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Encyclopedia > Xerxes I of Persia
Xerxes I of Persia, the Great
Great King (Shah) of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt
Relief of an Achaemenid king, possibly Xerxes or Darius, on the wall of Persepolis Palace[1]
Reign 485 BC to 465 BC
Coronation October 485 BC
Born 519 BC
Persia
Died 465 BC
Persia (Assassination by stabbing)
Buried Persia
Predecessor Darius I
Successor Artaxerxes I
Consort Amestris
Royal House Achaemenid dynasty
Father Darius I of Persia (the Great)
Mother Atossa

Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. Xérxēs (Ξέρξης) is the Greek form of the Old Persian throne name Xšayāršā, meaning "Ruler of heroes".[3] The English pronunciation is ['zɝk siːz]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Darius the Great (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... Darius the Great (c. ... A sculpture dating back to the time of Achaemenid Empire Artaxerxes I (Artakhshathra I) was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 The name as given is the Greek form; the Persian form is Artakhshathra. ... Insert non-formatted text here:This article is about the wife of Xerxes. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Darius the Great (c. ... Atossa or Hutaosa (550 BC-475 BC) was a Queen consort of Persia. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Persia redirects here. ... Look up BC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Political career

Xerxes Gate, The gate of all nations at Persepolis

Xerxes was son of Darius I and Atoosa, the daughter of Cyrus the Great. After his accession in October 485 BC he suppressed the revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before and appointed his brother Achaemenes as governor or satrap over Egypt (Old Persian: khshathrapavan). In 484 BC, he took away from Babylon the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the legitimate king of Babylon had to seize on the first day of each year, and killed the priest who tried to hinder him. Therefore Xerxes does not bear the title of King in the Babylonian documents dated from his reign, but King of Persia and Media or simply King of countries (i.e. of the world). This proceeding led to two rebellions, probably in 484 BC and 479 BC. Image File history File linksMetadata Persepolis_-_The_Gate_of_Xerxes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Persepolis_-_The_Gate_of_Xerxes. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... Darius the Great (c. ... Atossa (also known as Hattuosa or Hutaosa) was a Queen consort of Persia. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Achaemenes was a son of Darius I, brother of Xerxes I. After the first rebellion of Egypt, he became satrap of Egypt (484 BC); he commanded the Persian fleet at Salamis Island, and was (460 BC) defeated and slain by Inarus, the leader of the second rebellion of Egypt. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC 482 BC... 479 pr. ...

Inscription of Xerxes, Van, Turkey, 1973.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 516 pixelsFull resolution (1608 × 1038 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself using a 300 mm lens with 2X extender on a Pentax camera at Van in 1973. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 516 pixelsFull resolution (1608 × 1038 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself using a 300 mm lens with 2X extender on a Pentax camera at Van in 1973. ... Van (Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ...

Invasion of the Greek mainland

Main article: Greco-Persian Wars

Darius left to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt and their defeat of the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC Xerxes prepared his expedition: A channel was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two bridges were thrown across the Hellespont. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes' first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus bridge; Xerxes ordered the Hellespont (the strait itself) whipped three hundred times and had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxes' second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful.[4] Xerxes concluded an alliance with Carthage, and thus deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, especially Thessaly, Thebes and Argos. Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis with a fleet and army which Herodotus claimed was more than two million strong. Persian Wars redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Naxos (Greek: Νάξος; Italian: Nicsia; Turkish: NakÅŸa) is a Greek island, the largest island (428 km²) in the Cyclades island group in the Aegean. ... This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria. ... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Fetters in use Fetters, shackles or leg irons are a kind of physical restraint used on the feet or ankles. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under...


Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles. At the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of warriors, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated, after a Greek man called Ephialtes betrayed his country by telling the Persians of another pass around the mountains. After Thermopylae, Athens was captured, and the Athenians and Spartans were driven back to their last line of defense at the Isthmus of Corinth and in the Saronic Gulf. At Artemisium, large storms had destroyed ships from the Greek side, and so the battle stopped prematurely as the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles (against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies. The Battle of Salamis (September 29, 480 BC) was won by the Athenians. Although the loss was a setback, it was not a disaster, and Xerxes set up a winter camp in Thessaly. Due to unrest in Babylon, Xerxes was forced to send his army home to prevent a revolt, leaving behind an army in Greece under Mardonius, who was defeated the following year at Plataea.[5] The defeat of the Persians at Mycale roused the Greek cities of Asia. For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leonidas (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Sparta (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ephialtes (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ... The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... Artemisia was the daughter of Lygdamis and was set up as the tyrant of Halicarnassus by the Persians, who were at the time the overlords of Ionia, after the death of her husband. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Missing later years

An artist's illustration depicting Xerxes' alleged "punishment" of the Hellespont.

Little is known of Xerxes' later years. He sent out Sataspes to attempt to circumnavigate Africa. He left inscriptions at Persepolis, where he added a new palace to that of Darius, at Van, now in present day Turkey, and on Mount Alvand (western pronunciation: Elvend) near Ecbatana. In these texts he merely copies the words of his father. In 465 he was murdered by his vizier, Artabanus, who raised Artaxerxes I. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (462x699, 71 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (462x699, 71 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Sataspes was a commander of 100 cavalry, whose name is derived from Sat (=100 sad) and Asp (= Horse, Asb). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... Van (Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ... Alvand (3575 m. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Artabanus the Hyrcanian was a Persian political figure during the Achaemenid Dynasty who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months (465 BC - 464 BC). ... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ...


In the Bible

Xerxes is also believed by some scholars to be Ahasuerus, the King in the Book of Esther,[6][7] though some Jewish scholars are skeptical about this.[8] Daniel 9:1 mentions "Darius son of Ahasuerus", yet it is well established that Xerxes is the son of Darius, and not Darius' father. (See "Identity of 'Darius the Mede'" under Book of Daniel.). Ahasuerus or Ahasverus (Hebrew אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, Standard Hebrew Aḥašveroš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḫašwērôš) is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible and related legends and apocrypha. ... Megillah redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ...


The Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew Bible identifies Esther's husband as Artaxerxes I, rather than Xerxes himself,[9] as does the Judeo-Roman historian Josephus.[10] The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and...


Josephus took the historical existence of Vashti and Esther as fact,[11] though the works of Herodotus suggest that Xerxes had a Queen consort named Amestris, daughter to Otanes. But those in favour of the book of Esther argue that the annual Jewish feast of Purim provides strong argumentation for the validity of the Esther account. Vashti (ושתי) is mentioned in the Book of Esther, a book included in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Insert non-formatted text here:This article is about the wife of Xerxes. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance from Hamans plot to annihilate all the Jews of the Persian Empire, who had survived the Babylonian captivity, after Persia had conquered Babylonia who in turn had destroyed the First Temple...


It must also be noted that those who believe that Ahasuerus is Xerxes argue that the name Ahasuerus is derived from the Latin transliteration of Áchashwerosh. This also being the Hebrew equivalent of the Babylonian Achshiyarshu, both of which are transliterations from the Old Persian Xšayāršā (also spelt Khsayârshâ).[12] Hence the conclusion that Ahasuerus is Xerxes the Great.


Thus it is thought that the Septuagint translators mistook Xerxes the Great for Artaxerxes I (Longimanus).[13] For if a mistake was made by the Egyptian Jewish translators of this portion of the LXX, it could explain how other later Jewish historians such as Josephus could come to similar conclusions. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ...


Assuming that Xerxes is the Biblical Ahasuerus, then this would make the six months of festivities for "all his princes and his servants; the power (i.e. the armies) of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces,..." a political maneuver to show "the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty many days".[14] For it was in the "third year of his reign" (483 BC), which adds an insight: for these festivities would have been just prior to his invasion of Greece, and just after his successful suppression of the Egyptian and Babylonian revolts. Which makes his feast a celebration as well as a political stunt to boost morale and support for his Grecian campaign after his father Darius the Great had failed in his quest to conquer the Greeks at the battle of Marathon. Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ...


Children

By queen Amestris Insert non-formatted text here:This article is about the wife of Xerxes. ...

By unknown wives Amytis (Greek Ámitys, Old Persian *Umati) [1] was a Persian princess, daughter of king Xerxes I and queen Amestris, and sister of king Artaxerxes I. She was given in marriage to the nobleman Megabyzus. ... Megabyzus was a Persian general, son of Zopyrus, satrap of Babylon. ... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Artabanus the Hyrcanian was a Persian political figure during the Achaemenid Dynasty who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months (465 BC - 464 BC). ...

  • Artarius, satrap of Babylon.
  • Ratashah[15]
Xerxes I of Persia
Born:  ?? Died: 465 BC
Preceded by
Darius I the Great
Great King (Shah) of Persia
486 BC465 BC
Succeeded by
Artaxerxes I
Pharaoh of Egypt
486 BC465 BC

The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Darius the Great (c. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Centuries: 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - 4th century BCE Decades: 530s BCE 520s BCE 510s BCE 500s BCE 490s BCE - 480s BCE - 470s BCE 460s BCE 450s BCE 420s BCE 430s BCE Years: 491 BCE 490 BCE 489 BCE 488 BCE 487 BCE - 486 BCE - 485 BCE 484 BCE... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC... A sculpture dating back to the time of Achaemenid Empire Artaxerxes I (Artakhshathra I) was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 The name as given is the Greek form; the Persian form is Artakhshathra. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - 4th century BCE Decades: 530s BCE 520s BCE 510s BCE 500s BCE 490s BCE - 480s BCE - 470s BCE 460s BCE 450s BCE 420s BCE 430s BCE Years: 491 BCE 490 BCE 489 BCE 488 BCE 487 BCE - 486 BCE - 485 BCE 484 BCE... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC - 465 BC - 464 BC 463 BC...

In popular culture

The 300 Spartans is a 1962 film depicting the Battle of Thermopylae. ... This article is about the actor David Farrar. ... 300 is a 2007 film adaptation of the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller, and is a fictionalized retelling of the Battle of Thermopylae. ... “WB” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Frank Miller, the comic book writer and artist. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Creation is an epic historical fiction novel by Gore Vidal which was published in 1981. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ... Darius is a fictional character from Highlander: The Series, portrayed by actor Werner Stocker. ... The Bartimaeus Trilogy is a fantasy series by Jonathan Stroud and was published as a series of three novels between 2003 and 2006. ... The Amulet of Samarkand is the first book in the Bartimaeus Trilogy written by Jonathan Stroud. ... This article is about the TV series. ... 300 is a 2007 film adaptation of the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller, and is a fictionalized retelling of the Battle of Thermopylae. ...

See also

Tablet attributed to Xerxes I.
Tablet attributed to Xerxes I.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2265x1155, 779 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Xerxes I of Persia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2265x1155, 779 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Xerxes I of Persia ... Xerse is an opera by Francesco Cavalli - specifically, a dramma per musica about Xerxes I. The libretto was written by Nicolò Minato, and was later set by both Giovanni Bononcini and George Frideric Handel. ... Francesco Cavalli (February 14, 1602 – January 14, 1676), Italian composer, was born at Crema. ... Serse (also known as Xerxes) is an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... “Handel” redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.livius.org/a/iran/persepolis/apadana-northstairs-relief/apadana-northstairs-relief.html
  2. ^ Ghias Abadi, R. M. (2004). Achaemenid Inscriptions (کتیبه‌های هخامنشی)‎, 2nd edition (in Persian), Tehran: Shiraz Navid Publications, page 107. ISBN 964-358-015-6. 
  3. ^ Strauss, Barry S. , The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece - and Western Civilization, p. 36. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2004.
  4. ^ Bailkey, Nels, ed. Readings in Ancient History, p. 175. D.C. Heath and Co., USA, 1992.
  5. ^ Battle of Salamis and aftermath
  6. ^ BibleTexts.com Glossary of Terms - Ahasuerus / Xerxes
  7. ^ BBC Religion & Ethic - Judaism The story of Purim
  8. ^ The Religious Policy of Xerxes and the "Book of Esther", Littman, Robert J., The Jewish Quarterly Review, 65.3, Jan 1975, p.145-148.
  9. ^ Septuagint; Esther 1:1,2,9...etc.; 2003 Hendrickson Publishers, ed. by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton; ISBN 0-913573-44-2
  10. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews Book 11, Chap. 6, sec. 2; Whiston, William; The Complete Works of Josephus; Hendrickson Publishers, 1987; ISBN 0-913573-86-8.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Nichol, F.D., Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary Volume 3, Review and Herald Publishing Association, (Washington, D.C., 1954) comments on Esther 1:1,
  13. ^ Nichol, F.D., Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary Volume 3, Review and Herald Publishing Association, (Washington, D.C., 1954) comments on Esther 1:1,
  14. ^ Ester 1:2-4 KJV
  15. ^ M. Brosius, Women in ancient Persia.

Further reading

  • Herodotus, The Persian Wars (1942 edition)
  • A.T. Olmstead, 1948. History of the Persian Empire (University of Chicago Press) pp. 214ff.
  • P. Briant, 2002. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire.

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Xerxes I of Persia Biography on DanceAge (906 words)
Xerxes, son of Darius the Great and Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus the Great, was appointed King of Persia by his father in preference to his elder half-brothers, who were born before Darius had become king.
This probably was the reason why Xerxes in 484 BCE took away from Babylon the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the legitimate king of Babylon had to seize on the first day of each year, and killed the priest who tried to hinder him.
But Xerxes was induced by the astute message of Themistocles (against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, instead of sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armament.
Persian Empire 2 - Crystalinks (4199 words)
This probably was the reason why Xerxes in 484 BC abolished the Kingdom of Babel and took away the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the legitimate king of Babel had to seize on the first day of each year, and killed the priest who tried to hinder him.
Persia was left unprepared for the worldwide expansion of European empires in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Persia was drawn into the periphery of WWI because of its strategic position between Afghanistan and the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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