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Encyclopedia > XML Paper Specification
XML Paper Specification (XPS)

The XPS Viewer application displaying a printout of the Wikipedia front page
File extension: .xps
MIME type: application/vnd.ms-xpsdocument
Developed by: Microsoft

The XML Paper Specification (XPS), formerly codenamed "Metro", is a specification for a page description language and a fixed-document format developed by Microsoft. It is an XML-based (more precisely XAML-based) specification, based on a new print path and a color-managed vector-based document format which supports device independence and resolution independence. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 564 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (640 × 680 pixel, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ... Look up mime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... A page description language (PDL) is a language that describes the contents of a printed page in a higher level than an actual output bitmap. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML, pronounced zammel ()) by Microsoft is a declarative XML-based language used to initialize structured values and objects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Vector monitor be merged into this article or section. ... Device Independence is a special track of the W3C. Its aim is for a unified web which is accessible from many types of devices. ... Resolution independence in Mac OS X Tiger in iWeb. ...

Contents

Technology

Intended as the replacement for the Enhanced Metafile (EMF) format which was the previously used print spooler format in the GDI print path [1], the XPS document format is the same as the spooler format used in the XPS print path. It serves as the page description language (PDL) for printers. For printers supporting XPS, this eliminates an intermediate conversion to a printer-specific language, increasing the reliability and fidelity of the printed output. Windows Metafile (WMF) is a graphics file format on Microsoft Windows systems, originally designed in the early 1990s and not commonly used after the rise of the Internet and the widely used graphics formats such as GIF and JPEG. It is a vector graphics format which also allows the inclusion... In computer science, spooling is an acronym for simultaneous peripheral operations on-line (although this is thought by some to be a backronym). ... In computer science, spooling refers to process of communicating data to another program by placing it in a temporary working area, where the other program can access it at some later point in time. ... A page description language (PDL) is a language that describes the contents of a printed page in a higher level than an actual output bitmap. ...


The document format consists of structured XML markup that defines the layout of a document and the visual appearance of each page, along with rendering rules for distributing, archiving, rendering, processing and printing the documents. Notably, the markup language for XPS is a subset of XAML, allowing it to incorporate vector-graphic elements in documents, using XAML to mark up the WPF primitives. The elements used are described in terms of paths and other geometrical primitives. XAML (short for Extensible Application Markup Language, and pronounced Zammel) is a declarative XML-based language used to define objects and their properties, relationships and interactions. ... It has been suggested that Vector monitor be merged into this article or section. ... Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML, pronounced zammel ()) by Microsoft is a declarative XML-based language used to initialize structured values and objects. ...


An XPS file is in fact a ZIP archive using the Open Packaging Convention, which contains the files which make up the document. These include an XML markup file for each page, text, embedded fonts, raster images, 2D vector graphics, as well as the digital rights management information. The contents of an XPS file can be examined simply by renaming it as a ZIP file and then opening it in an application which supports ZIP files. The ZIP file format is a popular data compression and archival format. ... The open packaging convention (OPC) is a file packaging format created by Microsoft for storing a combination of XML and non-XML files that together form a single entity like an XML Paper Specification (XPS) document in a single compressed file container. ... ODTTF is an embedded font file type used in Microsofts XML Paper Specification (XPS) and Microsoft Office 2007 formats. ... It has been suggested that Vector monitor be merged into this article or section. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and other copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...


Features

As the document format is the same as the spooler format in the XPS print path, XPS encapsulates an exact representation of the printed output. It has support for advanced printing features such as gradients, transparencies, CMYK color spaces, printer calibration, multiple-ink systems and print schemas. XPS supports the Windows Color System color management technology for better color conversion precision across devices and higher dynamic range. It also includes a software raster image processor (RIP) which is downloadable separately. [2] The print subsystem also has support for named colors, simplifying color definition for images transmitted to printers supporting those colors. For other uses, see Gradient (disambiguation). ... Transparency is possible in a number of graphics file formats. ... Cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black) CMYK (or sometimes YMCK) is a subtractive color model used in color printing. ... A comparison of different color spaces. ... The aim of Color calibration is to adjust the colours of one output device to match that of another. ... The word schema comes from the Greek word σχήμα (skhēma) that means shape or more generally plan. ... Screenshot of the Color Management control panel which is used to configure Windows Color System settings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A raster image processor (RIP) is a component used in a printing system which produces a bitmap. ... Indexed color is a type of color space for digital images. ...


XPS also supports HD Photo images natively for raster images. [3] The XPS print path can automatically calibrate color profile settings with those being used by the display subsystem. Conversely, XPS print drivers can express the configurable capabilities of the printer, by virtue of the XPS PrintCapabilities class, to enable more fine-grained control of print settings, tuned to the individual printing device. HD Photo (formerly Windows Media Photo) is a still image compression algorithm and file format for continuous tone photographic images, developed by Microsoft as a part of the Windows Media family. ... It has been suggested that Color Matching Method be merged into this article or section. ... In object-oriented programming, a class is a programming language construct that is used to group related instance variables and methods. ...


Applications which use the Windows Presentation Foundation for the display elements can directly print to the XPS print path without the need for image or colorspace conversion. The XPS format used in the spool file represents advanced graphics effects such as 3D images, glow effects, and gradients as Windows Presentation Foundation primitives, which are processed by the printer drivers without rasterization, preventing rendering artifacts and reducing computational load. When the legacy GDI Print Path is used, the XPS spool file is used for processing before it is converted to a GDI image to minimize the processing done at raster level. This subsystem is a part of . ... Rasterization or rasterisation is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer. ... The Graphics Device Interface (GDI, sometimes called Graphical Device Interface) is one of the three core components or subsystems, together with the kernel and the user (window manager), of Microsoft Windows. ... In computer science, spooling is an acronym for simultaneous peripheral operations on-line (although this is thought by some to be a backronym). ...


Similarities with PDF

Like Adobe's PDF format, XPS is a fixed-layout document format [4] designed to preserve document fidelity, so that documents look the same and as they are intended on any device. PDF is based on PostScript whereas XPS is based on XML. XPS is also the spool file format for printers, like PostScript is. Owing to such similarities, XPS is viewed as a potential competitor to PDF. However, PDF includes dynamic capabilities not supported by the XPS format.[5] Renewal of the surface coating of an adobe wall in Chamisal, New Mexico Adobe is a natural building material composed of sand, sandy clay and straw or other organic materials, which is shaped into bricks using wooden frames and dried in the sun. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ...


Microsoft has submitted the XPS specification to the ISO. [6] “ISO” redirects here. ...


Viewing and creating XPS documents

Because the printing architecture of Windows Vista uses XPS as the spooler format [4], it has native support for generating and reading XPS documents. [7] XPS documents can be created by printing to the virtual XPS printer driver. The XPS Viewer is installed by default in Windows Vista. The viewer is hosted within Internet Explorer 7. This Internet Explorer-hosted viewer is also available to Windows XP users when they download the .NET Framework 3.0. For users who do not wish to view XPS documents in the browser, they can download the XPS Essentials Pack which includes a standalone viewer. The XPS Essentials Pack is available for both, Windows XP as well as Windows Vista. [8] A virtual printer is a piece of computer software whose user interface and API resemble that of a printer driver, but which is not connected with a physical computer printer. ... In computers, a printer driver or a print processor is a piece of software that converts the data to be printed to the form specific to a printer. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Internet Explorer 7 is a web browser released by Microsoft in late 2006 for Windows Vista and XP SP2. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... The Microsoft . ...


Third party support

Hardware

XPS has the support of printing companies such as Sharp,[9] Canon, Epson, Hewlett-Packard[10] and Xerox[11] and software and hardware companies such as Software Imaging[12], Pagemark Technology Inc.[13], Informative Graphics Corp. (IGC)[14], NiXPS NV[15], Zoran[16] and Global Graphics.[17] Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 , LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... Canon Inc. ... A four colour Epson Stylus C45 inkjet printer Epson is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of inkjet, dot-matrix and laser printers, scanners, desktop computers, business, multimedia and home theatre projectors, point of sale docket printers and cash registers, laptops, integrated circuits, LCD components and other associated electronic... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Ulan is the sister of Astro Boy. ... Global Graphics SA is a group of companies mainly known (in 2007) for their digital printing products, including the Harlequin and Jaws RIPs. ...


Microsoft has indicated that devices aiming at Certified for Windows Vista level of Windows Logo conformance certificate will be required to have XPS drivers for printing by June 1, 2007.[18] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Software

  • NiXPS is a commercial application for viewing and printing XPS files on Mac OS X and Windows.[19]
  • Outside Software Inc offer a .NET library for developers called ExpertXPS that can generate XPS files on the fly. [20].

Licensing

In order to encourage wide use of the format, Microsoft has released XPS under a royalty-free patent license, allowing users to create implementations of the specification that read, write and render XPS files as long as you include a notice within the source that technologies implemented may be encumbered by patents held by Microsoft. Microsoft also requires that organizations "engaged in the business of developing (i) scanners that output XPS Documents; (ii) printers that consume XPS Documents to produce hard-copy output; or (iii) print driver or raster image software products or components thereof that convert XPS Documents for the purpose of producing hard-copy output, you covenant that you and your affiliates will not sue Microsoft or any of its licensees under the XML Paper Specification or customers for infringement of any XML Paper Specification Derived Patents (as defined below) on account of any manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, importation or other disposition or promotion of any XML Paper Specification implementations." The specification itself is released under a royalty-free copyright license, allowing its free distribution.[21]


See also

Windows Vista (formerly codenamed Windows Longhorn) has many significant new features compared with previous Microsoft Windows versions, covering most aspects of the operating system. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... XSL Formatting Objects, or XSL-FO, is an XML markup language for document formatting. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... Microsoft Silverlight (code-named Windows Presentation Foundation/Everywhere or WPF/E) is a proprietary runtime for browser-based Rich Internet Applications, providing a subset of the animation, vector graphics, and video playback capabilities of Windows Presentation Foundation. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

References

  1. ^ XPS and Color Printing Enhancements in Microsoft Windows Vista
  2. ^ Reference Raster Image Processor (RIP)
  3. ^ HD Photo information on Microsoft Photography team blog
  4. ^ a b Microsoft Readies New Document Printing Specification
  5. ^ Comparison of PDF, XPS and ODF by an ISV providing PDF solutions
  6. ^ War and PDF: Microsoft submits XPS to standards body
  7. ^ XPS Documents in Windows Vista
  8. ^ View and generate XPS documents
  9. ^ Sharp Open Systems Architecture supports XPS in multi-function printers
  10. ^ IT Week 10 November 2006, Canon, Epson and HP support for XPS
  11. ^ Fuji Xerox and Microsoft Collaborate in Document Management Solutions Field
  12. ^ http://softwareimaging.com/xps
  13. ^ http://www.pagemarktechnology.com
  14. ^ http://www.infograph.com/press/igcmsxps.htm
  15. ^ http://nixps.com
  16. ^ http://www.zoran.com/IPS-XPS
  17. ^ http://www.globalgraphics.com/xps/index.html
  18. ^ http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/winlogo/hwrequirements.mspx
  19. ^ NiXPS Macintosh/Windows Cross-platform Software
  20. ^ ExpertXPS .NET Library
  21. ^ XML Paper Specification Licensing, Microsoft. Retrieved on June 8, 2006.

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