias in the mensuration as much as possible, the Geodetic Origin would better in central mainland China.' Jingyang (泾阳), a town near Xi'an was chosen. Since 1986, Chinese Standard Time(CST) has lauched from NTSC. The location of NTSC at Jingyang is 36km away from Xi'an. It is 880km to the North boundary, 2500km to the Northeast, 1000km to the East, 1750km to the South, 2250km to the Southwest, 2930km to the West, and 2500km to the Northwest.

National Time Service Center (NTSC), the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an institute which is mainly engaged in the service and research on time and frequency. NTSC takes charge of generating and maintaining the national standard time scale, disseminating the time and frequency signals. The autonomous standard time scales of universal time and atomic time and the dissemination techniques with LF radio and HF radio were established successively during 1970’s and 1980’s, which meet all the requirements for different applications on the whole, such as the scientific researches, national economy, et al.

NTSC


Average Temperature

Xi'an has a continental climate. The region is characterized by long, hot summers, and cold, dry winters. Spring and Autumn are brief in between. Xi'an receives most of its annual precipitation from August to late October in the form of rain. Summer seasons also experience frequent but short thunderstorms.

Weather averages for Xi'an, China
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °F (°C) 35 (3.9) 45 (7.2) 55 (12.7) 68 (20) 77 (25) 86 (30) 87 (30.6) 85 (29.4) 76 (24.4) 66 (18.9) 52 (11.1) 42 (5.6)
Average low °F (°C) 25 (-3.9) 30 (-1.1) 39 (3.9) 50 (10) 58 (14.4) 67 (19.4) 71 (21.7) 70 (21.1) 61 (16.1) 51 (10.6) 38 (3.2) 28 (-2.2)
Precipitation inch (mm)
Source: Weatherbase[1] Feb 2007

Demographics

At the end of 2005, Xi'an had a population of 8.07 million[2]. Compared to the census conducted in 2000, the population increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million.[2] There were 4.17 million (51.66%) males and 3.90 million (48.34%) females[2]. For every 100 females in the city there were 106.88 males.[2] The district with the most population is YanTa Qu, with 1.08 million inhabitants.[2] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, which make up 99.1% of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Muslim Hui people, many of them concentrated in the famous Muslim quarter, which is also home to the beautiful 1,360 year old Great Mosque of Xi'an. Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques The Great Mosque of Xian (Chinese: 西安大清真寺), located near the Drum Tower (Gu Lou) on Huajue Lane of Xian, Shaanxi province, China, is one of the oldest and most renowned mosques in the country. ...


During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially the neighboring Henan Province, as Xi'an was quite far inland and the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the central governmental aimed to balance the development in different regions of China, factories and universities were moved from other cities to Xi'an, including Xi'an Jiaotong University from Shanghai. Like other major Chinese cities, Xi'an receives a fair amount of migrant workers from the rural areas every year. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Xian Jiaotong University (西安交通大學) is a university in Xian, China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


Subdivision

Xi'an is subdivided into 13 districts. source:refers to 'Brief Administration Region,the People's Republic of China,2006'(<中华人民共和国行政区划简册>).(Population dues to 2004)


The urban and suburban areas of the city are divided into seven (7) districts:

District Population (2000 census) Area (km²)
Beilin District (碑林区: Bēi Lín Qū) 700,000 22.0
Yanta District (雁塔区: Yàn Tǎ Qū) 690,000 152.0
Weiyang District (未央区: Wèi Yāng Qū) 410,000 26.1
Baqiao District (灞桥区: Bà Qiáo Qū) 450,000 32.2
Xincheng District (新城区: Xīn Chéng Qū) 490,000 31.0
Lianhu District (莲湖区: Lián Hú Qū) 600,000 38.00
Chang'an District (长安区 : Cháng ān Qū),Chang'an Xian until 12th,Sep,2002 930,000 1583
City proper + inner suburbs 4.27 million 1,884.3

The following two(2) districts encompass the more distant suburbs and satellite towns, constituting part of the metropolitan area:

District Population (2000 census) Area (km²)
Yanliang District (阎良区: Yán Liáng Qū) 240,000 240.0
Lintong District (临潼区: Lín Tóng Qū) 670,000 898.0
Outer suburbs 0.91 million 1,138.0

The other four(4) districts and the two counties located further out govern semirural and rural areas:

District Population (2000 census) Area (km²)
Lantian Country (蓝田县: Lán Tián Xiàn) 640,000 1,977.0
Zhouzhi Country (周至县: Zhōu Zhì Xiàn) 630,000 2,956.0
Hu County (户县:Hù Xiàn) 590,000 1,213.0
Gaoling County (高陵县: Gāo Líng Xiàn) 230,000 290
Peripheral areas 2.09 million 6,436.0

Transportation and Infrastructure

Underpass around the Bell Tower
Xi'an Railway Station
Xi'an Railway Station

For a large metropolis, Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. At many heavily zoned commercial, residential, educations areas in the city, there are underpasses or overpasses for the safety and convenience of pedestrians, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower. However many intersections still lack sufficiently visible traffic lights and the right-of-way is virtually non-existent except at large intersections with traffic police and signals. The subway around the Bell Tower by LIU Zhongjun User:Zj Date : 22 augest 2003 in Xian City Zj 23:32, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The subway around the Bell Tower by LIU Zhongjun User:Zj Date : 22 augest 2003 in Xian City Zj 23:32, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) XiAn Railway Station [July 2007] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) XiAn Railway Station [July 2007] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


There has been a significant increase in the number of privately-owned vehicles to the middle and upper class households in Xi'an. Electrical bikes are very popular among students and offers easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are robust, however many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of the 200+ bus routes.


Subway

Currently there are major constructions along Chang An street for the first subway system in Xi'an, designed 6 lines, to be completed by 2011.


The 2nd route will start to be built in 2009, while rest of the routes are planned to start in 2013 and finish around 2020.


Taxi

The main models of the taxis are Santana made in Shanghai, BYD auto made in Xi'an and CITROEN made in Wuhan. Taxis serve 24 hours a day. The Taxi Management Bureau of Xi'an City strengthens the work of management by forming strict system and announcing telephone of complaints to the society. They provide canonical service, and charge according to the price meter.


Train

The Xi-Bao Express Train, CRH2

There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an at present, and the Xi'an Railway Station is one of the eight national important railway stations. Xi'an Railway Station is the main railway station serving the city. Others include Xi'an West, Xi'an East, Xi'an South,Sanmincun, Fangzhicheng railway stations. Xi'an North Railway Station is under construction. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Xi'an Railway Station has a coverage of 597 thousand square meters, 5 passenger platforms, and 24 rails. It actually provides 112 trains and its daily transportation of passengers is 80 thousand person times. In the Xi'an Railway Branch, there are excursion trains from Xi'an to Zhengzhou, from Xi'an to Lanzhou, from Xi'an to Baoji,and from Xi'an to Mount Hua. CRH2(China Railway High-speed 2) is an express service running from Xi'an to Baoji, the total running time is less than 90 minutes.


Expressways

ZhongNan Tunnel
Xi-Han Expressway

Xi'an currently has two ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road encircle the city. These ring roads are almost built like freeways, except that there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (865 × 583 pixel, file size: 189 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (865 × 583 pixel, file size: 189 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


As a famous tourist city, Xi'an built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji,High class roads built on the famous scenic spots from Xi'an to its suburban counties and the north slope of the Qin Mountains, transfixion of the 2nd Ring, widening of the three-bridge New Street and North Avenue and other projects provide very convenient conditions of traffic for visitors to Xi'an.


Expressways spread in all directions from Xi'an. In September 2007, the newest completed Xi-Han Expressway connects Han Zhong and Xi'an through the Qinling Mountains. The ZhongNan Shan Tunnel is the longest tunnel in Asia at 15 kilometers long. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ...


Airport

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport.
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport.

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport is the major airport serving the city. It is the largest airport in the northwest region of China. THe airport is located to the northwest of the city, between Xi'an and Xianyang. Chang'an Airlines and China Eastern Airlines are the main airport tenants. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) XiAn XianYang International Airport Departure Hall [July 2007] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) XiAn XianYang International Airport Departure Hall [July 2007] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Xian Xianyang International Airport (西安咸阳国际机场) serves Xian, Shaanxi, China. ... Xianyang (Simplified Chinese: 咸阳; Traditional Chinese: 咸陽; pinyin: ) was the capital of the state of Qin during the Warring States Period in Chinese history, and remained to be capital during the short-lived Qin Dynasty. ... Changan Airlines is an airline based in Xian, Shaanxi, the Peoples Republic of China. ... China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited (Simplified Chinese: ) (SSE: 600115 SEHK: 0670 NYSE: CEA) is an airline based in Shanghai, China. ...


International Routes: There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Singapore, Bangkok, Tokyo, Osaka, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kyoto, Hong Kong, Seoul, and Pusan. Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... Sapporo redirects here. ... This article is about a city in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... P&#363;san is also a Vedic Hindu god. ...


Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5-percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility. Frankfurt International Airport (German: Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) is located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt Airport (disambiguation). ...


Culture

Keji Road at night/new centre

The culture of Xi'an is inherited from the traditions of one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong Ren (关中人/關中人) were the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese, their cultural features are drawn from the Ten Specialities of Guanzhong Ren (关中十大怪/關中十大怪). Another major part of this culture is Eight Great Sights of Chang'an (长安九景/長安九景), storied scenic areas in the region. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location within China Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong Province in southern China. ...


Architecture

Seven styles of architecture predominate in urban Xi'an, the first three which include the architecture of Qin and Han Dynasties (秦汉风格), the architecture of Tang Dynasty (唐风) and at last the architecture of Ming and Qing Dynasties (明清风格). These three styles are all Chinese traditional, but they could be differed from the colors of the roof and certain details. For Qin and Han Style, the roof is black, and no decorations are used under the roof. For Tang style, people began to use a lot of the colour red but still prefer the black or dark green roof, and the buildings were all divine and huge to show off the power of the country; when the history went into Ming and Qing dynasties, roof's color changed to yellow, and people value tremendously on details, such as drawings and prints under the roof.


After Qing dynasty, it's Republic of China style (民国风格) before PRC was established; it is perhaps best exemplified by the People's Showplace. Then, there is what is sometimes referred to as the Sino-Soviet style (苏式风格), built between the 1950s and the 1970s, which was under the help of U.S.S.R., mostly centralized in the western part of the city where there are lots of factories. Also, there are much more modern architectural forms (现代风格) — most notably in the areas of High-Tech Zone and Economic-Development zone. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


At present, a new Chinese architectural form called New Tang Style (新唐风) can be mainly found in Qujiang (曲江), which inherits the soul of tradition and develops itself on the base of modern architecture; Shaanxi History Museum and Xi'an Museum are examples of this style.

Drama and Literature

The drama of the original Xi'anese culture, Qinqiang (秦腔, Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive Chinese Opera of the four major types of Chinese opera. It is also "random pluck"(乱弹), is the main type of drama in Shaanxi area and also the most ancient existing one in dramatic arts of the country. As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, it has formed its own system with unique vocal music, spoken parts, types of facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting.It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang (西秦腔, Voice of West Qin) in Qin Dynasty. It went on to blossom until Qing Dynasty, and influenced Jingju (京剧, Chinese Opera) directly. Qinqiang (秦腔, pinyin: Qínqiāng) or Luantan (乱弹, pinyin: Luàntán) is the representative folk opera of the northwest Province of Shaanxi, China, where it was called Qin thousands of years ago. ... Qin, Qín or Chin (Wade-Giles) can refer to. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: &#28165;&#26397;; pinyin: q&#299;ng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... A female Beijing opera performer with traditional costume and makeup A male Beijing opera performer Beijing opera or Peking opera (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Chinese opera which arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. ... Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ...


The dialect of Xi'an, Shaanxi Hua, is strongly influenced by Standard Mandarin. However, it still retains a lot of grammar and pronunciation from the Classical Chinese.


Yisu She (易俗社) is one of the oldest Drama society in China. Today it is still vigorous.


Contemporary writers like Chen Zhongshi (陈忠实), Lu Yao (路遥), Jia Pingwa (贾平凹), who contributed greatly to Chinese literature, are also from Xi'an. Jia Pingwa (贾平凹), Chinese novelist, born 21 February 1952 in Shangluo in Shaanxi province. ...


Art, Music, Film and others

Tang Style musical performance in Xi'an

Chang'an School (长安画派) is a very important modern Chinese school of traditional arts.Main artists are Zhao Wangyun (赵望云), Shilu (石鲁), He Haixia (何海霞), Liu Wenxi (刘文西)。Zhao and Shi are outstanding.They are the masters of Chang'an School. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

trasformation of workshops in Spinning Town,Xi'an

Just like 'Beijing 798' and 'Shanghai 1933', Xi'an has a place called Spinning town (纺织城). It's not a real town because since 1950s, there're several big spinning factories there; the population in that area is almost equal to a town. Today, it is no longer a centre for spinning industry but a new art factory with A,B,C and D--4 big workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken apart in. It's thought as a signal of new creative industry in Xi'an. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Xi'an is also famous for Rock Music. Actually, it's one of the vigorous underground musical centres in China. The other three are Beijing, Kunming and Chengdu. Dozens of young people with dreams are popular in many nameless pubs or bars. A few Chinese Stars at present are from here. Xuwei (许巍), Zhangchu (张楚), Zhengjun (郑均) are Xianese Rock Music Stars For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ...


Not only Zhang Yimou (张艺谋) and Gu Changwei (顾长卫) are directors from Xi'an, but Xi'an is also the only city in China that wins Golden Bear (Berlin Film Festival) twice. The first film is Red Sorghum; the second one is Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an Filmmaking company respectively. Zhang Yimou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ;  ) (born November 14, 1951) is an internationally acclaimed Chinese filmmaker and one-time cinematographer. ... Gu Changwei (born December 12, 1957) is a Chinese cinematographer and film director. ... Binomial name Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 The Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) is a species of bear that can reach weights of 130-700 kg (300 to 1500 pounds). ... Red Sorghum (&#32005;&#39640;&#26753;, Pinyin: Hong gao liang) is a 1987 Chinese film, the first to be directed by Zhang Yimou, based off a novel by Mo Yan. ... Tuyas Marriage (Chinese: 圖雅的婚事; Tuya de hun shi) is a 2006 Chinese film directed by Quanan Wang. ...


Chinese main economists graduated from North Western University such as Zhang Weiying (张维迎), Zhang Shuguang (张曙光), Weijie (魏杰), Liu Shijin (刘世锦), Songze (宋则), Fenglun (冯仑), Feng Zongsu (冯宗苏), Zou Dongtao (邹东涛), Li Yiping (李义平), Zhuo Zhonghai (左中海); Zhang Chaoyang (张朝阳), the CEO of SOHU company, is the leader in the field of Chinese Internet.


Exchange

Lantern Festival on the city wall, every 15th January (lunar calendar)
Lantern Festival on the city wall, every 15th January (lunar calendar)
Christmas Eve, Xi'an

Both traditional customs and exotic ones are popular in Xi'an. The picture on the left shows the Lantern Show on Yuanxiao Jie (元宵节). The right one is about Christmas Eve in Xi'an. It is almost a new Carnival for young people. On Christmas Eve, students in the Universities go out together to celebrate until mid-night, it's not the same as it is in the West, but a special day for people to relax and have some fun with their friends. It seems more exciting when it happens in the oldest city in the East. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Impersonating charactors by dressing special made costumes refer to cartoon books(esp.Japanese comics)is trendy among the youth. It is called 'Cosplay'.Meanwhile, traditional Han people's clothes are advocated by the new generation,too.


A Poetic City

The number of poems that describe the beauty/stories of city in the history are countless

  • 长安陌上无穷树, 唯有垂柳道离别: Even trees by the road side in Chang'an are rich. Only willows whisper Goodbye. (in the past, willows were everywhere in the city)
  • 总为浮云能蔽日, 长安不见使人愁: I thought the clouds would cover the sun, but still felt sad because Chang'an was out of my view.
  • 冲天香阵透长安, 满城尽带黄金甲: Chang'an immenses itself in the scent, and the city dresses golden likes wearing a corselet.
  • 向长安,对秋灯, 几人老: ahead the direction of Chang'an, face to the lamp in the fall, time hastens people's life.
  • 长安城中秋夜长, 佳人锦石捣流黄: autumn night in Chang'an is much longer, beauties wash clothes by the river side.
  • 举目见日, 不见长安: raise the head I see the sun, but not the Chang'an that I missed.
  • 红尘紫陌, 斜阳暮草, 长安道, 是离人: after sunset, people on the road of Chang'an are saying goodbye
  • 秋风吹渭水, 落叶满长安: winds blow river Wei, then leaves shatter on the ground
  • 三月三日空气新, 长安水边多丽人: on third of March (Chinese Lunar Calendar), thousands of beauties are enjoying Spring in Chang'an.
  • 暗闻歌吹声, 知是长安路: when you hear the music, you know it's Chang'an ahead.
  • 百千家似围棋局, 十二街如种菜畦: this poem points out the feature of the city, streets and roads are very orderly and regular, just like the I-go.
  • 九天阊阖开宫殿, 万国衣冠拜冕旒: this poem shows the scene of Daming Palace in the morning. Officials were waiting outside the palace.
  • 渭水收暮雨, 处处多新泽. 宫苑傍山明, 云林带天碧: this poem means the rain after sunset drips into River Wei (a river near Chang'an), and new pools on the ground are everywhere. The palace snuggles up to the mountain is becoming brighter, and the thick forest has the pretty color as the sky
  • 却惜京华不可见, 烟花二月过长安. 长安通衢十二陌, 出入九州横八极: these sentences mean the transportation in Chang'an is very convenient.
  • 风舞槐花落御沟, 终南山色入城秋: Flower of the locust trees dances with the wind, then fall into the royal river, let's enjoy the beautiful autunm and the scenery of Mount Zhongnan seen from the city
  • 长安大道连狭斜, 青牛白马七香车: the carrige passes the street of Chang'an, leaving a delicate fragrance
  • 西北望长安, 可怜无数山: to the North west, it's Chang'an. How lovely the mountains around it!
  • 秋寒可自长安到? 再忆长安已太迟: Could autumn come into Chang'an by itself? It's already too late to miss Chang'an.
  • 长安雪后似春归, 积素凝华连曙辉: it seems like spring after snowing in Chang'an, can you see the snowflake sparkle in the rosy down?
  • 长安渭桥路, 行客别时心: the bridge over the Ba River, the feeling we separate from each other.
  • 恐逢故里莺花笑, 且向长安度一春: I'd rather spend my spring in Chang'an than to face the oriole-flower smelling in my hometown
  • 何处可为别? 长安青绮门: where is the place we could say goodbye at last? It's Qingyi Gate in Chang'an
  • 长安道, 一回来, 一回老: when you first passed Chang'an, you were young; the second time you passed by, you are already old.
  • 花萼楼前雨露新, 长安城里太平人: in front of the buiding, the rain is fresh, the flower as well, the life of people who live in Chang'an is peaceful.
  • 年年今日谁相问, 独卧长安泣岁华: Nobody could answer my question at this time every year, I have to stay myself in Chang'an, weeping bitter tears over my lost youth
  • 长安城中月如练, 家家此夜持针线: the moon in Chang'an is very bright tonight, every family is sewing.
  • 忆长安, 九月时: it's September, it's the time to miss Chang'an
  • 滞雨长安夜, 残灯独客愁: it's raining all night. Lamp is the only thing to accompany with, what a lonely passenger, no words can express the grief
  • 红尘白日长安路, 马走车轮不暂闲: the wheels of the carrige are very busy on the road in Chang'an
  • 碧池新涨浴桥鸦, 分锁长安富贵家:
  • 豪家沽酒长安陌, 一旦起楼高百尺:
  • 长安九城路, 戚里五侯家:
  • 长安大道沙为堤, 早风无尘雨无泥: the streets in Chang'an are made of sand. There's no ash in the morning wind and no mud in the rain.
  • 长安回望绣成堆, 山顶千门次第开: turn back and find the beautiful natural sights behind Chang'an.
  • 长相思, 在长安: the place we are pining for is Chang'an!
  • 一为迁客去长沙, 西望长安不见家: once I moved to Chang'sha, it's another city far away from Chang'an. From then on,I couldn't see my hometown to the west.
  • 忆来唯把旧书看, 几时携手入长安: when I miss her, I read the old books. Who can tell me when could I go back to Chang'an with her?

Romance

In Chinese history, many renowned love stories happened in the city.


The 1st one is a legend about Niulang (牛郎) and Zhinu (织女). Niulang is a common cattle man while Zhinu is a fairy in the heaven. They loved each other but this relationship was not allowed. So they received a punishment, they could only meet each other on 7th, July (Chinese lunar calendar) on the bridge over galaxy (galaxy was considered as a river in the sky). They still have their stone statues in Xi'an, which were built in Han Dynasty by the side of Kunming Lake (has already disappeared).


The 2nd one is the story between Tang Xuanzong (玄宗) and Yang Yuhuan (a dauphine of Xuanzong) (杨玉环) happend in Tang Dynasty. Xuanzong can be the name of the following Chinese emperors: Emperor Xuanzong of Tang China (reign: 712-756) Emperor Xuanzong II of Tang China (reign: 846-859) Xuande Emperor of the Ming Dynasty (reign: 1425-1435) Daoguang Emperor of the Qing Dynasty (reign: 1820-1850) This is a disambiguation page... Statue of Yang Guifei bathing in Huaqing Pool, near Xian. ...

  • 在天愿做比翼鸟, 在地愿为连理枝: this is a famous sentence when people want to imply that how deep they love each other, firstly used on this story, means that they would like to be the birds flying together, or the branches of trees embraced each other forever.

Some other great love stories...

  • 愿得一心人, 白头不相离: the writer was a beautiful woman named Zhuo Wenjun (卓文君) in Han Dynasty. She married her hunsband and some day she discovered that he seemed to fall in love with another woman. She's very sad and decided to write down a poem. This is one sentence of that poem, means I would like to win a man who only loves me, and I will follow him until all my hairs turn grey. Finally,her hunsband returned to her.

Another one happened at Hanyao (寒窑), Qing Dynasty, where the spoony woman was famous for waiting her lover for over 18 years. Zhuo Wenjun, or Wen Jun, 卓文君 (1st century BC) was a Chinese woman writer of the Western Han dynasty. ...


Cuisine

Because of its long development as a culture, the cuisine of Xi'an is extensive as well. It is the representative of food of Northwestern China. The most well known local food is the Xianese snack, which consists of both traditional food of the Han Chinese and Hui ethnic minority. Hui-style snacks feature beef and mutton because the Hui people, being Muslims, do not eat pork. Baked beef and mutton, buns with beef, and other such regional dishes that are usually spicy in nature and incorporate a lot of beef and mutton ingredients. Han-style snacks are popular across China, consisting of meat with pancakes and noodles. Cool noodles, made of rice or wheat, taste spicy and great. A historical famous Xi'an dish is pancakes and mutton soup, which can be traced back to the Song (宋) Dynasty. The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ...


Xi'an Dumplings Banquet

Xi'an Dumplings Banquet (德发长) is renowned throughout the city. It has already served dozens of Presidents who came to Xi'an, including Bill Clinton. Basically, 32 different types of dumplings for each customer, but if you would like to taste more, there're also a lot options, more than 120 types are waiting for you.


There is also a famous cultural noodle dance when a chef, instead of rolling out noodles, waves a long strip of dough around in a dance before cooking the noodles.


Religion

Buddhism

Buddhism was first introduced to China in the Han Dynasty. Then, it matured by absorbing Chinese elements, for example, it's combined with local ethics and local religion such as Daojiao together. Many classical scriptures were brought from India by Monk Xuanzang (玄奘)in the Tang Dynasty, and he contributed a lot to the translation project. Today, His tomb is still in the rural area of Xi'an, and his statue is facing to Giant Wild Goose Pagoda. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda was used for storaging the Scriptures. Buddhism in China is slightly different from India Buddhism and influenced Asian Buddhism deeply, it's called Chinese Buddhism (汉传佛教). Some of them were spread to Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia. A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ...


Chinese Buddhism could be grouped into northern Buddhism and southern Buddhism. It's also divided into eight branches (schools) by different perceptions on Buddhism; six of these schools were born in Chang'an. At present, these six schools' founder temples (祖庭) (founder: the first master of school) are still in Xi'an.


Six schools are Sanlun Zong (三论宗), Huayan Zong (华严宗), Faxiang Zong (法相宗), Lu Zong (律宗), Jingtu Zong (净土宗) and Mi Zong (密宗). Their Founder's Temple (祖庭) are Caotang Temple (草堂寺), Huayan Temple (华严寺), Da Ci'en Temple (大慈恩寺), Jingye Temple (净业寺), Xiangji Temple (香积寺), Da Xingshan Temple (大兴善寺).


Address List of 6 founder's temples:

  • Sanlun Zong (三论宗), Caotang Temple (草堂寺): Hu Xian (户县), Xi'an
  • Huayan Zong (华严宗), Huayan Temple (华严寺): Shaolin Yuan, Xi'an
  • Faxiang Zong (法相宗), Da Ci'en Temple (大慈恩寺): Yanta Road, Xi'an (near the Giant Wild Goose Pogada)
  • Lu Zong (律宗), Jingye Temple (净业寺): Mount Zhongnan, Xi'an
  • Jingtu Zong (净土宗),Xiangji Temple (香积寺): Shenhe Yuan, Xi'an
  • Mi Zong (密宗), Da Xingshan Temple (大兴善寺): West Street Da Xingshan Si, Xi'an

Other Temples:

  • Famen Temple (法门寺):Baoji (110km away from Xi'an,where places Buddha's relics-finger bone)
  • Wolong Temple (卧龙寺):Kaitong Lane, Xi'an
  • Xingjiao Temple (兴教寺):Shaolin Yuan, Xi'an (where Xuanzang's Tomb is)
  • Jianfu Temple (荐福寺):Youyi Road,Xi'an (where Small Wild Goose Pagoda is)
  • Blue Dragon Temple (青龙寺): Xiying Road, Xi'an
  • Wangji Temple (罔极寺): Paofang, Xi'an

A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ...

Tibetan Buddhism

Strictly speaking, it's a branch of Buddhism. But because the region of Tibet is substantially different from other regions in China so whether the custom or the religion there is not the same as the rest parts of China. Guangren Temple is a case located in Xi'an.It is consecrated to Princess Wencheng(文成公主) (Tang Dynasty) who married the leader of Tibet. She promoted the relationship between Tang and Tibet, and brought developed technique from Tang to Tibet at that time. The Chinese Princess Wencheng (Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco, (Traditional Chinese: 文成公主, pinyin: Wénchéng GōngzhÇ”) (d. ...

  • Guangren Temple (广仁寺): Shuncheng Lane,Xi'an

Daojiao

Besides Buddhism, Xi'an is also an important place for Chinese local religion Taoism (道教).It has a founder's 'Daoguan' (道观) as well. 'Daoguan' is like a temple, a church or a monsque,just a specific name of place. Louguan tai (楼观台) is Daojiao's first Daoguan. Another 3 famous Daoguans in urban area of Xi'an are Eight Immortals An (八仙庵), Chenghuang Miao (城隍庙) and Xiangzi Miao (湘子庙). In Daojiao's legend, Eight Immortals (八仙) once stayed there so it's called ‘八仙庵’ ( 'An'and'Miao' also mean 'Daoguan'). This article is about the temple in Shanghai. ...

  • Louguan Tai (楼观台): Qinling Mountains,Xi'an
  • Eight Immortals An (八仙庵): Changle Fang,Xi'an
  • Chenghuang Miao (城隍庙): the West Street,Xi'an
  • Xiangzi Miao (湘子庙): Str.Xiangzi Miao,Xi'an

This article is about the temple in Shanghai. ...

Catholicism

  • Catholicsm Church, Street Wuxing, Xi'an

Muslim

  • The Great Mosque (大清真寺): Huajue Lane, Xi'an
  • Mosque Great (清真大寺): Da Xuexi Lane, Xi'an

Commerce

Maison Mode
Keji Road

There are three commercial centres in the city. The most important one revolve around the Bell tower commercial circle, covering an area about 1km2 which includes the West Street, the East Street, the South Street and Jiefang Road varies from each other. The east street is the main street.Ginwa is a local advanced shopping centre. It also has branches in Beijing and Urumchi; Golden Eagle, which comes from Nanjing, is the group's first northern shopping centre; Parkson is Malasian brand, with more than 40 shops in Mainland China; Mansion Mode, based in Hong Kong has 5 stores in Shanghai, Xi'an, Chongqing, Beijing and Chengdu. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


List of large shopping centres that already on business:

  • Parkson, the west street
  • Minsheng shopping centre, the west street
  • Ginwa shopping centre, the west street
  • Easter shopping centre, the east street
  • Parkson, the east street
  • Zhonghuan shopping centre, the west street
  • Kaiyuan shopping mall, the east street
  • Luomashi shopping mall, the east street
  • Sanli-Haida Spring shopping centre, the south street
  • Zhongda International, the south street
  • Maison Mode Chang'an, outside the south gate
  • Minsheng shopping centre, Jiefang Road
  • Golden Eagle international shopping centre, Keji Road
  • Ginwa shopping centre, Keji Road
  • Parkson, Chang'an Road

List of large shopping centres that will open in a year:

  • Newmart, Jiefang Road
  • Ciete shopping centre plus Tongluowan Square, the west street
  • Wanda Square, Yanta Road
  • Parkson, Xi'an Jiaotong University

List of large shopping centres that will open after 2 years:

  • Pearl shopping centre, Weiyang Road
  • Taiyi shopping centre, Taiyi Road
  • Great Tang west market, Fengqing Road
  • Chang'an Mall, Xiaozhai
  • Great Tang all day mall, Yanta Road

Economy

Xi'an is the largest industrial center in China's mid-west and northwest. Xi'an has also consistently received one of the largest foreign direct investment amounts among cities in western China. The amount of import-export done by the industrial sector make up more than 60% of the city's total trading volume. As much as 97% of the industries in Xi'an is manufacturing.


Euro-Asia Economic Forum, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Euro-Asia Economic Forum (欧亚经济论坛) is directly under the SCO. It's held every two years in China. Xi'an is its permanent site selection in China. SCO can refer to: // Santa Cruz Operation, a company founded in 1979, renamed Tarantella, Inc. ...


Fair

the largest fair in Xi'an is the Investment & Trade Fair for Cooperation between East & West China. It's successfully held each March since 1996.


Software and BPO

CBD, Tangyan Road, Xi'an
CBD, Tangyan Road, Xi'an

Xi'an, as a pioneer in software industry in China, has been retaining a sustainable and booming economy, which in turn upbores the development of software industry. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 785 × 600 pixels Full resolution (800 × 611 pixel, file size: 266 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by siva Tangyan Road of Xian I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 785 × 600 pixels Full resolution (800 × 611 pixel, file size: 266 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by siva Tangyan Road of Xian I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


In 2005, the production value of software industry reached RMB 8.2 billion Yuan, with export revenue up to $US 42 million.


In recent years, service outsourcing industry in Xi'an has maintained robust growth. The outstanding contractor enterprises, rich human resources and preferential policies have paved a solid foundation for Xi'an to realize the objective of becoming the capital for service outsourcing.'


The third session of the annual China International BPO Conference, one of the most professional international conferences in software service outsourcing, began in Xi'an, the capital of southwest China's Shaanxi province on October 26, 2006


Xi'an as a second-tier city in China after the likes of Beijing and Shanghai already has a track record in the BPO field. And the local government is putting muscle behind the words in tax incentives and other incentives to companies that set up shop there and to professionals that choose to make their home in the district.


The Silicon.com article goes on to say, "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits - with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month - half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing." People's Daily Bureau of Commerce of Xi'an Municipal Government


Game industry

The largest net bar of the world with more than 3000 computers is located in Xi'an.As one of the biggest educational centres throughout the nation, because of the huge amount of undergraduate students,online games are very hot in the area.Xi'an has already hosted worldwide game competitions such as ACON5,CEG2006,and WCG2006,to name but a few.


National Aviation Hi-Tech Industrial Base

The Xi’an Yanliang National Aviation Hi-Tech Industrial Base (thereinafter referred to as National Aviation Industrial Base or Base) was approved by Chinese government (National Development and Reform Commission). National Aviation Industrial Base is divided into core district and expanding area. The planning area of core district is 40 square kilometers, with a completed area is 11.28 square kilometers, and the newly planned area is 28.72 square meters. The expanding area includes Guanzhong and Shaanxi Hanzhong area, including the aviation enterprises of Shaanxi surroundings and even the whole country. The construction of newly planned area of National Aviation Industrial Base commenced in March of 2005. The overall plan and controlled plan of 5 square kilometers’ start up area has been finished according to international standard, it is divided into different functional area namely manufacturing, R&D, aviation exhibition, education and training and business etc.

[1]

Xi'an Aircraft Industry Group Co.Ltd.

Modern Ark 60,Xi'an Aircraft Industry Group Co.Ltd

Xi'an Aircraft Industry(group) Company Limited(hereafter referred to XAC),the super-sized aviation industry enterprise integrated with scientific research and production,is a base of developing and manufacturing large and medium-sized airplanes in China. Being the state first grade enterprise,XAC has more than 20,000 employees and covers a total area of 3 million square meters. it's established in 1958.Now XAC has become a high tech industry group integrated with aircraft automobile,architectural material,electronic products and import and export trade etc.Over 40 years,XAC has successively developed and manufactured more than 20 different types of aircraft,such as Chinese flying leopard,B6 family. Of which 30 airplanes in 5 types participated the 50th anniversary National Day military parade; the commercial airplanes are Y7 family and Modern Ark 60(MA60), which is designed and developed according to requirements of CCAR-25 and FAR-25; it's safety, reliability, comfort, economy and maintainability have reach to or close to the level of similar advanced commuter aircraft in the world. In 1980, XAC took its first step in international aviation cooperation and joint-venture management with many world-famous companies of foreign countries, such as the U.S.A., Canada, Italy, France and Germany. The parts and components for foreign companies produced in XAC are mainly B737-700 vertical fins and B747 components for Boeing, Airbus doors and ATR42 wing box for Aerospecial, CL415 components for Canadair as well as ATR72 section 16 for Alenia etc.. Non-aero products are mainly Volov luxury bus,XIFEI brand aluminum extrusions, architectural metal panel, aluminum doors and windows series products, VCM film laminate plate, frequency variable ambiguity controller, morale bookshelf, anti-static floor board and so on. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

[2]


Automobile

Shaanxi Heavy-duty Automobile Group Co.,Ltd

Shaanxi Heavy-duty Automobile Group Co., Ltd owns 11 subsidiaries and holding companies. They are Shaanxi Heavy-duty Automobile Co., Ltd, Shaanxi Baoji Huashan Vehicle Co., Ltd, Shaanxi HanDe Axle Co., Ltd, Shaanxi Eurostar Automobile Co., Ltd, Shaanxi Heavy-duty parts and components Co., Ltd, Shaanxi Tongli Special Vehicle Co., Ltd, Shaanxi HuaHeng Radiator Co., Ltd, Shaanxi WanFang Auto parts and components Co., Ltd, Shaanxi Huazhen Industry and trade Co., Ltd, Shaanxi LanTong Shaft Co., Ltd, and Shaanxi Heavy-duty bus Affiliated Co. and so on.?Its products covered four sorts and more than 1,000 varieties with distinctive features of assorted specifications and reliable performance, include military heavy truck, bus (chassis), medium-size heavy truck, and heavy duty axles etc. After introducing the advanced design and technology of heavy-duty truck from STEYR (Austria) and bus and bus chassis from MAN (Germany) since 1980’s, it has been studying the new technology continuously. In 2003, it signed the strategic cooperation agreement with Germany MAN Company, and become sole company introducing the tech of MAN F2000 and TG-A series which enjoys great popularity in world market, therefore owns brand-new upgraded Chinese heavy duty automobiles products. The new generation product F2000, which is the only heavy duty automobile awarded, won “The Best Advanced Technology” in first session of“ China 12 Vehicles (commercial vehicles). Shaanxi Automobile Group Co., Ltd has exported to more than 10 countries and region such as Asia, Europe, America, Oceania, and Africa, approved as enlarging export enterprise by State Council. Products SX2150 and SX2190 military series participated in the world-renowned ceremonial parades of the 35th and 50th National Day respectively.At recent years, it becomes a well-known automobile enterprise group by keeping 40% average increase, and successfully jump in China top 500 enterprises, listed at 237th place; in China top 500 mechanical enterprises listed at 45th place by its integrated strength rapid increase, and named “The Most Influential Company”.

BYD AUTO

BYD AUTO is a subsidiary of BYD Company Ltd., which is a listed company in Hong Kong Stock Exchange.Xi'an BYD auto company is a branch of BYD COMPANY.BYD Company Ltd. made its debut from less than 30 people in 1995 and became the second largest rechargeable battery producer in the world in 2003.


International Events

World F1 Motorboat Championship

Discipline Classes Country Venue Date
Circuit World Formula 1 China Xi'an 05 October 2007
Circuit World Formula 1 China Shenzhen 21 October 2007

UIM


World Horticultural Expo 2011

Xi’an was granted the right to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture (AIPH) at its 59th congress, held at Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007 The 2011 World Horti-Expo will be held from April 11 to October 11, 2011 as an exhibition of A2+B1 level, which permits local government to apply.The Expo is expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an. The venue will be located in a new district of the city, Chanba district.[3] Brighton is located on the south coast of England, and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton and Hove. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tourism

There is a detailed travel guide at wikitravel about traveling to Xi'an. Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...


High Season

Long holidays are usual during Spring Festival, Labor Holiday (1st.May-7th.May), and National Holiday (1st. Oct-7th. Oct). Plus, Xi'an is more or less a northern city so the number of travellers is greater during summer (May-August). The pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn.


Resorts

  • Historical
    • The city is surrounded by a well-preserved City wall of Xi'an which was re-constructed in the Ming Dynasty and based on the inner imperial palace of Tang Dynasty. The area in which Xi'an sits is a relatively flat place, making travel on the wall relatively easy unlike the steep inclines of the Great Wall. It is also plenty wide enough to rent a bicycle and cruise along the wall without colliding with others.
    • The Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇) and his Terracotta Army are located 40 km to the east of the city's suburbs.
    • The city's Muslim quarter, a tourist shopping district next to the Drum Tower, is home to the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
    • The Big Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. The former is next to a large square with the largest fountain in Asia which projects water high into the air, rising and falling in time to music during one of the daily performances (usually at noon and soon after sunset).
    • The Bell Tower and Drum Tower, located at the city centre.
    • The Stele Forest is famous for its numerous historic inscriptions and stoneworks.
    • The Shaanxi History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient.
    • The Banpo Neolithic village is located outside the city.
  • Natural
    • Mount Hua (华山) is one of the most visited and steepest mountains in the country.
    • Mount Zhongnan (终南山)
    • Mount Taibai (太白山)
    • Lishan (郦山)

The City Wall of Xian is one of oldest existing Chinese city wall. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques The Great Mosque of Xian (Chinese: 西安大清真寺), located near the Drum Tower (Gu Lou) on Huajue Lane of Xian, Shaanxi province, China, is one of the oldest and most renowned mosques in the country. ... Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China The Big Goose Pagoda, or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔; Pinyin: ), is located in southern Xian, China. ... Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, China The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Goose Pagoda (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is one of two significant pagodas in the city of Xian, China. ... Stele Forest (&#30865;&#26519;; pinyin: B&#275;ilín), aka Xian Stele Forest Museum or Xian Beilin Museum, is a museum for steles and stone sculptures which is located in Xian, China. ... The Shaanxi History Museum The Shaanxi History Museum is a museum located in Xian, China, housing over 300,000 items (murals, paintings, pottery, coins; bronze, gold, and silver objects). ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Mount Hua, known in Chinese as Huashan, is one of the five Sacred Mountains of China. Mount Hua is located in Shaanxi Province. ... Yesan County (Yesan-gun) is a county in South Chungcheong Province, South Korea. ...

Major Museum

National Parks

  • Mount Cuihua,National Geological Park, Xi'an (西安翠华山国家地质公园)
  • Lishan National Forest Park, Xi'an (西安骊山国家森林公园)
  • Zhuque National Forest Park, Xi'an (西安朱雀国家森林公园)
  • Mount Zhongnan National Forest Park, Xi'an (西安终南山国家森林公园)
  • Mount Taibai National Forest Park (太白山国家森林公园), Mount Taibai lies both in Xi'an (西安) and Baoji (宝鸡)
  • Wang Shunshan National Forest Park, Xi'an (西安王顺山国家森林公园)

Yesan County (Yesan-gun) is a county in South Chungcheong Province, South Korea. ... The Vermilion Bird (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. ... Location of Baoji in Shaanxi Baoji (宝鸡; Pinyin: bǎo jī) is a prefecture-level city in southwest Shaanxi province, China. ...

Other parks

  • Xi'an Qujiang Ocean Park
  • Xi'an City Sports Park
  • the Qinling Mountains National Botanical Garden
  • Xi'an Qingling Wildlife Park
  • Tang Paradise

Hotels and lodging

  • International chains
    • Westin, South Yanta Road, Xi'an, Opening January 1, 2010
    • Sheraton,No. 262 Feng Hao East Rd,Xian, 710077
    • ANA HOTEL,12 HUAN CHENG south Road, Xi'an, 710068
    • Holiday Inn, the east street, Xi'an
    • Shangri-la, Keji Road, Xi'an
    • Shangri-la, Ginwa Road, Xi'an
    • Sofitel, Renmin Square, Xi'an
    • Grand Mercure, Renmin Square, Xi'an
    • Mercure,Renmin Square, Xi'an
    • Hotel Ibis, Heping Road, Xi'an
    • HYATT, 158, Dongda Jie, Xi'an
    • Kempinski, River Ba, Xi'an
    • Howard Johnson, Ginwa Plaza, Xi'an
    • Days Hotel, Keji Road, Xi'an
    • International Youth Hostel:official website,China(English Versionhttp://www.yhachina.com/index.php?hostID=2
  • Local

Entertainment

Pubs & Bars

So many pubs in the city, but most Wonderful ones might be '1+1' (the east street), salsa (the west street), '823' (Jiefang Road), Night Cats (夜猫) and Babyface (the South Street), NoNo (the North Street).


Defu Xiang (德福巷) is a lane with more than 20 coffee bars. It's next to the South Street.


Cinema, Theater, and others

Xi'an Ginwa Cinema (Keji Road) and Oscar Cinema in Luomashi shopping mall (the east street) are the best in Xi'an. Some others: Northwestern Cinema, the East Street; Bell Tower Cinema, the East Street; Epang Palace Cinema, the first modern cinema of Xi'an(19/06/1932); Peace Cinema, the North Street; Hongguang Cinema, DongGuan; Sunshine Theater, Huancheng Road; Renming Theater, the North Street; Five-Four Theater, the North Street.


Sports

Cuju is the oldest football game on this planet Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ...

Cuju, acient football game
Dragon Boat Festival, Ba River, Xi'an

It was improved during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goal posts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces...The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football even became popular amongst the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Professional sports teams in Xi'an include:

Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for national team. The Chinese Football Association Super League (&#20013;&#22269;&#36275;&#29699;&#21327;&#20250;&#36229;&#32423;&#32852;&#36187; or &#36229;&#32423;&#32852;&#36187; or &#20013;&#36229;) or Chinese Super League or China Super League, known as the CSL, is the premier league of Chinese football (soccer), under the auspices of the Chinese... The Chinese Basketball Association (CBA; Chinese 中国男子篮球职业联赛) is the premier professional basketball league in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shaanxi Gaitianli Kylins (Simplified Chinese: 陕西盖天力麒麟; Pinyin: Shǎnxī Gàitiānlì Qílín) or Shaanxi Gaitianli or Shaanxi Kylins are a basketball team in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball Association, based in Xian, Shaanxi. ...


Media

Television and radio

  • China Central Television's channel 1 through 12 is broadcast nation wide.
  • Shaanxi Television (SXTV) provincial station, broadcasts on eight channels as well as a satellite channel for other provinces.
  • Xi'an Television (XATV) municipal station, has six channels for specialized programming.
  • Shaanxi Radio broadcasts music, news.
  • Xi'an Music Radio: FM 93.1, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.

China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the major television broadcaster in Mainland China. ... Jin Hao, (Chinese: 金号), which translates to Gold Number, is a group of radio stations in Shaanxi, China serving Xian, China and the greater provincial area. ...

Printed media

  • Chinese Business View (华商报) is a popular daily newspaper.
  • Xi'an Evening News (Xi'an Wanbao) (西安晚报), with a history of 50 years (1957-2007), is one of the oldest newspapers.Its title was written by Mao Zetong.
  • Sanqin Daily (三秦都市报) covers the news of Shaanxi Province.
  • Many trendy magazines can be bought at street-side newspaper and magazine booths.

Sister cities

Xi'an's sister cities are: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Nara can refer to: The city of Nara, Nara Prefecture, Japan The Nara Period of the History of Japan Nara prefecture, part of the Kansai region of central Honshu, Japan Nara is a major Manchu clan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Funabashi (&#33337;&#27211;&#24066; -shi) is a city located in Chiba, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Aquitaine Region flag Coat of arms The location of Pau is shown on this map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Dnipropetrovsk highlighted. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Region State Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - City 5,802 km²  (2,240. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... // The name of the Spanish city Córdoba had been spread all over the world: homonymous places etc. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Kağıthane is a working class district of the city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey in a valley inland from the upmarket Etiler. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... For the retail store chain, see Kathmandu (company). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Gyeongju is a city (see Subdivisions of South Korea) and prominent tourist destination in eastern South Korea. ...

Consulates in Xi'an

  • Flag of South Korea Gaoxin International, Keji Road, Sep.2007
  • Flag of Thailand Yulang International, Jiefang Road, 2006

Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ...

Colleges and universities

Xi'an is known as one of the academic centers in China. The number of institutions is in the third palace only after Beijing and Shanghai. The private institutions are famous in the country. An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


Public

  • Xi'an Jiaotong University (西安交通大学)
  • Northwestern Polytechnical University (西北工业大学)
  • Northwest University (西北大学)
  • Xidian University (西安电子科技大学)
  • Chang'an University (长安大学)
  • Shaanxi Normal University (陕西师范大学)
  • Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology(西安建筑科技大学)
  • Xi'an International Studies University (西安外国语大学)
  • Northwest University of Political Science and Law (西北政法大学)
  • Xi'an University of Technology (西安理工大学)
  • Xi'an Institute of Finance and Economics (西安财经学院)
  • Xi'an University of Science and Technology (西安科技大学)
  • Xi'an Polytechnic University (西安工程大学)
  • Xi'an Conservatory of Music (西安音乐学院)
  • Xi'an Physical Education Institute (西安体育学院)
  • Xi'an Technological University (西安工业大学)
  • Xi'an Shiyou University (西安石油大学)
  • Xi'an Institute of Post & Telecommunications (西安邮电学院)
  • Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts(西安美术学院)
  • Shaanxi Institute of Education (陕西教育学院)
  • Xi'an Institute of Arts and Science(西安文理学院)

Xian Jiaotong University (西安交通大學) is a university in Xian, China. ... Northwestern Polytechnical University ( NWPU, 西北工业大学 ) is a University located in Xian, Peoples Republic of China. ... Northwest University (西北大學), located in the world-famous ancient Chinese capital Xian, is one of the nations leading comprehensive universities. ... Xidian University (西安电子科技大学) is a university located in Xian, Peoples Republic of China. ... Changan University (&#38271;&#23433;&#22823;&#23398;) is a university located in Xian, China. ... The Shaanxi Normal University (SNU) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is one of the top educational universities in the Peoples Republic of China that are authorized to grant degrees in educational training. ...

Military

  • The Fourth Military Medical University(第四军医大学)
  • Airforce Engineering University(空军工程大学)
  • The Second Artillery Engineering University of People's Liberation Army (解放军第二炮兵工程学院)

Private

  • Xi'an Eurasia University (西安欧亚学院)
  • Shaan Xi Institute of International Commerce (陕西国际商贸学院)
  • Xi'an Fanyi University (西安翻译学院)
  • Xi'an Peihua University (西安培华学院)
  • Xi'an Siyuan University (西安思源学院)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.


see also: List of universities in the People's Republic of China. This article is a list of universities in the Peoples Republic of China by province (22), autonomous region (5), municipality (4), and special administrative region (2). ...


Image galleries

Old Pics

Modern Xi'an

Xi-Han Motorway

City Wall, Bell Tower, and Drum Tower

Big & Small Wild Goose Pagoda

Notes and references

  1. ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Xi'an, China (English). Weatherbase (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  2. ^ a b c d e 西安人口 (Xi'an population). City of Xi'an, in Chinese. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  3. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/223460.htm China.org.cn

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • Offical website of Wild Goose Pagoda-English
  • Xi'an Qujiang Travelling zone-English

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Xi'an
  • Xi'an travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Offical Tourism Website of Xi'an (options:Chinese,English and Japanese)
  • Municipal government website (In Chinese)
  • Photos of Xi'an (English)
  • Photos of Xi'an (Chinese)
  • Map of Xi'an (Chinese)
  • Satellite images of Xi'an (Google Maps)
  • Xi'an map (Chinese)
  • Stmosphere at the Xian Railway Station - video
  • Slideshow of Xi'an sights (English)
Preceded by
Yin
Capital of China (as Hao)
1046 BC-771 BC
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Xianyang
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
206 BC-23
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Jiankang
Capital of China (as Daxing)
581-618
Succeeded by
itself, as Chang'an
Preceded by
itself, as Daxing
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
618-907
Succeeded by
Kaifeng


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Yin is said to be the last capital of the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600 BC - 1046 BC). ... The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Sì Dà GÇ”dÅ«) traditionally refers to Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, and Xian. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Xianyang (Simplified Chinese: 咸阳; Traditional Chinese: 咸陽; pinyin: ) was the capital of the state of Qin during the Warring States Period in Chinese history, and remained to be capital during the short-lived Qin Dynasty. ... The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Sì Dà GÇ”dÅ«) traditionally refers to Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, and Xian. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiankang (&#24314;&#24247;&#22478; in pinyin: Jiànk&#257;ng chéng), formerly known as Jianye (&#24314;&#26989; Jiànyè) until Eastern Jin Dynasty (317 - 420), is an ancient city in China, located west of present-day Nanjing, in south Jiangning County (&#27743;&#23527;&#32291; Ji&#257;ngníng Xi... The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Sì Dà GÇ”dÅ«) traditionally refers to Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, and Xian. ... Changan   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chángān; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Changan   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chángān; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Sì Dà GÇ”dÅ«) traditionally refers to Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, and Xian. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...

Prefecture-level divisions of Shaanxi
Sub-provincial cities: Xi'an
Prefecture-level cities: Ankang | Baoji | Hanzhong | Shangluo
Tongchuan | Weinan | Xianyang | Yan'an | Yulin
List of Shaanxi County-level divisions

  Results from FactBites:
 
Xian Travel Guide: Xian Tour, Xian Hotel, City Map, Climate, China Trip Xian: Travel China Guide.com (1220 words)
Xian is the capital of Shaanxi province, located in the southern part of the Guanzhong Plain.
In the city, there is the 3,000 years old Banpo Village Remains from the Neolithic Age (approximately from 8000 BC to 5000 BC), and the Forest of Stone Steles that holds 3,000 stone steles of different periods from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty.
Around Xian, the Famen Temple enjoys the reputation of being the 'forefather of pagodas and temples in Central Shaanxi,' because it holds the finger bones of Sakyamuni -- the founder of Buddhism.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Xian (344 words)
Xi'an is situated in the center of Weihe Plain with the towering and verdant Mt. Qinling in the south, with the meandering and rolling Beishan mountain system in the north and eight rivers around it, all of which are at Guang Zhong Plain (the center of passes).
From the 11 century B.C. onwards, Xian or its vicinity was established as the capital city by 11 dynasties successively, including the Western Zhou, the Qin, the Han, the Sui and the Tang, and it also served as the capital of two peasant regimes respectively under the rule of Huang Chao and Li Zicheng.
Xian is the capital of Shaanxi Province and also the political, economic and cultural center of the Northwest China.
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