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Encyclopedia > Xanana Gusmão
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President Xanana Gusmão

Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão (born June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. Events 1200-1899 1214 - University of Oxford receives its charter. 1685 - Monmouth Rebellion: The Duke of Monmouth declared himself King of England at Bridgwater. 1756 - English garrison imprisoned in... June 20, 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. (see link for calendar) Events January January 4 - Theodore Schurch becomes the last person to be executed for offences committed under the Treachery Act of 1940 January 7 - Allied recognize Austrian republic with 1937 borders - the country is divided into four occupation... 1946), born José Alexandre Gusmão, is the inaugural President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership (from Latin prae- before + sedere to sit). Originally, the term usually referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e. chairman); but... President of the small nation of The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... East Timor in Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. The name for the region was first coined in the 20th century. The subregion has 11 countries and the countries can be divided into the mainland and the archipelago. The mainland countries include: Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) Thailand Vietnam... Southeast Asia.


Gusmão was born to school-teacher parents in Manaututo in what was then Portuguese Timor is the former name (1596 - 1975) of East Timor when it was under Portuguese administration. During this period, Portugal shared Timor island with the Dutch East Indies and, after 1949, Indonesia. Portuguese Timor ceased to be called in that way in 1975, after the Indonesian invasion following the... Portuguese Timor, and attended a The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. It was founded in 1534 by a group of University of Paris graduate students led by Iñigo Lopez de Loyola (Ignatius of Loyola). Foundation On August 15, 1534, Ignatius and six... Jesuit high school just outside of Dili, also spelled Díli, Dilli or Dilly, is the capital of East Timor. It lies on the northern coast of Timor island, the easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Dili is the chief port and commercial centre for East Timor. It also has an airport, renamed after independence leader... Dili. After leaving high-school at the age of sixteen (for financial reasons), he worked a variety of unskilled jobs, although he continued his education at evening college. In 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). Events January-February January 4 - United States President Lyndon Johnson proclaims his Great Society during his State of the Union address. January 12 - Bodies of 2 15 year olds Christine Sharrock + Marrine Schmidt found... 1965, at the age of 19, he met Emilia Batista, who was later to become his wife.


In -1... 1966 Gusmão obtained a position with the public service, which allowed him to continue his education. This was interrupted in 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). Events Undated Booker Prize for Fiction is established by Booker plc. 1968 is known as the year of the Prague Spring and also the year of the Paris riots. The ASCII character code is... 1968 when Gusmão was recruited in the Portuguese army for national service. He served for three years, rising to the rank of corporal. During this time he married Emilia Batista, by whom he had two children, his son Eugenio, and daughter Zenilda. He has since divorced Emilia, now living in Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/ Oceania. It also includes a number of secondary islands, the largest of which is Tasmania, an Australian State. Australia is... Australia.


1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). Events January January 1 - British divorce Reform Act comes into force January 2 - 66 die in stairway crush at Rangers v Celtic football match, Glasgow, Scotland. See Ibrox disaster. January 2 - A ban on television cigarette advertisements... 1971 was a turning point for Gusmão. He completed his national service, his son was born, and he became involved with a nationalist organisation headed by José Ramos Horta. For the next three years he was actively involved in peaceful protests at the colonial system.


It was in 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). Events January-February January 5 - Dungeons & Dragons officially released. February 3 - Prisoners Riot in Bathurst jail Riots much of jail destoyed by fire February 4 - Patricia Hearst, the 19 year old granddaughter of publisher William Randolph... 1974 that a The Carnation Revolution ( Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was a bloodless left-leaning revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy at the end of a two-year process of a communist dominated... left-wing coup in Portugal resulted in the beginning of decolonisation for Portuguese Timor, and shortly afterwards the Governor Mário Lemos Pires announced plans to grant the colony independence. Plans were drawn up to hold general elections with a view to independence in 1978.


During most of 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). Events January January 1 - Watergate scandal: John N. Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman are found guilty of the Watergate cover-up and are sentenced to between 30 months and 8 years in... 1975 a bitter internal struggle occurred between two rival factions in Portuguese Timor. Gusmão became deeply involved with the Categories: East Timor | Politics stubs ... Fretilin faction, and as a result he was arrested and imprisoned by the rival faction the Timorese Democratic Union ( UDT can mean: The Underwater Demolition Teams the precursor to the current U.S. Navy SEALs. The Portuguese initials of the Timorese Democratic Union UDP-based Data Transfer in packet switched network communications. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... UDT) in mid-1975.


Taking advantage of the internal disorder, and with an eye to absorbing the colony, The Republic of Indonesia, the worlds largest archipelago, is located between the Southeast Asian peninsula and Australia, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the most populous Muslim-majority nation in the world and the fourth most populous overall. It has had free elections since the Indonesian 1998... Indonesia immediately began a campaign of destabilisation, and frequent raids into Portuguese Timor were staged from West Timor is a political region that comprises the western half of Timor island with the exception of Oecussi-Ambeno district (which is politically part of East Timor) and forms a part of the Indonesian province of Nusa Tenggara Timur, (NTT or East Nusa Tenggara). West Timors capital and... Indonesian Timor.


By late 1975 the Fretilin faction had gained control of Portuguese Timor and Gusmão was released. He was given the position of Press Secretary within the Fretilin organisation. On November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 33 days remaining. Events 1095 - On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appointed bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead... November 28, 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). Events January January 1 - Watergate scandal: John N. Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman are found guilty of the Watergate cover-up and are sentenced to between 30 months and 8 years in... 1975, Fretilin declared the independence of Portuguese Timor as "The Democratic Republic of East Timor", and Gusmão was responsible for filming the ceremony.


Nine days later Indonesia invaded East Timor. At the time Gusmão was visiting friends outside of Dili and he witnessed the invasion from the hills. For the next few days he searched for his family.


After the appointment of the "Provisional Government of East Timor" by Indonesia, Gusmão became heavily involved in resistance activities. Gusmão was largely responsible for the level of organisation that evolved in the resistance, which ultimately led to its success. The early days featured Gusmão walking from village to village to obtain support and recruits, however by the mid- Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise... 1980s he was a major leader.


During the early Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... 1990s Gusmão became heavily involved in diplomacy and media management, and was instrumental in alerting the world to the The Dili Massacre was the shooting of East Timorese protesters, in the Santa Cruz cemetery in the capital, Dili, on 12th November, 1991. The protesters, mainly students, launched their protest against Indonesian rule at the funeral of a fellow student, Sebastião Gomes, who had been shot dead by Indonesian... massacre that occurred in Santa Cruz on November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Changan, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days. 1028 - Future Byzantine empress Zoe marries Romanus Argyrus according to the wishes... November 12, 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991. Gusmão was interviewed by many major media channels and obtained worldwide attention.


As a result of his high profile, Gusmão became a prime target of the Indonesian government. A campaign for his capture was finally successful in November 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January - The Internet Society is formed. January 1 Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt replaces Javier Pérez de Cuéllar of Peru as United Nations Secretary-General George H. W. Bush becomes the first... 1992. In May, 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. Establishment of independent Slovakia and Czech Republic. January 3 - In Moscow, George H. W. Bush and... 1993, Gusmão was tried, convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment by the Indonesian Government. He was denied the right to a defence. Although not released until late 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. Events Kosovo War Shooting in Littleton, Colorado, United States, leaves several high school students dead. Y2K preparation was a major event in 1999 both in... 1999, Gusmão successfully led the resistance from within prison. During this time he was regularly visited by The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. With the notable exception of the Holy See/ Vatican City (which is the sole permanent observer state), all countries recognized by the CIA as first-level sovereign entities, are members. Other entities recognized... United Nations representatives, and dignitaries such as Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born 18 July 1918) is a former President of South Africa, was one of its chief anti-apartheid activists, and was also an anti-apartheid saboteur and guerrilla leader. He is now almost universally considered to be a heroic freedom fighter. He spent his childhood... Nelson Mandela.


On August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. Events 700-1899 711 - Kinich Kan Joy Chitam, king of Palenque, disappears from history. He was probably taken prisoner by a rivalling city state. 1574 - Guru Ram... August 30, 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. Events Kosovo War Shooting in Littleton, Colorado, United States, leaves several high school students dead. Y2K preparation was a major event in 1999 both in... 1999, a referendum was held in East Timor and an overwhelming majority voted for independence. The Indonesian military commenced a campaign of terror as a result, with terrible consequences. Although the Indonesian government denied ordering this offensive, they were widely condemned for failing to prevent it. As a result of overwhelming diplomatic pressure from the United Nations, and particularly the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States and Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/ Oceania. It also includes a number of secondary islands, the largest of which is Tasmania, an Australian State. Australia is... Australia, an Australian-led UN-peackeeping force entered East Timor, and Gusmão was finally released. Upon his return to Dili, he began a campaign of reconciliation and rebuilding.


Gusmão was appointed to a senior role in the UN administration that governed East Timor until 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated: International Year of Ecotourism and Mountains National Science Year in the United Kingdom Autism Awareness Year in the United Kingdom Events January Euro banknotes in circulation throughout the twelve countries of the European Union that... 2002. During this time he continually campaigned for unity and peace within East Timor, and was generally regarded as the de facto leader of the emerging nation. Elections were held in late 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, 2001 is also the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. Popular culture, however, often views the year 2000 as holding this distinction. 2001 is also the year... 2001 and Gusmão was comfortably elected leader. As a result he became the first President of East Timor when it became formally independent on May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). There are 225 days remaining. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea is held; the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church. 526 - An Earthquake kills about 300,000 people in Syria and... May 20, 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated: International Year of Ecotourism and Mountains National Science Year in the United Kingdom Autism Awareness Year in the United Kingdom Events January Euro banknotes in circulation throughout the twelve countries of the European Union that... 2002.


Gusmão has published an For music albums named Autobiography, see Greek eauton = self, bios = life and graphein = write) is a form of biography, the writing of a life story. The difference, of course, is point of view: an autobiography is from the viewpoint of its subject. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of... autobiography with selected writings entitled To Resist is to Win. He is now married to Kirsty Sword, an Australian who he met in prison in Jakarta, by whom he has one child, Alexandre.


In 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. Events Kosovo War Shooting in Littleton, Colorado, United States, leaves several high school students dead. Y2K preparation was a major event in 1999 both in... 1999 Gusmão was awarded the The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1985 by the European Parliament as a means to honour individuals or organizations who had dedicated their lives to the defence of human rights and freedoms. The Sakharov Prize is awarded... Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought.


In 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, however, this distinction falls to the year 2001. The year 2000 is... 2000 he was awarded the The Sydney Peace Prize is awarded by the Sydney Peace Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation associated with the University of Sydney. The Sydney Peace Prize is the only International Peace Prize awarded in Australia. The City of Sydney is a major supporter of the Sydney Peace Prize. This involves... Sydney Peace Prize for being "Courageous and principled leader for the independence of the East Timorese people".



Preceded by:
Francisco Xavier do Amaral is a former East Timorese politician. A founder of the Frente Revolucionaria de Timor Leste Independente (Fretilin), he was sworn in as President when the country, then a Portuguese colony, made a unilateral declaration of independence on November 28, 1975. Following the Indonesian invasion of the... Francisco Xavier do Amaral (1975 UDI government)
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... Presidents of East Timor
Succeeded by:
still in office



 
 

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