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Encyclopedia > Xanthine
ICD-10 E798
ICD-9 277.2
OMIM 278300 603592
DiseasesDB 14194 29821
eMedicine ped/2452

Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. Their effects, however, are widespread and their therapeutic range is narrow and so they are not the drug of choice in asthma treatment. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... chemical structure of xanthine; self produced. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals. ... A stimulant is a drug that increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or the feeling of being more awake. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ...

Methylated xanthine derivatives include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine (found mainly in chocolate). These drugs inhibit phosphodiesterase and antagonise adenosine. In biochemistry, methylation refers to the replacement of a hydrogen atom (H) with a methyl group (CH3), regardless of the substrate. ... Flash point N/A RTECS number EV6475000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Caffeine (sometimes called mateine when found in mate, and theine when found in tea) is a xanthine alkaloid found in the... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug and is used in therapy for respiratory diseases, under a variety of brand names. ... Theobromine is a bitter alkaloid of the methylxanthine family, which also includes the similar compounds theophylline and caffeine. ... Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. ... A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). ... Antagonists In medicine and biology, a receptor antagonist is a substance that inhibits the normal physiological function of a receptor. ... The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ...

The core compound, xanthine, is a product on the pathway of purine degradation and is converted to hypoxanthine by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Some people lack sufficient xanthine oxidase, and thus xanthine cannot be converted to uric acid. This rare genetic disorder is called xanthinuria. Those with the disease have unusually high concentrations of xanthine in their blood and urine, which can lead to health problems such as renal failure. There is no specific treatment; sufferers are advised by doctors to avoid foods high in purine and to maintain a high fluid intake. Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative, and one of the products of the action of xanthine oxidase on xanthine, though more normally in purine degradation, hypoxanthine is oxidized by xanthine oxidase to form xanthine. ... Xanthine Oxidase The enzyme xanthine oxidase, or XO, (bovine milk enzyme is PDB 1FIQ, EC 1. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused by abnormal expression of one or more genes in a person causing a clinical phenotype. ... Renal failure is the condition where the kidneys fail to function properly. ...

Xanthines are purine derivatives and found very rarely in constituents of nucleic acids. Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Schematic diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ...

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