FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Xenon arc lamp
15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors
15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors
An end-view of the 15 kW lamp showing the liquid-cooling ports
An end-view of the 15 kW lamp showing the liquid-cooling ports
Perspective view of 3 kW lamp showing plastic safety shield used during shipping
Perspective view of 3 kW lamp showing plastic safety shield used during shipping
Detail view of 3 kW lamp showing size difference between anode (on the left) and cathode (on the right).
Detail view of 3 kW lamp showing size difference between anode (on the left) and cathode (on the right).
A 4 kW lamp in operation, viewed through lamphouse viewport (green tint due to filtered glass.)
A 4 kW lamp in operation, viewed through lamphouse viewport (green tint due to filtered glass.)
A Perkin-Elmer 420 W Cermax Xenon short-arc lamp.
A Perkin-Elmer 420 W Cermax Xenon short-arc lamp.
An Osram 100 W Xenon/Mercury short-arc lamp in reflector.
An Osram 100 W Xenon/Mercury short-arc lamp in reflector.
A 1 kW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp Power Supply with the cover removed.
A 1 kW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp Power Supply with the cover removed.
A Series-Injection Igniter used to start Xenon Short-Arc Lamps
A Series-Injection Igniter used to start Xenon Short-Arc Lamps
Perspective View of a Lamp Housing from a medium size movie theatre projector, showing on-axis mounting of xenon short-arc lamp.
Perspective View of a Lamp Housing from a medium size movie theatre projector, showing on-axis mounting of xenon short-arc lamp.

Xenon arc lamps are an artificial light source. Powered by electricity, they use ionized xenon gas to produce a bright white light that closely mimics natural daylight. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 341 KB) Close-up of a 15KW Xenon short-arc lamp I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 341 KB) Close-up of a 15KW Xenon short-arc lamp I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX dome in Guayaquil, Ecuador IMAX Theater in SM Mall of Asia, Philippines IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 316 KB) 15 KW Xenon short-arc lamp end view showing liquid-cooling ports I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 316 KB) 15 KW Xenon short-arc lamp end view showing liquid-cooling ports I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 366 KB) Summary An OSRAM 3KW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp used in medium size movie theatre projectors. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 366 KB) Summary An OSRAM 3KW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp used in medium size movie theatre projectors. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 179 KB) Summary OSRAM 3KW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp used in medium size movie projectors. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 179 KB) Summary OSRAM 3KW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp used in medium size movie projectors. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 578 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 578 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1315 KB) Summary A Modular Power Supply for a 1KW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp, protective cover removed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1315 KB) Summary A Modular Power Supply for a 1KW Xenon Short-Arc Lamp, protective cover removed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1701 KB) Summary A Series-Injection Igniter used to start 150 Watt Short-Arc Lamps. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1701 KB) Summary A Series-Injection Igniter used to start 150 Watt Short-Arc Lamps. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 228 KB) Summary A Lamp House from a medium size movie theatre projector, with a 1KW Xenon short-arc lamp installed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 228 KB) Summary A Lamp House from a medium size movie theatre projector, with a 1KW Xenon short-arc lamp installed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Look up daylight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Xenon arc lamps can be roughly divided into three categories:

  • Continuous-output xenon short-arc lamps
  • Continuous-output xenon long-arc lamps
  • Xenon flash lamps (which are usually considered separately)

Each consists of a glass or fused quartz arc tube with tungsten metal electrodes at each end. The glass tube is first evacuated and then re-filled with xenon gas. For xenon flashtubes, a third "trigger" electrode usually surrounds the exterior of the arc tube. 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp. ... Xenon flash lamp being fired. ... This article is about the material. ... Fused quartz and fused silica are types of glass containing primarily silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History and modern usage

Xenon short-arc lamps were invented in the 1940s in Germany and introduced in 1951 by Osram. First launched in the 2 kW size (XBO2001), these lamps saw a wide acceptance in movie projection, where they advantageously replaced the older carbon arc lamps. The white, continuous light generated with this arc is of daylight quality but plagued by a rather low efficiency in terms of lumens of visible light output per watt of input power. Today, almost all movie projectors in theaters employ these lamps with a rating ranging from 900 watts up to 12 kW. When used in Omnimax projection systems, the power can be as high as 15 kW in a single lamp. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kwai Lo is Chinese slang for foreigner or ghost person. ... 35 mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ... Luminous efficiency is a measure of the proportion of the energy supplied to a lamp that is converted into light energy. ... The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI unit of luminous flux. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX dome in Guayaquil, Ecuador IMAX Theater in SM Mall of Asia, Philippines IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far...


Lamp construction

All modern xenon short-arc lamps utilize a fused quartz envelope with thorium-doped tungsten electrodes. Fused quartz is the only economically feasible material currently available that can withstand the high pressure and high temperature present in an operating lamp while still being optically clear. The thorium dopant in the electrodes greatly enhances their electron emission characteristics. Because tungsten and quartz have different coefficients of thermal expansion, the tungsten electrodes are welded to strips of pure molybdenum metal or Invar alloy, which are then melted into the quartz to form the envelope seal. General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... The Feynman diagram for beta decay of a neutron into a proton, electron, and electron antineutrino via an intermediate heavy W- boson In nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... Invar, also called FeNi36, is an alloy of iron (64%) and nickel (36%) with some carbon and chromium. ...


Because of the very high power levels involved, the lamps may be water-cooled. In those used in IMAX projectors, the electrode bodies are made from solid Invar and tipped with thoriated tungsten. In (continuous wave pumped) lasers the lamp is inserted into a fixed lamp jacket and the water flows between the jacket and the lamp. An O-ring seals off the tube, so that the naked electrodes do not get into contact with the water. In low power applications the electrodes are too cold for efficient electron emission and are not cooled, in high power applications an additional water cooling circuit for each electrode is necessary. To save costs, the water circuits are often not separated and the water needs to be highly deionized, which in turn lets the quartz or some laser mediums dissolve into the water. Theoretically the water can be pressurized to disburden the hot quartz, practically it only alleviates the effect of lamp breakage. Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ... Deionized water (DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water, see spelling differences) is water that lacks ions, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. ...


In order to achieve maximum efficiency, the xenon gas inside a short-arc lamp has to be maintained at an extremely high pressure. With large lamps this presents a serious safety concern, because if the lamp is dropped or ruptures in service, pieces of the lamp envelope can be ejected at high velocity, causing bodily injury or death. To mitigate this risk, large xenon short-arc lamps are shipped inside special protective shields (see photograph), which will contain the envelope fragments if the lamp is dropped and explodes. The shield is removed once the lamp is installed in the lamp housing. When the lamp reaches the end of its useful life, the protective shield is put back on the lamp, and the spent lamp is then removed from the equipment and disposed of. The risk of explosion increases as the lamp is used. For this reason, it is important to observe the manufacturer's recommended operating life limits.


Even with the protective shield in place, eye protection should always be worn when handling xenon short-arc lamps. For some lamps the manufacturers also recommend artery protection.


There is another type of lamp known as a ceramic Xenon lamp (Developed by Perkin-Elmer as Cermax) - this type uses a ceramic lamp body with an integrated reflector.


Light generation mechanism

Xenon short-arc lamps come in two distinct varieties: pure xenon, which contain only xenon gas; and xenon-mercury, which contain xenon gas and a small amount of mercury metal. General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ...


In a pure xenon lamp, the majority of the light is generated within a tiny, pinpoint-sized cloud of plasma situated where the electron stream leaves the face of the cathode. The light generation volume is cone-shaped, and the luminous intensity falls off exponentially moving from cathode to anode. Electrons that manage to pass through the plasma cloud collide with the anode, causing it to heat up. As a result, the anode in a xenon short-arc lamp either has to be much larger than the cathode or be water-cooled, to safely dissipate the heat. Pure xenon short-arc lamps have a "near daylight" spectrum. The light output of the lamp is relatively flat over the entire colour spectrum. Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ...


Even in a high pressure lamp, there are some very strong emission lines in the near infrared, roughly in the region from 850-900 nm. This spectral region can contain about 10% of the total emitted light.


In xenon-mercury short-arc lamps, the majority of the light is generated within a tiny, pinpoint sized cloud of plasma situated at the tip of each electrode. The light generation volume is shaped like two intersecting cones, and the luminous intensity falls off exponentially moving towards the centre of the lamp. Xenon-mercury short-arc lamps have a bluish-white spectrum and extremely high UV output. These lamps are used primarily for UV curing applications, sterilizing objects, and generating ozone. For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... In polymer chemistry and Process Engineering, curing refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical additives, ultraviolet radiation or heat. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... It has been suggested that Ozone generator be merged into this article or section. ...


The very small optical size of the arc makes it possible to focus the light from the lamp very precisely. For this reason, xenon arc lamps of smaller sizes, down to 10 watts, are used in optics and in precision illumination for microscopes and other instruments. Larger lamps are also employed in searchlights where narrow beams of light are to be generated, or in film production lighting where daylight simulation is required. Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ...


All xenon short-arc lamps generate significant amounts of ultraviolet radiation while in operation. Xenon has strong spectral lines in the UV bands, and these readily pass through the fused quartz lamp envelope. Unlike the borosilicate glass used in standard lamps, fused quartz does not attenuate UV radiation. The UV radiation released by a short-arc lamp can cause a secondary problem of ozone generation. The UV radiation strikes oxygen molecules in the air surrounding the lamp, causing them to ionize. Some of the ionized molecules then recombine as O3, ozone. Equipment that uses short-arc lamps as the light source must be designed to contain UV radiation and prevent ozone build-up. Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Attenuation is the reduction in amplitude and intensity of a signal with respect to distance traveled through a medium. ... It has been suggested that Ozone generator be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Many lamps have a low-UV blocking coating on the envelope and are sold as "Ozone Free" lamps. Some lamps have envelopes made out of ultra-pure synthetic fused silica (trade name "Suprasil"), which roughly doubles the cost, but which allows them to emit useful light into the so-called vacuum UV region. These lamps are normally operated in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Fused quartz and fused silica are types of glass containing primarily silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form. ...


Power supply requirements

Xenon short-arc lamps are low-voltage, high-current, DC devices with a negative temperature coefficient. They require a high voltage pulse in the 50 kV range to start the lamp, and require extremely well regulated dc as the power source. They are also inherently unstable, prone to phenomena such as plasma oscillation and thermal runaway. Because of these characteristics, xenon short-arc lamps require a sophisticated power supply to achieve stable, long-life operation. The usual approach is to regulate the current flowing in the lamp rather than the applied voltage. As an example, a 450W lamp operates normally at 18V and 25A. Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... In physics, plasma oscillations, often referred to as Langmuir waves or plasma waves, are periodic oscillations of charge density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals. ... Thermal runaway refers to a situation where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature leading to a destructive result. ...


Technology outlook

The use of the xenon technology has spread into the consumer market with the introduction in 1991 of xenon headlamps for cars. In this lamp the glass capsule is small and the arc spans only a few millimetres. Additions of mercury and salts of sodium and scandium improve the lumen output of the lamp significantly, the xenon gas being used only to provide instant light upon the ignition of the lamp. A SAAB headlight with combination projector/reflector optics A headlight or headlamp is a lamp, usually attached to the front of a vehicle such as a car, with the purpose of illuminating the road ahead during periods of low visibility, such as night or precipitation. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, Symbol, Number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 44. ...


Xenon long-arc-lamps

These are structurally similar to short-arc lamps except that the arc-containing portion of the glass tube is greatly elongated. When mounted within an elliptical reflector, these lamps are frequently used to simulate sunlight. Typical uses include solar cell testing, solar simulation for age testing of materials, rapid thermal processing, and material inspection. For other uses, see Ellipse (disambiguation). ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Xenon arc lamp

  Results from FactBites:
 
Short Arc Lamps (1488 words)
Short arc lamps are used in applications such as graphic arts, photochemistry, medical, electro-optics, searchlights, stage and studio projection lighting, optical instrumentation, and military guidance and fiber optic illumination.
This causes the thorium to migrate to the cathode surface.
The short arc envelope is made on a large special lathe that heats a piece of quartz tube to a near molten point using either a hydrogen or propane and oxygen torches.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m