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Encyclopedia > Xenon
54 iodinexenoncaesium
Kr

Xe

Rn
General
Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54
Chemical series noble gases
Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p
Appearance colorless
Standard atomic weight 131.293(6) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
5.894 g/L
Melting point 161.4 K
(-111.7 °C, -169.1 °F)
Boiling point 165.03 K
(-108.12 °C, -162.62 °F)
Triple point 161.405 K, 81.6 kPa[1]
Critical point 289.77 K, 5.841 MPa
Heat of fusion 2.27 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 12.64 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 83 92 103 117 137 165
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic face centered
Oxidation states 0, +1, +2, +4, +6, +8
(rarely more than 0)
(weakly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.6 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies 1st: 1170.4 kJ/mol
2nd: 2046.4 kJ/mol
3rd: 3099.4 kJ/mol
Atomic radius (calc.) 108 pm
Covalent radius 130 pm
Van der Waals radius 216 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 5.65 m W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (liquid) 1090 m/s
CAS registry number 7440-63-3
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of xenon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
124Xe 0.1% 1.1×1017y ε ε no data 124Te
125Xe syn 16.9 h ε 1.652 125I
126Xe 0.09% Xe is stable with 72 neutrons
127Xe syn 36.4 d ε 0.662 127I
128Xe 1.91% Xe is stable with 74 neutrons
129Xe 26.4% Xe is stable with 75 neutrons
130Xe 4.1% Xe is stable with 76 neutrons
131Xe 21.29% Xe is stable with 77 neutrons
132Xe 26.9% Xe is stable with 78 neutrons
133Xe syn 5.243 d Beta- 0.427 133Cs
134Xe 10.4% Xe is stable with 80 neutrons
135Xe syn 9.10 h Beta- 1.16 135Cs
136Xe 8.9% 2.36×1021y Beta- no data 136Ba
References

Xenon (IPA: /ˈzɛnɒn, ˈziːnɒn/) is a chemical element that has the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. A colorless, heavy, odorless noble gas, xenon occurs in the earth's atmosphere in trace amounts and was part of the first noble gas compound synthesized.[2][3] General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 83. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Xenon User:Femto/elements e5 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... Neon, like all noble gases, has a full valence (outermost) electron shell. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The noble gases are a chemical series. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Xenon sample (gas, doesnt look like much). ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (eg, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 83. ... e- redirects here. ... [[Image:Valence shell 011 Sodiumup of one or more electron subshells, or sublevels, which have two or more orbitals with the same angular momentum quantum number l. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acidity redirects here. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with magnet. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a wave. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Xenon (Xe) Standard atomic mass: 131. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV, or, rarely and incorrectly, ev) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium2, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 137. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... It has been suggested that List of elements by atomic number be merged into this article or section. ... Neon, like all noble gases, has a full valence (outermost) electron shell. ... Noble gas compounds are chemical compounds that include an element from column 18 of the periodic table, the noble gases. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Xenon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble or inert gases; however, "inert" may not be an entirely accurate description of this chemical series since at least 80 compounds of this noble gas have been synthesized. In a gas filled tube, xenon emits a blue glow when the gas is excited by electrical discharge. Using gigapascals of pressure, xenon has been forced into a metallic phase.[4] Xenon can also form clathrates with water when atoms of it are trapped in a lattice of the water molecules. In chemistry, valency is the power of an atom of an element to combine with other atoms measured by the number of electrons which an atom will give, take, or share to form a chemical bond. ... Neon, like all noble gases, has a full valence (outermost) electron shell. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... Gas filled tubes are arrangements of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope. ... The term blue may refer to any of a number of similar colours. ... The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure or stress (also: Youngs modulus and tensile strength). ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... A clathrate or clathrate compound is a chemical substance consisting of a Greek klethra, meaning bars (in the sense of a lattice). ...


Applications

This gas is most widely and most famously used in light-emitting devices called Xenon flash lamps, which are used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps, to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light, to produce laser power for inertial confinement fusion, in bactericidal lamps (rarely), and in certain dermatological uses. Continuous, short-arc, high pressure Xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators, typical 35mm and IMAX film projection systems, automotive HID headlights and other specialized uses. They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and they have intense emissions in the near infrared, which are used in some night vision systems. Other uses of Xenon: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 120 KB) Summary Image of a xenon filled discharge tube shaped like the elements atomic symbol. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 120 KB) Summary Image of a xenon filled discharge tube shaped like the elements atomic symbol. ... The Geissler tube is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge. ... Xenon flash lamp being fired. ... A photographic flash is a device that produces a flash of light required for indoor or other low light conditions. ... Within a laser, the active laser medium is the material that exhibits optical gain. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... Coherent waves. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors Xenon arc lamps are an artificial light source. ... Simulated 35 mm film with soundtracks _ The outermost strips (on either side) contain the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX dome in Guayaquil, Ecuador IMAX Theater in SM Mall of Asia, Philippines IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium, low-pressure sodium and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ...

  • Has been used as a general anesthetic, though it is expensive. Even so, anesthesia machines that can deliver Xenon are about to appear on the European market. [5] Two kinds of mechanism have been proposed. The first one involves the inhibition of the calcium ATPase pump in synaptic plasma membranes,[6] which results from a conformational change when xenon binds to nonpolar sites inside the protein.[7] The second mechanism focuses on the non-specific interactions between the anesthetic and the lipid membrane.[8]
  • In nuclear energy applications it is used in bubble chambers, probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert nature is a desirable quality.
  • Perxenates are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry.
  • The isotope 133Xe is useful as a radioisotope.
  • Hyperpolarized MRI of the lungs and other tissues using 129Xe.[9]
  • Preferred fuel for Ion propulsion because of high atomic weight, ease of ionization, store as a liquid at near room temperature (but at high pressure) yet easily converts back into a gas to fuel the engine, inert nature makes it environmentally friendly and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Europe's SMART-1 spacecraft utilized Xenon in its engines.[10]
  • Is used in protein crystallography. Applied at high pressure (~600 psi) to a protein crystal, xenon atoms bind in predominantly hydrophobic cavities, often creating a high quality, isomorphous, heavy-atom derivative..[11]
  • Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon, particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS[12].

A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ... The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATAase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells that serves to remove calcium (Ca2+) from the cell. ... Conformational isomerism is the phenomenon of molecules with the same structural formula but different conformations (conformers) of atoms about a rotating bond. ... The perxenates are salts of perxenic acid, H4XeO6. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Hyperpolarization is the nuclear spin polarization of a material far beyond thermal equilibrium conditions. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... An ion engine test An ion thruster is a type of spacecraft propulsion that uses beams of ions for propulsion. ... An ion engine test An ion thruster is a type of spacecraft propulsion that uses beams of ions for propulsion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... SMART-1. ... Xenon difluoride is a very powerful fluorinating agent, but it is one of the most stable xenon compounds. ... Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the technology of the very small, and merges at the nano-scale into Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) and Nanotechnology. ...

History

Xenon (from Greek ξένον meaning "strange one" or "stranger") was discovered in England by William Ramsay and Morris Travers on July 12, 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon. They found it in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air.[13] Sir William Ramsay (October 2, 1852 – July 23, 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 (along with Lord Rayleigh who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for the discovery of argon). ... Morris Travers (1872-1961) was an English chemist who discovered xenon with Sir William Ramsay. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 83. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 20. ... Liquid air is air that has been liquified by compression and cooled to very low temperatures. ...


Occurrence

Xenon is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, occurring in one part in twenty million. The element is obtained commercially through extraction from the residues of liquefied air. This noble gas is naturally found in gases emitted from some mineral springs. Radioactive species of xenon, for example 133Xe and 135Xe are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors. Like the noble gas krypton, xenon can also be extracted by fractional distillation or liquefaction of liquid air and by selective adsorption on activated carbon. The term trace gas refers to a gas or gasses which make up less than 1% of the earths atmosphere. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 83. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorbate). ... Activated carbon from a water filter used for carbon filtering in powder and block form Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ...


Compounds

Xenon tetrafluoride
Xenon tetrafluoride

Xenon and the other noble gases had for a long time been considered to be completely chemically inert and not able to form compounds. However, in 1962 at the University of British Columbia, the first xenon compound, xenon hexafluoroplatinate, was synthesized by Neil Bartlett. Now, many compounds of xenon are known, including xenon difluoride, xenon tetrafluoride, xenon hexafluoride, xenon tetroxide, xenon hydrate, xenon deuterate, and sodium perxenate. A highly explosive compound xenon trioxide has also been made. There are at least 80 xenon compounds in which fluorine or oxygen is bonded to xenon. Some compounds of xenon are colored but most are colorless. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x819, 258 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Xenon User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery/Fluorine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x819, 258 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Xenon User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery/Fluorine ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Xenon hexafluoroplatinate is the description of the product obtained when the chemical reactivity of noble gas was first demonstrated. ... Neil Bartlett (born September 15, 1932) is an English-born American chemist. ... Xenon difluoride is a very powerful fluorinating agent, but it is one of the most stable xenon compounds. ... Xenon tetrafluoride, XeF4, occurs as colorless crystals. ... Xenon hexafluoride, XeF6, occurs as colorless crystals. ... Xenon tetroxide (molecular formula XeO4) is a yellow crystalline solid that is stable below −35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... The perxenates are salts of perxenic acid, H4XeO6. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Xenon trioxide Xenon trioxide is an unstable compound of xenon in its +6 oxidation state. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...


Recently at the University of Helsinki in Finland, a group of scientists (M. Räsänen et al.) prepared HXeH, HXeOH, and HXeCCH (xenon dihydride, xenon hydride-hydroxide, and hydroxenoacetylene). They are stable up to 40K.[14] University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ...

XeF4 crystals. 1962.
XeF4 crystals. 1962.

On Oct. ... On Oct. ...

Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of xenon

Naturally occurring xenon is made of seven stable and two slightly radioactive isotopes. Beyond these stable forms, there are 20 unstable isotopes that have been studied. 129Xe is produced by beta decay of 129I (half-life: 16 million years); 131Xe m, 133Xe, 133Xe m, and 135Xe are some of the fission products of both 235U and 239Pu, and therefore used as indicators of nuclear explosions. Xenon (Xe) Standard atomic mass: 131. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


The artificial isotope 135Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors. 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons, 2.65x106 barns, so it acts as a neutron absorber or "poison" that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation. This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. Fortunately the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity (the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel). Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A barn (symbol b) is a unit of area. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes are also found emanating from nuclear reactors due to the release of this fission gas from cracked fuel rods or fissioning of uranium in cooling water. The concentrations of these isotopes are still usually low compared to naturally occurring radioactive noble gases such as 222Rn.


Because xenon is a tracer for two parent isotopes, Xe isotope ratios in meteorites are a powerful tool for studying the formation of the solar system. The I-Xe method of dating gives the time elapsed between nucleosynthesis and the condensation of a solid object from the solar nebula. Xenon isotopes are also a powerful tool for understanding terrestrial differentiation. Excess 129Xe found in carbon dioxide well gases from New Mexico was believed to be from the decay of mantle-derived gases soon after Earth's formation.[15] Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... The planets of the solar system are believed to have formed out of a collapsed and spinning cloud of gas and dust. ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... Nucleosynthesis is the process of creating new atomic nuclei from preexisting nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


Precautions

The gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass containers at standard temperature and pressure. Xenon is non-toxic, but many of its compounds are toxic due to their strong oxidative properties. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...


The speed of sound in xenon is slower than that in air (due to the slower average speed of the heavy xenon atoms compared to nitrogen and oxygen molecules), so xenon lowers the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract when inhaled. This produces a characteristic lowered voice pitch, opposite the high-pitched voice caused by inhalation of helium. Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen and is a simple asphyxiant; consequently, many universities no longer allow the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration. As xenon is expensive, the gas sulfur hexafluoride, which is similar to xenon in molecular weight (146 vs 131), is generally used in this stunt, although it too is an asphyxiant. Sagittal section of human vocal tract The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Sulfur hexafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula SF6. ...


A myth exists that xenon is too heavy for the lungs to expel unassisted, and that after inhaling xenon, it is necessary to bend over completely at the waist to allow the excess gas to "spill" out of the body. In fact, the lungs mix gases very effectively and rapidly, such that xenon would be purged from the lungs within a breath or two. There is, however, a danger associated with any heavy gas in large quantities: it may sit invisibly in a container, and if a person enters a container filled with an odorless, colorless gas, they may find themselves breathing it unknowingly. Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.


References

  1. ^ (2005) "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements", CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th edition, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 
  2. ^ Los Alamos National Laboratory – Xenon
  3. ^ Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon / V. A. Rabinovich ... Theodore B. Selover, English-language edition ed, Washington [u.a.] Hemisphere Publ. Corp. [u.a.] , 1988. - XVIII (National standard reference data service of the USSR, You can now find Xenon at $60.00 per .077 pps
  4. ^ Caldwell, W. A.; Nguyen, J., Pfrommer, B., Louie, S., and Jeanloz, R. (1997). "Structure, bonding and geochemistry of xenon at high pressures". Science 277: 930-933. 
  5. ^ Tonner PH. Xenon: one small step for anaesthesia... ? Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 2006 Aug;19(4):382-4.
  6. ^ Franks, John J. MD; Horn, Jean-Louis MD; Janicki, Piotr K. MD, PhD; Singh, Gurkeerat PhD. Halothane, Isoflurane, Xenon, and Nitrous Oxide Inhibit Calcium ATPase Pump Activity in Rat Brain Synaptic Plasma Membranes. Anesthesiology 1995, 82, 108-117.
  7. ^ Maria M. Lopez , Danuta Kosk-Kosicka. How Do Volatile Anesthetics Inhibit Ca2+-ATPases? Journal of Biological Chemistry 1995, 270, 28239-28245.
  8. ^ Thomas Heimburg and Andrew D. Jackson. The Thermodynamics of General Anesthesia. Biophysical Journal 2007, 92, 3159–3165. DOI:10.1529/biophysj.106.099754
  9. ^ Use of Xe in MRI
  10. ^ CNN Article regarding SMART-1 and Xenon
  11. ^ Xenon derivativation in protein crystllography at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source Laboratory, UK
  12. ^ Brazzle, J.D.; Dokmeci, M.R.; Mastrangelo, C.H.; Modeling and characterization of sacrificial polysilicon etching using vapor-phase xenon difluoride , 17th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2004, pages 737-740.
  13. ^ Gagnon, Steve. It's Elemental - Xenon (English). Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Retrieved on 16, 2007. Retrieved on June 2007.
  14. ^ See http://pubs.acs.org/cen/80th/noblegases.html in its paragraph starting "Many recent findings".
  15. ^ Boulos, M.S.; Manuel, O.K. (1971). "The xenon record of extinct radioactivities in the Earth.". Science 174: 1334-1336. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

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Xenon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1215 words)
Xenon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble or inert gases.
Xenon and the other noble gases had for a long time been considered to be completely chemically inert and not able to form compounds.
Because xenon is heavier than air, the speed of sound in xenon is slower than that in air, and when inhaled, lowers the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract.
xenon - definition of xenon in Encyclopedia (685 words)
A colorless, very heavy, odorless noble gas, xenon occurs in the earth's atmosphere in trace amounts and was part of the first noble gas compound synthesized.
Xenon (Greek xenon meaning "stranger") was discovered in England by William Ramsay and Morris Travers in 1898 in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air.
Some of the xenon compounds are xenon difluoride, tetrafluoride, hexafluoride, hydrate, and deuterate, as well as sodium perxenate.
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