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Encyclopedia > Xerox
Xerox Corporation
Type Public (NYSE: XRX)
Founded Rochester, New York, USA (1906)
Headquarters Norwalk, Connecticut, USA
Offices in Rochester, New York
Key people Anne M. Mulcahy, Chairman & CEO
Ursula Burns, President
Larry Zimmerman, CFO
Gary R. Kabureck CAO
Michael MacDonald, President, Marketing Operations
Industry Document Services
Computer Peripherals
Products Digital Imaging
Printers
Revenue $17.2 billion USD (2007)
Employees 57,400 (2007)
Website www.xerox.com
Xerox's former headquarters in Stamford (now headquartered in Norwalk)
Xerox's former headquarters in Stamford (now headquartered in Norwalk)

Xerox Corporation (NYSEXRX) (name pronounced /ˈziːrɒks/) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut (moved from Stamford, Connecticut in October 2007[1]), though its largest population of employees is based in and around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... Anne M. Mulcahy is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Xerox Corporation, Stamford, Conn. ... CFO redirects here. ... CAO is the bizspeak acronym for Chief Accounting Officer. ... A document management system (DMS) is a computer system (or set of computer programs) used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ... Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of digital images, typically from a physical object. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... USD redirects here. ... This article is about work. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Norwalk is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Settled 1641 Incorporated (city) 1893 Consolidated 1949 Government  - Type Mayor-Board of representatives  - Mayor Dannel Malloy (Dem) Area  - City 134. ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ...

Contents

History

The Xerox 914 was the first one-piece plain paper photocopier, and sold in the thousands.
The Xerox 914 was the first one-piece plain paper photocopier, and sold in the thousands.

Xerox was founded in 1906 as "The Haloid Company",[2] which originally manufactured photographic paper and equipment. The company subsequently changed its name to "Haloid Xerox" in 1958 and then simply "Xerox" in 1961 [3]. The company came to prominence in 1959 with the introduction of the first plain paper photocopier using the process of xerography (electrophotography) developed by Chester Carlson, the Xerox 914 [1]. The 914 was so popular that by the end of 1961, Xerox had almost $60 million in revenue. By 1965, revenues leaped to over $500 million. Before releasing the 914, Xerox had also introduced the first xerographic printer, the "Copyflo" in 1955. Image File history File links Xerox_914. ... Image File history File links Xerox_914. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Chester F. Carlson Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson (Born Feb 8 1906 - Died Sep 19 1968) in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... Chester Floyd Carlson (February 8, 1906 - September 19, 1968) was an American physicist, inventor, and patent attorney born in Seattle, Washington. ... Introduced in 1959, the Xerox 914 plain paper copier revolutionized the document-copying industry. ...


The company expanded substantially throughout the 1960s, making millionaires of some long-suffering investors who had nursed the company through the slow research and development phase of the product. In 1960, the "Wilson Center for Research and Technology" was opened in Webster, New York, a research facility for xerography. In 1961, the company changed its name to "Xerox Corporation". Xerox common stock (XRX) was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1961 and on the Chicago Stock Exchange in 1990. A millionaire is a person who has a net worth or wealth of more than one million United States dollars, euros, UK pounds or units of a comparably valued currency. ... Webster is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The Chicago Stock Exchange, located in Chicago, Illinois, is the third most active stock exchange in the United States by volume. ...


In 1963, Xerox introduced the Xerox 813, the first desktop plain-paper copier, bringing Carlson's vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk into a reality. Ten years later in 1973, a color copier followed.


The laser printer was invented in 1969 by Xerox researcher Gary Starkweather by modifying a Xerox copier. This development resulted in the first commercially available laser printer, the Xerox 9700, being launched in 1977. Laser printing eventually became a multi billion dollar business for Xerox. 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... Gary K. Starkweather is an American engineer and inventor. ...


In 1970, under company president Charles Peter McColough, Xerox opened the Xerox PARC (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center) research facility. The facility developed many modern computing methods such as the mouse and the graphical user interface. From these inventions, Xerox PARC created the Xerox Alto in 1973, a small minicomputer similar to a workstation and personal computer. The Alto was never commercially sold, as Xerox itself could not see the sales potential of it. In 1979, several Apple Computer employees, including Steve Jobs, visited Xerox PARC, interested in seeing their developments. Jobs and the others saw the commercial potential of the GUI and mouse, and began development of the Apple Lisa, which Apple introduced in 1983. C. Peter McColough Charles Peter McColough McColough was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada on August 1, 1922, to Reginald Walker and Barbara Theresa Martin McColough. ... Bold text // Headline text Link title This article is about the computer research center. ... A contemporary computer mouse, with the most common standard features: two buttons and a scroll wheel. ... GUI redirects here. ... The Xerox Alto monitor has a portrait orientation. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Apple Inc. ... Steve Jobs (born Steven Paul Jobs on February 24, 1955) is the Co-founder, Chairman and CEO of Apple Inc. ... The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ...

The Xerox Alto workstation was developed at Xerox PARC.
The Xerox Alto workstation was developed at Xerox PARC.

Xerox later released a similar system to the Alto, the Xerox Star in 1981 as a workstation. It was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that today have become commonplace in personal computers, including a bit-mapped display, a window-based GUI, mouse, Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers and e-mail. The Xerox Star, despite its technological breakthroughs, did not sell well due to its high price, costing $16,000 per unit. A typical Xerox Star-based office would have cost $100,000. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 2058 KB) Summary Photo of the Xerox Alto, taken by Martin Pittenauer, URL accessed May 21, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 2058 KB) Summary Photo of the Xerox Alto, taken by Martin Pittenauer, URL accessed May 21, 2006. ... The Star workstation, officially known as the 8010 Star Information System, was introduced by Xerox Corporation in 1981. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A print serveris a host computer or device to which one or more printers are connected and which accepts print jobs from external client computers. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In the mid 80s, Apple considered buying Xerox; however, a deal was never reached. Apple attempted to adapt the graphical user interface and mouse to a more affordable personal computer, aimed towards the business and education markets. The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984, and was the first personal computer to popularize the GUI and mouse amongst the public. In the late 1980s, Xerox sued Apple over their use of the graphical user interface. The Xerox case was dismissed because the three year statute of limitations had passed -- Xerox had waited too long to file a suit. Apple Inc. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ...


The company was revived in the 1980s and 1990s, through improvement in quality design and realignment of its product line. Development of digital photocopiers in the 1990s and a revamp of the entire product range—essentially high-end laser printers with attached scanners which were able to be attached to computer networks—again gave Xerox a technical lead over its competitors. Xerox worked to turn its product into a service, providing a complete "document service" to companies including supply, maintenance, configuration, and user support. To reinforce this image, the company introduced a corporate signature, "The Document Company" above its main logo and introduced a red "digital X". The "digital X" symbolized the transition of documents between the paper and digital worlds.


In 2000, Xerox acquired Tektronix color printing and imaging division in Wilsonville, Oregon, for US$925 million. This led to the current Xerox Phaser line of products as well as Xerox solid ink printing technology. Tektronix is a United States corporation that is currently a major presence in the test, measurement, and measuring industry. ... Xerox Phaser is a line of color and black and white printers produced and sold by Xerox. ... A Xerox Phaser 8500 tray with solid ink. ...


In September 2004, Xerox celebrated the 45th anniversary of the Xerox 914. More than 200,000 units were made around the world between 1959 and 1976, the year production of the 914 was stopped. Today, the 914 is part of American history as an artifact in the Smithsonian Institution. Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...


Xerox's turnaround was largely led by Anne M. Mulcahy, who was appointed president in May 2000, CEO in August 2001 and chairman in January 2002. [4] Mulcahy launched an aggressive turnaround plan that returned Xerox to full-year profitability by the end of 2002, along with decreasing debt, increasing cash, and continuing to invest in research and development. Anne M. Mulcahy is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Xerox Corporation, Stamford, Conn. ...


In November, 2006 Xerox completed the Acquisition of XMPie Press Release


Current products

Box of Xerox paper, showing the Xerox wordmark and "digital X" logos. Colour Impressions was launched in 2004.
Box of Xerox paper, showing the Xerox wordmark and "digital X" logos. Colour Impressions was launched in 2004.

Xerox today manufactures and sells a wide variety of office and production equipment including photo copiers, Xerox Phaser printers, multifunction printers, large-volume digital printers as well as workflow software under the brand strategy of FreeFlow. The impact of Xerox FreeFlow products on the graphic arts market and the print industry in general has grown exponentially since May 2006, largely as a result of the Xerox presence at IPEX 2006. Xerox also sells scanners and digital presses. photo of Xerox Colour Impressions paper box File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... photo of Xerox Colour Impressions paper box File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Xerox Phaser is a line of color and black and white printers produced and sold by Xerox. ... An MFP (Multi Function Printer/Product/Peripheral), multifunctional, all-in-one (AiO), or mopier (Multiple Optical coPIER) or Multifunction Device (MFD), is an office machine that includes the following functionality in one physical body, so as to have a smaller footprint in a home or small-business setting (the SoHo... Look up scanner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Xerox sells both color and black and white printers under the Xerox Phaser brand, with the color consumer model starting at US$299; the most expensive color model costs US$6,799. Xerox Phaser is a line of color and black and white printers produced and sold by Xerox. ...


Xerox also produces fax machines, professional printers, black and white copiers, and several other products. Fax (short for facsimile or telefacsimile) is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. ...


In addition, Xerox produces many printing and office supplies such as paper, in many forms; and markets software such as DocuShare Xerox MarketPort and FlowPort, offers consulting services, ECM Digital Repository Services and printing outsourcing. For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Enterprise content management (ECM) is the technologies used to capture, store, preserve and deliver content and documents and content related to organizational processes. ... A Digital repository is either a local institutional or central (e. ... Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company. ...


Corporate structure

Xerox logo 1971–2008 designed by Chermayeff & Geismar.

Although Xerox is a global brand, it maintains a joint venture, Fuji Xerox, with Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. to develop, produce and sell in the Asia-Pacific region. Fuji Photo Film Co. is currently the majority stakeholder, with 75% of the shareholding. For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Fuji Xerox is a joint venture partnership between the Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. ... Fujifilm Holdings Corporation or Fujifilm ) is a Japanese company known for its photographic film and cameras. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Xerox India, formerly Modi Xerox, is Xerox's Indian subsidiary derived from a joint venture formed between Dr Bhupendra Kumar Modi and Rank Xerox in 1983. Xerox obtained a majority stake in 1999 and aims to buy out the remaining shareholders. [5] Xerox India used to be called Modi Xerox Xerox India is the Indian subsidiary of Xerox Corporation, the printer, photocopier, document supplies, technology & services company. ...


Xerox now sponsors the Factory Ducati Team in the World Superbike Championship, under the name of the "Xerox Ducati".


Rank Xerox

Rank Xerox logo used in 1980s
Rank Xerox logo used in 1980s

European operations, Rank Xerox, later extended to Asia and Africa, has been fully owned by Xerox Corporation since 1997. The Rank Xerox name was discontinued following the buyout. Rank Xerox was formed in 1956 as a joint venture between the Xerox Corporation of USA and the Rank Organisation of UK, to manufacture and market Xerox equipment initially in Europe and later in Africa and Asia. ...


Environmental Record

U.S. office workers print an average of 10,000 pages per year. [6] According to Xerox, around 40 percent of the pages printed out by people are only viewed once before being thrown away. Xerox is making attempts at reducing that number with “erasable paper.” This new type of paper is embedded with chemicals that are sensitive to light. When different wavelengths of light touch its surface, the paper darkens, and this in turn gives the “printed text or image” look. The images stay on the paper for between 16 and 24 hours before dissolving, and this allows the paper to be used again in the future. [7]


The average American emits 9.44 tons of carbon dioxide a year. [8]To help offices realize their environmental impact, Xerox released the “sustainability calculator” in late March 2008. The calculator has been created as a method to measure “the environmental benefits so we can use that in our reports and marketing materials” says Patty Calkins, who is the vice president of environment, health, and safety at Xerox, as well as to optimize the office equipment. [9]


Accounting irregularities

On April 11, 2002, the Securities and Exchange Commission filed a complaint against Xerox. [10] The complaint alleged Xerox deceived the public between 1997 and 2000 by employing several "accounting maneuvers," the most significant of which was a change in when Xerox recorded revenue from copy machine leases — recognizing a "sale" in the period a lease contract was signed, instead of recognizing revenue ratably over the entire length of the contract. At issue was when the revenue was recognized, not the validity of the revenue. Xerox's restatement only changed what year the revenue was stated. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ...


In response to the SEC's complaint, Xerox Corporation neither admitted nor denied wrongdoing. It agreed to pay a $10 million penalty and to restate its financial results for the years 1997 through 2000. On June 5, 2003, six Xerox senior executives accused of securities fraud settled their issues with the SEC and neither admitted nor denied wrongdoing. They agreed to pay $22 million in penalties, disgorgement, and interest. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On January 29, 2003, the SEC filed a complaint against Xerox's auditors [11], KPMG, alleging four partners in the "Big Five" accounting firm permitted Xerox to "cook the books" to fill a $3 billion "gap" in revenue and $1.4 billion "gap" in pre-tax earnings. In April 2005 KPMG settled with the SEC by paying a US$22.48 million fine [12]. As part of the settlement KPMG neither admits nor denies wrongdoing. is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... KPMG is one of the largest professional services firms in the world. ...


During settlement with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Xerox began to revamp itself once more. As a symbol of this transformation, the relative size of the word "Xerox" was increased in proportion to "The Document Company" on the corporate signature and the latter was dropped altogether in September 2004, along with the digital X. However, the digital X and "The Document Company" are still used by Fuji Xerox. The Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ... Fuji Xerox is a joint venture partnership between the Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. ...


Trademark issues and name usage

Look up xerox in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The word "xerox" is commonly used as a synonym for "photocopy" (both as a noun and a verb) in many areas; for example,"I xeroxed the document and placed it on your desk." or "Please make a xeroxed copy of the articles and hand them out a week before the exam". Though both are common, the company does not condone such uses of its trademark, and is particularly concerned about the ongoing use of Xerox as a verb as this places the trademark in danger of being declared a generic word by the courts. The company is engaged in an ongoing advertising and media campaign to convince the public that Xerox should not be used as a verb.[13][14] Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... A genericized trademark (also known as a generic trade mark or proprietary eponym) is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for (or synonymous with) a particular class of product or service. ...


To this end, the company has written to publications that have used Xerox as a verb, and has also purchased print advertisements declaring that "you cannot 'xerox' a document, but you can copy it on a Xerox Brand copying machine". (Note that xerox is functionally a verb in this sentence.) Xerox Corporation continues to protect its trademark diligently in most if not all trademark categories. Despite their efforts, many dictionaries continue to mention the use of "xerox" as a verb, including the Oxford English Dictionary. In 2008, Xerox changed its logo to a red sphere with a white X with three grey stripes. The change is meant to reflect less on the photo copying duties Xerox has carried out and instead to refocus on document management and solutions across the world for companies. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


External links

References

  1. ^ Online Fact Book: Historical Highlights. www.xerox.com (2007).
  2. ^ Online Fact Book: Xerox at a Glance, xerox.com. Article retrieved 2006-12-13.
  3. ^ Xerox Hopes Its New Logo Doesn’t Say ‘Copier’, NYT.com. Article retrieved 2008-01-07.
  4. ^ The Accidental CEO. Fortune (June 2003).
  5. ^ Xerox looks to up stake in Indian arm to 100%. The Economic Times (March 2005).
  6. ^ http://www.printgreener.com/earthday.html GreenPrint Retrieved May 5, 2008
  7. ^ http://www.mercurynews.com/realestatenews/ci_9141683 San Jose Mercury News Retrieved May 5. 2008
  8. ^ http://www.fightglobalwarming.com/ccresults.cfm Environmental Defense Fund Retrieved May 5, 2008
  9. ^ http://www.sustainableindustries.com/breakingnews/17977249.html Sustainable Industries Retrieved May 5,2008
  10. ^ SEC v. Xerox Corporation. SEC (2002).
  11. ^ Complaint: KPMG LLP et al.. SEC (2003).
  12. ^ SEC fines Xerox's ex-auditor. Democrat and Chronicle (April 2005).
  13. ^ Stim, Richard (2006). Patent, Copyright & Trademark. Nolo, p. 388. ISBN 1413301967. 
  14. ^ Online Fact Book: Overview. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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