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Encyclopedia > Xhosa
Xhosa
Image:Nelson Mandela.jpg
Nelson Mandela is a famous Xhosa-speaker.
Total population

7,888,999 (2001 Census) Image File history File links Nelson_Mandela. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA: ) (born 18 July 1918) is the former President of South Africa, and the first to be elected in fully representative democratic elections. ...

Regions with significant populations
Eastern Cape: 5.4 million

Western Cape: 1.1 million
Gauteng: 0.7 million
Free State: 0.25 million
Kwazulu-Natal: 0.22 million
(2001 estimates1) The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Languages Afrikaans (55. ... Capital Johannesburg Largest city Johannesburg Area  - Total Ranked 9th 17,010 km² Premier (List) Mbhazima Shilowa (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density (2001) Ranked 2nd 8,837,172 7,348,423 520/km² (Ranked 1st) Languages isiZulu (21. ... Capital Bloemfontein Largest city Bloemfontein Area  - Total Ranked 3rd 129,480 km² Premier Beatrice Marshoff (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density Ranked 8th 2,706,776 2,633,504 21/km² (2001) Languages Sotho (62%) Afrikaans (14%) isiXhosa (9. ... KwaZulu-Natal, often referred to as KZN, is a province of South Africa. ...

Languages
Xhosa (many also speak Zulu, English, or Afrikaans)
Religions
African Traditional Religion, Christian
Related ethnic groups
Nguni, Basotho, Zulu, Khoisan

The Xhosa (IPA [ǁʰɔsɑ](Audio )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. For the Xhosa people, see Xhosa. ... Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links ‎ Warning: This file type may contain malicious code; by executing it, your system may be compromised. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ...


Xhosa-speaking peoples are divided into several subgroups with related but distinct heritages. The main subgroups are the Bhaca, Bomvana, Mfengu, Mpondo, Mpondomise, Xesibe, and Thembu [1]. The name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader called uXhosa. There is also a theory that the word xhosa derives from a word in some Khoi-khoi or San language meaning "fierce" or "angry", the amaXhosa being the fierce people. The amaXhosa refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and to their language as isiXhosa. Xhosa is a language of South Africa. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with SAN. (Discuss) Look up san, -san in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Xhosa people live in South Africa. ... The Xhosa people live in South Africa. ... Xhosa is a language of South Africa. ...


Presently approximately 8 million Xhosa people are distributed across the country, and Xhosa is South Africa's second most common home language, after Zulu, to which Xhosa is closely related. The pre-1994 apartheid system of bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship and attempted to confine them to the nominally self-governing "homelands" of Transkei and Ciskei, now both a part of the Eastern Cape Province where most Xhosa remain. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town (iKapa in Xhosa), East London (iMonti), and Port Elizabeth (iBhayi). Zulu, also known as isiZulu, is a language of the Zulu people with about 9 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... Ciskei Flag of Ciskei Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. ... Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, Xhosa: Imonti) is a city in southeast South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province at 32. ... Port Elizabeth is a city in South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province, at 33°58′ S 25°36′ E. The city is located on Algoa Bay, and is one of the major seaports in South Africa. ...


As of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers, approximately 5.3 million, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 1 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225) [2]. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... For the term free state as it arises in United States history, see: Free state. ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Mpumalanga, (name changed from Eastern Transvaal on 24 August 1995), is a province in South Africa. ... Capital Kimberley Largest city Kimberley Premier Elizabeth Dipuo Peters (ANC) Area - Total Ranked 1st 361,830 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 9th 822,726 2/km² Languages Afrikaans (70%) Tswana (20%) Xhosa (6. ... Northern Transvaal redirects here, see Blue Bulls for the rugby union team. ...

Contents

History

The Xhosa are part of the southern Nguni migration which slowly moved south from the region around the Great Lakes. Xhosa peoples were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-1600s, and occupied much of eastern South Africa from the Fish River to land inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban [3]. For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... The Great Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ...


Xhosa society was historically viewed as an open society because of its readiness to learn from, trade and interact with other societies. They interacted with the Khoi and the San, foraging and nomadic herding peoples from whose languages many of the features of the modern Xhosa language, including click consonants, were borrowed. Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ...

A Xhosa woman
A Xhosa woman

The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 1700s. In the late 1700s Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812 the Xhosas were forced east by British colonial forces in the Third Frontier War. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... East Somerset was a parliamentary constituency in Somerset, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system. ... Afrikaners are an ethnic group of Northwestern European ancestry and associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... The Trekboers were descendents of Dutch settlers, French Huguenot refugees, German Protestants, Friesians and smaller numbers of Belgians, Scandinavians, Scots, also some Indian slaves due to intermarriage, and an a mixture of Khoi and Malay due to absorption into the nascent Boer nation. ... The Great Fish River is a river running through the South African province of Cape Midlands. ... Cape Frontier Wars also called Kaffir wars or Kafir wars (1779-1879) was 100 years of intermittent warfare and nine different wars between the Cape colonists and the Xhosa agricultural and pastoral peoples of the Eastern Cape, in South Africa. ...


In the years following, many Xhosa-speaking clans were pushed west by expansion of the Zulus, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering". Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was further weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856. Historians now view this movement as a millenialist response both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, and less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy. At least one historian has also suggested that it can be seen as a rebellion against the upper classes of Xhosa society, which used cattle as a means of consolidating wealth and political power, and which had lost respect as they failed to hold back white expansion.[citation needed] Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... Mfecane (isiZulu), also known as the Difaqane or Lifaqane (Sesotho), is an African expression which means something like the crushing or scattering. It describes a period of widespread chaos and disturbance in southern Africa during the period between 1815 and about 1835. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The history of Cape Colony from 1806 to 1870 spans the period of the history of Cape Colony during the Cape Frontier Wars, also called the Kaffir Wars, which lasted from 1811 to 1858. ... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years. Primarily a belief in some Christian denominations, literature and folk religion, that at some point in the future there will be a Golden Age, a Paradise on earth when universal peace will reign, when all people will dwell in prosperity...


Some historians argue that this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people. That history manifests itself today in high degrees of Xhosa representation in the leadership of the African National Congress, South Africa's ruling political party. For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


Language

Main article: Xhosa language

Xhosa is an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family. While the Xhosas call their language "isiXhosa," the most common name in English is "Xhosa." Written Xhosa uses a Latin alphabet-based system. Xhosa is spoken by about 18% of the South African population, and has some mutual intelligibility with Zulu. Many Xhosa speakers, particularly those living in urban areas, also speak Zulu and/or Afrikaans and/or English. For the Xhosa people, see Xhosa. ... An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Among its features, the Xhosa language famously has fifteen click sounds, originally borrowed from now extinct Khoisan languages of the region. Xhosa has three basic click consonants: a dental click, written with the letter "c"; an alveolar click, written with the letter "q"; and a lateral click, written with the letter "x." There is also a simple inventory of five vowels (a, e, i, o, u). Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The postalveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

Xhosa children at Transkei
Xhosa children at Transkei

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ...

Folklore and religion

Traditional Xhosa culture includes diviners known as sangoma, who serve as herbalists, prophets, and healers for the community. This job is mostly taken by women, who spend five years in apprenticeship. This article is about the religious practice of divination. ... A sangoma is a practitioner of herbal medicine, divination and counselling in traditional Nguni (Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi) societies of Southern Africa (effectively an African shaman). ...


The Xhosas have a strong oral tradition with many stories of ancestral heroes; according to tradition, the leader from whose name the Xhosa people take their name was the first human on Earth. Other traditions have it that all Xhosas are descended from one ancestor named Tshawe [4].


The key figure in the Xhosa oral tradition is the imbongi (plural: iimbongi) or praise singer. Iimbongi traditionally live close to the chief’s "great place" (the cultural and political focus of his activity); they accompany the chief on important occasions - the imbongi Zolani Mkiva preceded Nelson Mandela at his Presidential inauguration in 1994. Iimbongis' poetry, called isibongo, praises the actions and adventures of chiefs and ancestors [5]. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA: ) (born 18 July 1918) is the former President of South Africa, and the first to be elected in fully representative democratic elections. ...


The supreme being is called uThixo or uQamata. Ancestors act as intermediaries and play a part in the lives of the living; they are honoured in rituals. Dreams play an important role in divination and contact with ancestors. Traditional religious practice features rituals, initiations, and feasts. Modern rituals typically pertain to matters of illness and psychological well-being.


Christian missionaries established outposts among the Xhosa in the 1820s, and the first Bible translation was in the mid-1850s, partially done by Henry Hare Dugmore. Xhosa did not convert in great numbers until the 1900s, but now many are Christian, particularly within the African Initiated Churches such as the Zion Christian Church. Some denominations combine Christianity with traditional beliefs. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Reverend Henry Hare Dugmore (1810-1896), South African missionary, writer and translator. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... An African Initiated Church is an independent church or religious movement which demonstrates syncretism or partial integration between aspects of Christian belief and African culture. ... The Star of David, symbol of the Zion Christian Church. ...


Rites of passage

One traditional ritual that is still regularly practiced is the manhood ritual, a secret rite that marks the transition from boyhood to adulthood. The initiates (abakwetha) live in isolation for up to several weeks, often in the mountains. They smear white clay on their bodies and observe numerous taboos. The culmination of the rite is ritual circumcision. This article is about male circumcision. ...


In modern times the practice has caused controversy, with over 300 circumcision- and initiation-related deaths since 1994, and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV via the practice of circumcising initiates with the same blade [6]. In March of 2007 a controversial mini-series dealing with Xhosa circumcision and initiation rites debuted on SABC. Titled Umthunzi Wentaba, the series was taken off the air after complaints by traditional leaders that the rites are secret and not to be revealed to non-initiates and women [7]. STD is an abbreviation used in several different contexts that stand for different terms. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... SABC is an abbreviation for either South African Broadcasting Corporation - in South Africa or Shrewsbury and Atcham Borough Council - in the United Kingdom ...


Girls are also initiated into womanhood. They too are secluded, though for a shorter period. Female initiates are not circumcised [8]. Female genital cutting (FGC) refers to the excision or tissue removal of any part of the female genitalia for cultural, religious or other non-medical reasons. ...


Other rites include the seclusion of mothers for ten days after giving birth, and the burial of the afterbirth and umbilical cord near the village. This is reflected in the traditional greeting Inkaba yakho iphi?, literally "Where is Your Navel?" The answer "tells someone where you live, what your clan affiliation is, and what your social status is [and] contains a wealth of cultural information. Most importantly, it determines where you belong" [9]. The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental mammals during gestation (pregnancy). ... In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to its placenta. ...


Traditional diet

The Xhosa settled on mountain slopes of the Amatola and the Winterberg Mountains. Many streams drain into great rivers of this Xhosa territory including the Kei and Fish Rivers. Rich soils and plentiful rainfall make the river basins good for farming and grazing making cattle important and the basis of wealth.


Traditional foods include beef, mutton, and goat meat, sorghum, maize and umphokoqo (dry maize porridge), "umngqusho" made from dried, stamped cord and dried beans), milk (often fermented, called "amasi"), pumpkins, beans, and vegetables. The major mealtimes are breakfast and dinner. For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... See also lamb (disambiguation) An unweaned lamb The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are used to describe the meat of a domestic sheep. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus. ... Amasi (so called in isiZulu and isiXhosa, and maas in Afrikaans) is the common word for fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yoghurt. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ...


Arts and crafts

Traditional crafts include beadwork, weaving, and pottery.


Traditional music features drums, rattles, whistles, flutes, mouth harps, and stringed-instruments and especially group singing accompanied by hand clapping [10]. There are songs for various ritual occasions; one of the best-known Xhosa songs is a wedding song called Qongqongthwane, performed by Miriam Makeba as Click Song #1. Besides Makeba, several modern groups record and perform in Xhosa. Miriam Makeba performing at the Cape Town Jazz Festival in 2006. ...


Missionaries introduced the Xhosa to Western choral singing [11]. Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika, part of the National anthem of South Africa is a Xhosa hymn written in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga. Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika (God Bless Africa in the Xhosa language) is a hymn composed in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga, a teacher at a Methodist mission school in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Since 1997, The South African national anthem has been a hybrid song combining new English lyrics with extracts of the hymn Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika and the old South African anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika/The Call of South Africa. It is the only neo-modal national anthem in the... Enoch Mankayi Sontonga (ca. ...


The first newspapers, novels, and plays in Xhosa appeared in the nineteenth century [12], and Xhosa poetry is also gaining renown.


Several films have been shot in the Xhosa language. U-Carmen eKhayelitsha is a modern remake of Bizet's 1875 opera Carmen. It is shot entirely in Xhosa, and combines music from the original opera with traditional African music. It takes place in the Cape Town township of Khayelitsha. U-Carmen eKhayelitsha is a 2005 South African operatic movie directed and produced by Mark Donford-May. ... Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875), was a French composer of the romantic era best known for his opera Carmen. ... Poster from the 1875 premiere of Carmen Carmen is a French opera by Georges Bizet. ... Khayelitsha Township in the Cape Flats Khayelitsha (IPA: ) is a partially informal township in South Africa, on the outskirts of Cape Town in the Cape Flats. ...


Xhosas in modern society

Xhosa people currently make up approximately 18% of the South African population. While there have been many improvements in Xhosa people's lives since the abolition of apartheid, many of the effects of the policy remain.


There are high rates of poverty among Xhosas; Xhosa people make up some of the poorest of South Africans, but a minority of Xhosas are among the wealthiest [13].


Under apartheid, adult literacy rates were as low as 30% [14], and in 1996 studies estimated the literacy level of first-language Xhosa speakers at approximately 50% [15]. There have been advances in since then, however. For example, most of the students at the University of Fort Hare are Xhosa. 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local Xhosa language. ...


Education in primary schools serving Xhosa-speaking communities is in the Xhosa language, but this is replaced by English after the early primary grades. Xhosa is still studied as a subject, however, and it is possible to major in Xhosa at the university level.


Many rural Xhosa now have the choice of migrating to cities in search of employment, whereas under apartheid it was only possible for Xhosa men to seek employment in the mining industry as so-called migrant labourers.


Xhosas in popular culture

The Xhosa, named for the Xhosa people, is the name of the freighter commanded by Kasidy Yates in the science fiction television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. There is also an underground Canadian Rock band by the name of Xhosa fronted by Craig McCue. In the Classic BattleTech sci-Fi universe, there is a planetary system named Xhosa, containing the inhabited planet Xhosa VII. In the fictional Star Trek universe, Kasidy Yates is a freighter captain. ... Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... Classic BattleTech is a table-top wargame set in the fictional BattleTech universe, simulating combat between futuristic mechanized forces. ...


Notable Xhosa

  • Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa is a Xhosa-speaking member of the Thembu people.

Other famous Xhosa speakers include: Amampondo · Stephen Biko · Fats Bookulane · Brenda Fassie · Ken Gampu · Chris Hani · General Bantu Holomisa · Archibald Campbell Jordan · John Kani · Winnie Madikizela-Mandela · Miriam Makeba · Govan Mbeki · Thabo Mbeki · S.E.K. Mqhayi · Victoria Mxenge · Bongani Ndodana · Bulelani Ngcuka · Makhaya Ntini · Winston Ntshona ·Percy Qoboza · Walter Sisulu · Robert Sobukwe · Enoch Sontonga · Oliver Tambo · Zwelithini Tunyiswa · Desmond Tutu · Ashley Buti · St John Page Yako · Dr. George Clark[citation needed] Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA: ) (born 18 July 1918) is the former President of South Africa, and the first to be elected in fully representative democratic elections. ... Amampondo is a South African percussion ensemble which was started by Dizu Plaatjies in Langa Cape Town in 1978. ... Stephen Biko Stephen Bantu Biko (December 18, 1946 - September 12, 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s. ... Brenda Fassie (November 3, 1964 – May 9, 2004), was a legendary South African pop singer and widely considered the voice for disenfranchised blacks during apartheid. ... Ken Gampu (1929 to 4 November 2003) was a South African actor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Archibald Campbell Mzolisa Jordan, novelist, literary historian and intellectual pioneer of African studies in South Africa, was born on 30 October 1906 at the Mbokothwane Mission in the Tsolo district, Pondoland (later Transkei), as son of an Anglican Church minister. ... John Kani (1943 -) is a South African actor, director and playwright. ... Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (born September 26, 1934 or 1936 as Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela) is the ex-wife of former South African president and African National Congress (ANC) leader Nelson Mandela. ... Miriam Makeba performing at the Cape Town Jazz Festival in 2006. ... Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki (1910 - 2001) was a South African politician, and father of Thabo Mbeki, the current President of South Africa. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Victoria Mxenge, (1942 - 1985) was a South African anti-apartheid activist. ... Bulelani T Ngcuka (2 May 1954 - ) was the first national Director of Public Prosecutions in South Africa, and is the husband of Deputy President of South Africa Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka. ... Makhaya Ntini (born 6 July 1977 in Eastern Cape Province) is a South African cricketer, the first black player to play for the South African team. ... Winston Ntshona (born 6 October 1941 in Port Elizabeth ) is a South African actor. ... Percy Peter Tshidiso Qoboza [Jan 17, 1938 - Jan 17, 1988], was an influential black South African journalist, author, and outspoken critic of the apartheid government in South Africa during the early periods of world recognition of the problems evident in the racially divided land. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 December 1924 ; 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. ... Enoch Mankayi Sontonga (ca. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ...


See also

Beginning in the year 2000 a collection of Zion-Benton Township High School teachers, students, Rotarians, school administrators and community members have come together to do their part in improving the education of township students in South Africa. ... The South African Translators Institute (SATI) is the largest association in South Africa representing professional, academic and amateur translators and other language practitioners. ...

References

  • Results of the 2001 South African census
Note that the figure mentioned on this page is based upon the number of people speaking Xhosa as their home language, which may be greater or less than the total number of people claiming Xhosa descent. In addition, several million people in the Johannesburg-Soweto region speak Xhosa or Zulu as a second or third language. For a majority of these, the two languages become difficult to distinguish (unsurprising given the extreme closeness of their linguistic relationship).
  • Reader, J., 1997. Africa: A Biography of the Continent, Vintage Books, New York, NY, United States of America.
  • Kaschula, Russell The Heritage Library of African People: Xhosa, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 1997.Xhosa's are hot and vry lekke.

For the Xhosa people, see Xhosa. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... NY redirects here. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Xhosa edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Xhosa edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Xhosa (1145 words)
History: The Xhosa were part of the gradual Bantu migration movement from southern Zaire in various directions to cover most of Africa south of the Sahara.
Xhosa and other fl African peoples did have access to some education and there was some economic freedom.
Language: Xhosa is a Bantu language in the Nguni family of southeastern Bantu languages.
Xhosa - PanAfriL10n (392 words)
Xhosa is a language in the Nguni group of Bantu (Guthrie S40).
Xhosa is spoken in the Transkei coastal region of South Africa.
Xhosa is one of the 11 official languages of South Africa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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