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Encyclopedia > X SAMPA

The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. It was designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet. The Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) is a computer-readable phonetic script using 7-bit printable ASCII characters, based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Christopher Wells, MA (Cantab), Ph. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Senate House, designed by Charles Holden home to the universitys central administration offices and its library The University of London is a federation of colleges which together constitute one of the worlds largest universities. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ...


The result is a SAMPA-inspired recasting of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII. There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...

Contents


Summary

Notes

  • The IPA symbols that are ordinary lower-case letters have the same value in X-SAMPA as they do in the IPA.
  • X-SAMPA uses a following backslash as an escape character to create a new symbol. For example O is a distinct sound from O, to which it bears no relation.
  • X-SAMPA diacritics follow the symbols they modify. Except for ~ for nasalization, = for syllabicity, and ` for retroflexion and rhotacization, diacritics are joined to the character with the underscore character _.
  • The underscore character is also used to encode the IPA tiebar.
  • The numbers _1 to _6 are reserved diacritics as shorthand for language-specific tone numbers.

In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the the tip of the tongue down and the back of the...

Lowercase symbols

XS IPA IPA Description Examples
a a Image:Xsampa-a.png open front unrounded vowel French dame [dam], Spanish padre ["padre]
b b Image:Xsampa-b.png voiced bilabial plosive English bed [bEd], French bon [bO~]
b_< ɓ Image:Xsampa-b lessthan.png voiced bilabial implosive  
c c Image:Xsampa-c.png voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian latyak [lAcAk]
d d Image:Xsampa-d.png voiced alveolar plosive English dig [dIg], French doigt [dwa]
d` ɖ Image:Xsampa-d'.png voiced retroflex plosive Svealand Swedish hord [hu:d`]
d_< ɗ Image:Xsampa-d lessthan.png voiced alveolar implosive  
e e Image:Xsampa-e.png close-mid front unrounded vowel French ses [se]
f f Image:Xsampa-f2.png voiceless labiodental fricative English five [faIv], French femme [fam]
g g Image:Xsampa-g.png voiced velar plosive English game [geIm], French longue [lO~g]
g_< ɠ Image:Xsampa-g lessthan.png voiced velar implosive  
h h Image:Xsampa-h.png voiceless glottal fricative English house [haUs]
h ɦ Image:Xsampa-hslash.png voiced glottal fricative  
i i Image:Xsampa-i.png close front unrounded vowel English be [bi:], French oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
j j Image:Xsampa-j2.png palatal approximant English yes [jEs], French yeux [j2]
j ʝ Image:Xsampa-jslash2.png voiced palatal fricative Greek γειά [ja]
k k Image:Xsampa-k.png voiceless velar plosive English cat [k{t], Spanish carro ["kar:o]
l l Image:Xsampa-l.png alveolar lateral approximant English lay [leI], French mal [mal]
l` ɭ Image:Xsampa-l'.png retroflex lateral approximant Svealand Swedish sorl [so:l`]
l ɺ Image:Xsampa-lslash.png alveolar lateral flap Japanese phoneme /r/
m m Image:Xsampa-m.png bilabial nasal English mouse [maUs], French homme [Om]
n n Image:Xsampa-n.png alveolar nasal English nap [n{p], French non [nO~]
n` ɳ Image:Xsampa-n'.png retroflex nasal Svealand Swedish hörn [h2:n`]
o o Image:Xsampa-o.png close-mid back rounded vowel French gros [gRo]
p p Image:Xsampa-p.png voiceless bilabial plosive English leap [li:p], French pose [poz], Spanish perro ["per:o]
p ɸ Image:Xsampa-pslash.png voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese fuku [pM_0kM], Scanian sju [p@}]
q q Image:Xsampa-q.png voiceless uvular plosive Arabic qasbah ["qQs_Gba]
r r Image:Xsampa-r.png alveolar trill Spanish perro ["per:o]
r` ɽ Image:Xsampa-r'.png retroflex flap  
r ɹ Image:Xsampa-rslash2.png alveolar approximant English red [rEd]
r` ɻ Image:Xsampa-rslash'.png retroflex approximant  
s s Image:Xsampa-s.png voiceless alveolar fricative English seem [si:m], French session [se.sjO~]
s` ʂ Image:Xsampa-s'.png voiceless retroflex fricative Svealand Swedish mars [mas`]
s ɕ Image:Xsampa-sslash.png voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative Polish świerszcz [svirStS]
t t Image:Xsampa-t.png voiceless alveolar plosive English too [tu:], French raté [Rate], Spanish tuyo [tujo]
t` ʈ Image:Xsampa-t'.png voiceless retroflex plosive Svealand Swedish mört [m2t`]
u u Image:Xsampa-u.png close back rounded vowel English boom [bu:m], Spanish su [su]
v v Image:Xsampa-v.png voiced labiodental fricative English vest [vEst], French voix [vwa]
v (or P) ʋ Image:Xsampa-Porvslash.png labiodental approximant  
w w Image:Xsampa-w2.png labial-velar approximant English west [wEst], French oui [wi]
x x Image:Xsampa-x.png voiceless velar fricative Scots loch [lQx]
x ɧ Image:Xsampa-xslash2.png voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative Swedish sjal [xA:l]
y y Image:Xsampa-y.png close front rounded vowel French tu [ty] German über [y"b@r]
z z Image:Xsampa-z.png voiced alveolar fricative English zoo [zu:], French azote [azOt]
z` ʐ Image:Xsampa-z'.png voiced retroflex fricative  
z ʑ Image:Xsampa-zslash.png voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Polish źrebak [zrEbak]

The open central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The open central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... File links The following pages link to this file: X-SAMPA Voiced bilabial implosive ... The voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Alveolar consonant X-SAMPA Voiced alveolar implosive Image:IPA-voiced dental implosive. ... The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The close-mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The close-mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The close front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The close front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in very many spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in very many spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... ... The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Alveolar consonant X-SAMPA Alveolar lateral flap ... The lateral alveolar flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... The close-mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Image:Xsampa-r. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in a few spoken languages, including Urdu, Hausa and Norwegian. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-other-symbols. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-other-symbols. ... The labial-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-other-symbols. ... The voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative (also called voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative, voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative and voiceless dorsovelar fricative) is a type of consonant sound, used in spoken languages, in certain variants and dialects of Swedish, where it is most often known as the sje-sound. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced alveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-other-symbols. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

Uppercase symbols

XS IPA IPA Description Example
A ɑ Image:Xsampa-A2.png open back unrounded vowel English father ["fA:D@(r)] (RP and Gen.Am.)
B β Image:Xsampa-B2.png voiced bilabial fricative  
B ʙ Image:Xsampa-Bslash.png bilabial trill Reminiscent of shivering ("brrr")
C ç Image:Xsampa-C2.png voiceless palatal fricative German ich [IC], English human ["Cum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
D ð Image:Xsampa-D2.png voiced dental fricative English then [DEn]
E ɛ Image:Xsampa-E2.png open-mid front unrounded vowel French même [mEm], English met [mEt]
F ɱ Image:Xsampa-F.png labiodental nasal English emphasis ["EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
G ɣ Image:Xsampa-G2.png voiced velar fricative Greek γωνία [Go"nia], Danish vælge [vElG@]
G ɢ Image:Xsampa-Gslash.png voiced uvular plosive  
G_< ʛ Image:Xsampa-Gslash lessthan.png voiced uvular implosive  
H ɥ Image:Xsampa-H.png labial-palatal approximant French huit [Hi]
H ʜ Image:Xsampa-Hslash.png voiceless epiglottal fricative  
I ɪ Image:Xsampa-I2.png near-close near-front unrounded vowel English kit [kIt]
I     central lax close unrounded vowel, not in IPA  
J ɲ Image:Xsampa-J.png palatal nasal Spanish año [aJo], English canyon ["k{J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J ɟ Image:Xsampa-Jslash.png voiced palatal plosive Hungarian egy [EJ]
J_< ʄ Image:Xsampa-Jslash lessthan.png voiced palatal implosive  
K ɬ Image:Xsampa-K2.png voiceless alveolar lateral fricative Welsh llaw [KaU_^]
K ɮ Image:Xsampa-Kslash.png voiced alveolar lateral fricative  
L ʎ Image:Xsampa-L2.png palatal lateral approximant Italian famiglia [famiLa], Castilian llamar [La"mar], English million ["mIL@n] (broad transcription uses [-lj-])
L ʟ Image:Xsampa-Lslash.png velar lateral approximant English phoneme /5/
M ɯ Image:Xsampa-M.png close back unrounded vowel Korean (eu)
M ɰ Image:Xsampa-Mslash.png velar approximant Spanish fuego [fweMo]
N ŋ Image:Xsampa-N2.png velar nasal English thing [TIN]
N ɴ Image:Xsampa-Nslash.png uvular nasal Japanese san [saN]
O ɔ Image:Xsampa-O2.png open-mid back rounded vowel British English thought [TO:t], American English off [O:f]
O ʘ Image:Xsampa-Oslash.png bilabial click  
P (or v) ʋ Image:Xsampa-Porvslash.png labiodental approximant Dutch phoneme /w/, allophone of English phoneme /r/
Q ɒ Image:Xsampa-Q.png open back rounded vowel British English lot [lQt]
R ʁ Image:Xsampa-R2.png voiced uvular fricative French roi [Rwa]
R ʀ Image:Xsampa-Rslash.png uvular trill German phoneme /r/
S ʃ Image:Xsampa-S2.png voiceless postalveolar fricative English ship [SIp]
T θ Image:Xsampa-T2.png voiceless dental fricative English thin [TIn]
U ʊ Image:Xsampa-U2.png near-close near-back rounded vowel English foot [fUt]
U     central lax close rounded vowel, not in IPA  
V ʌ Image:Xsampa-V.png open-mid back unrounded vowel English strut [strVt]
W ʍ Image:Xsampa-X.png voiceless labial-velar fricative Scots when [WEn]
X χ Image:Xsampa-x2.png voiceless uvular fricative Welsh bach [baX]
X ħ Image:Xsampa-Xslash.png voiceless pharyngeal fricative Arabic ha’ [X?]
Y ʏ Image:Xsampa-Y2.png near-close near-front rounded vowel German hübsch [hYpS]
Z ʒ Image:Xsampa-Z2.png voiced postalveolar fricative English vision ["vIZ@n]

IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The open back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The open-mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The labiodental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The voiced uvular implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labial-palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless epiglottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The near-close near-front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The palatal nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The voiced palatal implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Alveolar consonant X-SAMPA Alveolar lateral flap ... The velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The close back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The uvular nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The open-mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants found only in the Southern Khoisan family, the ‡Hõã language of Botswana, and the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The open back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The near-close near-back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The open-mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless labial-velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The near-close near-front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

Other symbols

XS IPA IPA Description Example
. . Image:Xsampa-fullstop.png syllable break  
" ˈ Image:Xsampa-doublequotes.png primary stress  
% ˌ Image:Xsampa-percentage.png secondary stress  
' (or _j) ʲ Image:Xsampa-'or j.png palatalized  
: ː Image:Xsampa-colon.png long  
: ˑ Image:Xsampa-colonslash.png half long Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths
-     separator  
@ ə Image:Xsampa-at.png schwa English banana [b@"nA:n@] (RP) or [b@"n{n@] (Gen.Am.)
@ ɘ Image:Xsampa-atslash.png close-mid central unrounded vowel  
{ æ Image:Xsampa-leftcurly.png near-open front unrounded vowel English trap [tr{p]
} ʉ Image:Xsampa-rightcurly.png close central rounded vowel Swedish sju [x}:]
1 ɨ Image:Xsampa-1.png close central unrounded vowel Welsh tu [t1], American English rose's [roUz1z]
2 ø Image:Xsampa-2.png close-mid front rounded vowel French deux [d2]
3 ɜ Image:Xsampa-3.png open-mid central unrounded vowel English nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3 ɞ Image:Xsampa-3slash.png open-mid central rounded vowel  
4 ɾ Image:Xsampa-4.png alveolar flap Spanish pero [pe4o], American English better ["bE4@`]
5 ɫ Image:Xsampa-l_eor5.png velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _e English milk [mI5k]
6 ɐ Image:Xsampa-6.png near-open central vowel German besser [bEs6], Australian English mud [m6d]
7 ɤ Image:Xsampa-7.png close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian kõik [k7ik], Occurs in Vietnamese
8 ɵ Image:Xsampa-8.png close-mid central rounded vowel Swedish buss [b8s]
9 œ Image:Xsampa-9.png open-mid front rounded vowel French neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
& ɶ Image:Xsampa-amper.png open front rounded vowel
? ʔ Image:Xsampa-questionmark.png glottal stop Danish stød [sd2?], Cockney English bottle ["bQ?l]
? ʕ Image:Xsampa-qmarkslash.png voiced pharyngeal fricative Arabic ayn
*     undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor"  
/     indeterminacy in French vowels  
<     begin nonsegmental notation (eg. SAMPROSA)  
< ʢ Image:Xsampa-lessthanslash.png voiced epiglottal fricative  
>     end nonsegmental notation  
> ʡ Image:Xsampa-greaterthanslash.png epiglottal plosive  
^ Image:Xsampa-hat.png upstep  
! Image:Xsampa-exclamation.png downstep  
! ǃ Image:Xsampa-exclamationslash.png postalveolar click  
|   Image:Xsampa-bar.png minor (foot) group  
| ǀ Image:Xsampa-barslash.png dental click  
||   Image:Xsampa-doublebar.png major (intonation) group  
|| ǁ Image:Xsampa-doublebarslash.png lateral alveolar click  
= ǂ Image:Xsampa-equalsslash.png palatal click  
- ̮ Image:Xsampa-dashslash.png linking mark  

IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... In linguistics and phonology, schwa is the tonally-neutral, mid-central unrounded vowel sound, exactly in the middle of the vowel chart. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close-mid central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The near-open front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close central rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close-mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The open-mid central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The open-mid central rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The alveolar flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... The velarized alveolar lateral approximant (also called dark l) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The near-open central vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close-mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The close-mid central rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The open-mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... The open front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-other-symbols. ... The voiced epiglottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-other-symbols. ... The epiglottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The postalveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The palatal click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ...

Diacritics

XS IPA IPA Description
_"   ̈ Image:Xsampa-_doublequotes.png centralized
_+   ̟ Image:Xsampa-_plus.png advanced
_-   ̠ Image:Xsampa-_minus.png retracted
_/ ˇ   rising tone
_0   ̥ Image:Xsampa-_0.png voiceless
_<     implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)
= (or _=)   ̩ Image:Xsampa-equalsor_equals.png syllabic
_> ʼ Image:Xsampa-_greaterthan.png ejective
_? ˤ Image:Xsampa-_questionslash.png pharyngealized
_ ˆ   falling tone
_^   ̯ Image:Xsampa-_hat.png non-syllabic
_}   ̚ Image:Xsampa-_rightcurly.png no audible release
` ˞ Image:Xsampa-'rhino.png rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
~ (or _~)   ̃ Image:Xsampa-tildor tild.png nasalization
_A   ̘ Image:Xsampa-_A.png advanced tongue root
_a   ̺ Image:Xsampa-_a2.png apical
_B   ̏ Image:Xsampa-_B.png extra low tone
_B_L   Image:Xsampa-_B_L.png low rising tone
_c   ̜ Image:Xsampa-_c.png less rounded
_d   ̪ Image:Xsampa-_d.png dental
_e   ̴ Image:Xsampa-_e.png velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5
<F>   Image:Xsampa-ltFgt.png global fall
_F   ̂ Image:Xsampa-_F.png falling tone
_G ˠ Image:Xsampa-_G.png velarized
_H   ́ Image:Xsampa-_H.png high tone
_H_T   Image:Xsampa-_H_T.png high rising tone
_h ʰ Image:Xsampa-_h.png aspirated
_j (or ') ʲ Image:Xsampa-'or_j.png palatalized
_k   ̰ Image:Xsampa-_k.png creaky voice
_L   ̀ Image:Xsampa-_L.png low tone
_l ˡ Image:Xsampa-_l.png lateral release
_M   ̄ Image:Xsampa-_M.png mid tone
_m   ̻ Image:Xsampa-_m.png laminal
_N   ̼ Image:Xsampa-_N.png linguolabial
_n Image:Xsampa-_n2.png nasal release
_O   ̹ Image:Xsampa_O.png more rounded
_o   ̞ Image:Xsampa-_o.png lowered
_q   ̙ Image:Xsampa-_q.png retracted tongue root
<R>   Image:Xsampa-ltRgt.png global rise
_R   ̌ Image:Xsampa-_R.png rising tone
_R_F   Image:Xsampa-_R_F.png rising falling tone
_r   ̝ Image:Xsampa-_r.png raised
_T   ̋ Image:Xsampa-_T.png extra high tone
_t   ̤ Image:Xsampa-_t.png breathy voice
_v   ̬ Image:Xsampa-_v.png voiced
_w ʷ Image:Xsampa-_w.png labialized
_X   ̆ Image:Xsampa-_X.png extra-short
_x   ̽ Image:Xsampa-_x.png mid-centralized

IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that doesnt have voicing. ... Implosive consonants are glottalic ingressive consonants, meaning that air is sucked into the mouth while pronouncing them rather than expelled out of the mouth via the lungs as in pulmonic consonants. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs). ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... A Unreleased stop is a stop consonants without audible release. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the the tip of the tongue down and the back of the... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... In phonetics, nasalization refers to a sound that is produced with a lowered velum so air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Apical, from the Latin APEX (plural apices), meaning to be at the apex or tip. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Dentals are consonants articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the flattened end of the tongue. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Linguolabials are consonants articulated by putting the tongue tip or tongue blade against the upper lip. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-vowels. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-suprasegmentals. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-diacritics. ...

Wikipedia usage

In Wikipedia the usage of IPA instead of X-SAMPA is recommended – see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation).


See also

The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) is a computer-readable phonetic script using 7-bit printable ASCII characters, based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). ... This is a concise version of SAMPA for MUTHER FUCKING English sounds. ... Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci. ... A acoustic phonetics affricate airstream mechanism allophone alveolar approximant alveolar consonant alveolar ejective fricative alveolar ejective alveolar flap alveolar nasal alveolar ridge alveolar trill alveolo-palatal consonant apical consonant approximant consonant articulatory phonetics aspiration auditory phonetics B back vowel bilabial click bilabial consonant bilabial ejective bilabial nasal bilabial trill breathy...

External links

  • Computer-coding the IPA: A proposed extension of SAMPA
  • X-SAMPA to IPA comparison chart
  • Online converter between IPA and X-Sampa

 
 

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