FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Xhosa language
Xhosa
isiXhosa
Spoken in: South Africa 
Region: Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province
Total speakers: 7.9 million
Language family: Niger-Congo
 Atlantic-Congo
  Volta-Congo
   Benue-Congo
    Bantoid
     Southern
      Narrow Bantu
       Central
        S
         Nguni
          Xhosa 
Official status
Official language of: South Africa
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: xh
ISO 639-2: xho
ISO 639-3: xho

Xhosa (IPA: [ˈkǁʰoːsa] (Audio ), isiXhosa) is one of the official languages of South Africa. The language has also variously been known as "Xosa," "Koosa," "Kaffer", "Kaffir", "Caffre", "Cafre", and "Cauzuh" [1]. The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Languages Afrikaans (55. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... Map showing the distribution of Niger-Congo languages The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In the classification of African languages, Volta-Congo is the major branch (in terms of number of languages) of the Niger-Congo phylum. ... The Benue-Congo group of languages constitutes the largest branch of the Niger-Congo language family, both in terms of sheer number of languages, of which 938 are known (not counting mere dialects), and in terms of speakers, numbering perhaps 550 million. ... In the classification of African languages, Bantoid is a branch of the Benue-Congo subfamily of the Niger-Congo phylum. ... For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are peoples of Bantu origin living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links ‎ Warning: This file type may contain malicious code; by executing it, your system may be compromised. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


Xhosa is spoken by approximately 7.9 million people, or about 18% of the South African population. Like most Bantu languages, Xhosa is a tonal language, that is, the same sequence of consonants and vowels can have different meanings when said with a rising or falling or high or low intonation. One of the most distinctive features of the language is the prominence of click consonants; "Xhosa," the name of the language itself, begins with a click. The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are peoples of Bantu origin living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ...


Xhosa is written using a Latin alphabet-based system. Three letters are used to indicate the basic clicks: c for dental clicks, x for lateral clicks, and q for alveolar clicks (for a more detailed explanation, see the table of consonant phonemes, below). Tones are not indicated in the written form. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Xhosa is the most widely distributed African language in South Africa, while the most widely spoken is Zulu [2]. Xhosa is the second most common home language in South Africa as a whole. As of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers, approximately 5.3 million, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 1 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225) [3]. Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... For the term free state as it arises in United States history, see: Free state. ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Mpumalanga, (name changed from Eastern Transvaal on 24 August 1995), is a province in South Africa. ... Capital Kimberley Largest city Kimberley Premier Elizabeth Dipuo Peters (ANC) Area - Total Ranked 1st 361,830 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 9th 822,726 2/km² Languages Afrikaans (70%) Tswana (20%) Xhosa (6. ... Northern Transvaal redirects here, see Blue Bulls for the rugby union team. ...

Contents

Affiliation and distribution

Xhosa is the southernmost branch of the Nguni languages, related to Swati, Northern Ndebele[4] and Zulu. There is some mutual intelligibility with Swati, Northern Ndebele and Zulu, a Northern Ndebele and Xhosa share many linguistic features. Nguni languages are in turn part of a larger group of Bantu languages, and as such Xhosa is related to languages spoken throughout Africa [5]. For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ...


Dialects

Xhosa has several dialects, including Gcaleka, Ndlambe, Ngqika (Nqqika, considered "standard"), Thembu, Bomvana, Mpondomse (Mpondomise), Mpondo, Xesibe, Rharhabe, Bhaca, Cele, Hlubi, and Mfengu [6]. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...


There is some debate among scholars as to what exactly the divisions between the dialects are.


History

Xhosa-speaking peoples have inhabited coastal regions of southeastern Africa since before the sixteenth century. The members of the ethnic group that speaks Xhosa refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and call their language isiXhosa (isi- is a prefix relating to languages), while the language is most commonly known as "Xhosa" in English. The Xhosa people live in South Africa. ...


Almost all languages with clicks are Khoisan languages and the presence of clicks in Xhosa demonstrates the strong historical interaction with its Khoisan neighbours. An estimated 15% of the vocabulary is of Khoekhoe (Khoisan) origin [7]. In the modern period, Xhosa has also borrowed from both Afrikaans and English. The Khoisan languages (also Khoesaan languages) are the indigenous languages of southern and eastern Africa; in southern Africa their speakers are the Khoi and Bushmen (Saan). ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Role in modern society

Henry Hare Dugmore, an Englishman who became fluent in Xhosa and jointly produced the first translation of the Bible into the language in 1859.

The role of African languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act of 1953 [8]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Reverend Henry Hare Dugmore (1810-1896), South African missionary, writer and translator. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... Bantu Education Act of 1953 was a South African law which codified several aspects of the apartheid system. ...


At present Xhosa is used as the main language of instruction in many primary schools and some secondary schools, but is largely replaced by English after the early primary grades, even in schools mainly serving Xhosa-speaking communities. The language is also studied as a subject. Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... The term, secondary school, refers to an institution where the third stage of schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


The language of instruction at universities in South Africa is English or Afrikaans, and Xhosa is taught as a subject, both for native and non-native speakers. In 2004 South Africa started reforming its higher education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all higher education institutions university (previously there had been several types of higher education institution). ...


Literary works, including prose and poetry, are available in Xhosa, as are newspapers and magazines. The first Bible translation was in 1859, produced in part by Henry Hare Dugmore [9]. The South African Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts in Xhosa on both radio (on Umhlobo Wenene FM) and television, and films, plays and music are also produced in the language. The best-known performer of Xhosa songs outside South Africa is Miriam Makeba, whose Click Song #1 (Qongqothwane in Xhosa) and Click Song #2 (Baxabene Oxamu) are known for their large number of click sounds. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Reverend Henry Hare Dugmore (1810-1896), South African missionary, writer and translator. ... SABC logo The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state owned broadcaster in South Africa, and was for many years the monopoly, controlled by the white minority National Party government. ... Miriam Makeba performing at the Cape Town Jazz Festival in 2006. ...


In 1996, the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%, though this may have changed dramatically in the years since the abolition of apartheid [10]. 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Linguistic features

Xhosa is an agglutinative language featuring an array of prefixes and suffixes which are attached to root words. As in other Bantu languages, Xhosa nouns are classified into fifteen morphological classes (or genders), with different prefixes for singular and plural. Various parts of speech that qualify a noun must agree with the noun according to its gender. These agreements usually reflect part of the original class that it is agreeing with. Constituent word order is Subject Verb Object. An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ... In linguistics, the term noun class refers to a system of categorizing nouns. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ... In English, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ...


Verbs are modified by affixes which mark subject, object, tense, aspect, and mood. The various parts of the sentence must agree in class and number [11]. A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (to decompose (itself), to glitter), or a state of being (exist, live, soak, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ...

Examples
ukudlala - to play
ukubona - to see
umntwana - a child
abantwana - children
umntwana uyadlala - the child plays
abantwana bayadlala - the children play
indoda - a man
amadoda - men
indoda iyambona umntwana - the man sees the child
amadoda ayababona abantwana - the men see the children

Vowels

Xhosa has a simple inventory of five vowels: [a], [ɛ], [i], [ɔ] and [u], written a, e, i, o and u.


Tones

Xhosa is a tone language with two inherent tones: low and high. Tones are frequently not marked in the written language, but when they are, they are a [à], á [á], â [áà]. Long vowels are phonemic, but are usually not written, except for â. Tone refers to the use of pitch in language to distinguish words. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...

South African provinces in which Xhosa is spoken as a home language by a significant proportion of the population

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1146x828, 13 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1146x828, 13 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

Consonants

Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, as in English, it has fifteen clicks (by way of comparison, the Ju/’hoan language, spoken by roughly 10,000 people in Botswana and Namibia has 48 clicks, while the !Xóõ language, with roughly 4,000 speakers in Botswana, has 83 click sounds, the largest consonant inventory of any known language), plus ejectives and an implosive. The same sounds occur in Zulu, but are used less frequently than in Xhosa. In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In phonetics, initiation is the action by which an air-flow is created through the vocal tract. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Click may refer to: Click consonant The pressing and subsequent releasing of a button on a computer pointing device, such as a mouse or trackball, without (significantly) moving the cursor. ... Ju|’hoan (also called Zu|’hõasi, Dzu’oasi, Zû-|hoa) is a Khoisan language spoken in the Northwest District of Botswana by about 5,000 people (2002) and by perhaps a comparable number across the border in Namibia. ... !Xóõ is a Khoisan language with a very large number of phonemes, the most of any known language. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are glottalic ingressive consonants, meaning that air is sucked into the mouth while pronouncing them rather than expelled out of the mouth via the lungs as in pulmonic consonants. ...


The five dental clicks (represented by the letter "c") are made with the tongue on the back of the teeth, and are similar to the sound represented in English by "tut-tut" or "tsk-tsk" to reprimand someone. The second five are lateral (represented by the letter "x"), made by the tongue at the sides of the mouth, and are similar to the sound used to call horses. The remaining five are alveolar (represented by the letter "q"), made with the tip of the tongue at the roof of the mouth, and sound something like a cork pulled from a bottle. The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The postalveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


The following table lists the consonant phonemes of the language, giving the pronunciation in IPA on the left, and the orthography on the right: Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Labial Dental /
Alveolar
Postalveolar
/ Palatal
Velar Glottal
Central Lateral
Click plain [kǀ] c [kǁ] x [kǃ] q
aspirated [kǀʰ] ch [kǁʰ] xh [kǃʰ] qh
breathy voiced [ɡǀʱ] gc [ɡǁʱ] gx [ɡǃʱ] gq
nasal [ŋǀ] nc [ŋǁ] nx [ŋǃ] nq
breathy voiced nasal [ŋǀʱ] ngc [ŋǁʱ] ngx [ŋǃʱ] ngq
Stop ejective [p’] p [t’] t [tʲ’] ty [k’] k
aspirated [pʰ] ph [tʰ] th [tʲʰ] tyh [kʰ] kh
breathy voiced [bʱ] bh [dʱ] d [dʲʱ] dy [ɡʱ] g
implosive [ɓ] b
Affricate ejective [ʦ’] ts [ʧ’] tsh [kx’] kr
aspirated [ʦʰ] ths [ʧʰ] thsh
breathy voiced [ʤʱ] j
Fricative voiceless [f] f [s] s [ɬ] hl [ʃ] sh [x] rh [h] h
breathy voiced [v̤] v [z̤] z [ɮ̈] dl [ɣ̈] gr [ɦ̤] hh
Nasal fully voiced [m] m [n] n [nʲ] ny [ŋ] n’
breathy voiced [m̤] mh [n̤] nh [n̤ʲ] nyh
Approximant fully voiced [l] l [j] y [w] w
breathy voiced [l̤] lh [j̈] yh [w̤] wh
Nelson Mandela is a famous Xhosa speaker.
Nelson Mandela is a famous Xhosa speaker.

Two additional consonants, [r] and [r̤], are found in borrowings. Both are spelled as r. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A central or medial consonant is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Look up implosive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Image File history File links Nelson_Mandela. ... Image File history File links Nelson_Mandela. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA pronunciation: //) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ...


Two additional consonants, [ʒ] and [ʒ̈], are found in borrowings. Both are spelled as zh.


In addition to the ejective affricate [ʧ’], the spelling tsh may also be used for either of the aspirated affricates [ʦʰ] and [ʧʰ].


The breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ̤] is sometimes spelled h.


The "breathy voiced" clicks, plosives, and affricates are actually plain voiced, but the following vowel is murmured. That is, da is pronounced [da̤].


Consonant changes with prenasalization

When consonants are prenasalized, their pronunciation and spelling may change. Murmur no longer shifts to the following vowel. Fricatives become affricates, and if voiceless, become ejectives as well, at least with some speakers: mf is pronounced [ɱp̪f’]; ndl is pronounced [ndɮ];n+hl becomes ntl [ntɬ’]; n+z becomes ndz [ndz], etc. The orthographic b in mb is a voiced plosive, [mb]. Prenasalized stops are phonetic sequences of nasal plus plosive that behave phonologically like single consonant. ...


When voiceless clicks c, x, q are prenasalized, a silent k is added - nkc, nkx, nkq - so as to prevent confusion with the nasal clicks nc, nx, nq.


Sample text

Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika is part of the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and Zambia, and the former anthem of Zimbabwe and Namibia. It is a Xhosa hymn written by Enoch Sontonga in 1897. The first chorus is: Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika (God Bless Africa in the Xhosa language) is a hymn composed in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga, a teacher at a Methodist mission school in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Since 1997, The South African national anthem has been a hybrid song combining new English lyrics with extracts of the hymn Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika and the old South African anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika/The Call of South Africa. It is the only neo-modal national anthem in the... Enoch Mankayi Sontonga (ca. ...

Nkosi, sikelel' iAfrika;
Malupakam'upondo lwayo;
Yiva imithandazo yethu
Usisikelele.
Lord, bless Africa;
May her horn rise high up;
Hear Thou our prayers And bless us.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Bold text Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...

Bonke abantu bazalwa bekhululekile belingana ngesidima nangokweemfanelo. Bonke abantu banesiphiwo sesazela nesizathu sokwenza isenzo ongathanda ukuba senziwe kumzalwane wakho.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Miriam Makeba is a famous Xhosa speaker. Her song Qongqothwane is known in English as The Click Song

Qongqothwane ("The Knock-Knock Beetle," known in English as The Click Song) is a Xhosa wedding song best known as performed by Miriam Makeba. Note the frequent occurrence of alveolar clicks: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x734, 151 KB) This photo was taken by Mark Oppenheimer I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x734, 151 KB) This photo was taken by Mark Oppenheimer I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Miriam Makeba performing at the Cape Town Jazz Festival in 2006. ...

Igqira lendlela nguqongqothwane
Igqira lendlela kuthwa nguqongqothwane
Sebeqabele gqithapha bathi nguqongqothwane
Sebeqabele gqithapha bathi nguqongqothwane.
The diviner of the roadways is the knock-knock beetle
The diviner of the roadways is said to be the knock-knock beetle
It has passed up the steep hill, the knock-knock beetle
It has passed up the steep hill, the knock-knock beetle

Common words and phrases

Molo - hello (to one person)
Molweni - hello (to more than one person)
Uphila njani? - how are you?
Ndiphilile - I am well
Siphilile - we are well
Enkosi - thank you
Uxolo - sorry
Nceda - please
Andiqondi - I don't understand
Andazi - I don't know
Ndithetha isiXhosa kancinci nje - I only speak a little Xhosa

See also

By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May, when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the time for harvesting. ... The Reverend Henry Hare Dugmore (1810-1896), South African missionary, writer and translator. ... U-Carmen eKhayelitsha is a 2005 South African operatic movie directed and produced by Mark Donford-May. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The UCLA Language Materials Project (LMP) http://www. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Xhosa language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Xhosa language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
  • Umholobo Wenene FM
  • Xhosa learning resources

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Software

  • Spell checker for OpenOffice.org and Mozilla, OpenOffice.org, Mozilla Firefox web-browser, and Mozilla Thunderbird email program in Xhosa
  • Translate.org.za Project to translate Free and Open Source Software into all the official languages of South Africa including Xhosa

  Results from FactBites:
 
Xhosa language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (893 words)
Xhosa (IPA: [ˈkǁʰoːsa]) is one of the official languages of South Africa.
As mentioned, Xhosa is natively spoken in South Africa, mostly in the Eastern Cape Province.
Xhosa is also a tone language with two inherent tones, low and high, and has both long and short vowels.
Xhosa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1029 words)
The name Xhosa is also often used to refer to anyone from a number of different Xhosa-speaking ethnic groups that includes the Pondo and Thembu, neighbours of the Xhosa people, and the Mfengu people, who are descendants of scattered clans who were displaced during the mfecane (a sort of diaspora) of the early nineteenth century.
Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was further weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856 (see Nongqawuse).
The Xhosa settled on mountain slopes of the Amatola and the Zinterberg Mountains.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m