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Encyclopedia > X86 architecture
Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others.
Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others.
AMD Athlon (early version), another, technically different, but fully compatible x86 implementation.
AMD Athlon (early version), another, technically different, but fully compatible x86 implementation.

The generic term x86 refers to the "CISC" type instruction set (architecture) of the most commercially successful CPUs (unlike "microarchitecture" referring to CPU's layout) in the history of personal computing, used in processors from Intel, AMD, VIA, and others. It derived from the model numbers of the first few generations of CPUs, binary compatible backward with Intel's original 16-bit 8086 of 1978, most of which were ending in "86"[1]. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Northwood core Pentium 4 processor. ... Northwood core Pentium 4 processor. ... Download high resolution version (1294x627, 174 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1294x627, 174 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a microprocessor instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... Microarchitecture consists of a set of microprocessor design techniques used to implement the instruction set (including microcode, pipelining, cache systems, etc. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... In computer software, an application binary interface (ABI) describes the low-level interface between an application program and the operating system, between an application and its libraries, or between component parts of the application. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ...


After the introduction of 80386 in 1985, the x86 term also implied, in practice, a binary compatibility with the 80386's extended 32-bit instruction set – sometimes emphasized as x86-32 to distinguish it either from the original 16-bit x86-16 or from the newer 64-bit x86-64 instruction sets. The x86 term usually implies the 32-bit x86-32 instruction set, while the x86-64 term (used especially in reference to 64-bit processors[2]) is generally substituted by the x64 name (exclusive for 64-bit software[3]) at least in personal computing and servers[4]. The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... IA-32, sometimes generically called x86 or even x86-32. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Look up server in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The only significant competitors to x86 in PCs were the Motorola 68k, CISC type, and the PowerPC, RISC type, instruction sets. However, by August 7, 2006, Apple Inc. switched to x86 CPUs granting the x86 instruction set an effective monopoly among desktop and notebook processors. The x86 also held a growing majority among servers and workstations. Markets without a significant x86 presence include low cost embedded processors found in appliances and toys, among others.[5] The term personal computer or PC has three meanings: IBMs range of PCs that led to the use of the term - see IBM PC. Any computer based on IBMs original specifications also known as IBM PC compatible. ... Motorola Inc. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. ... A Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) is an instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can indicate several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Inc. ... The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... The word appliance has several different areas of meaning, all usually referring to a device with a narrow function: One class of objects includes items that are custom-fitted to an individual for the purpose of correction of a physical or dental problem, such as prosthetic, orthotic appliances and dental...


Countless computer software is written for the x86 platform – including nearly all modern commercial operating systems from MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows to Linux, BSD, Solaris OS, and Mac OS X – making the x86 instruction set architecture indispensable on a global scale, and practically irreplaceable. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), describes the aspects of a computer architecture visible to a programmer, including the native datatypes, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O (if any). ...

Contents

Chronology

The table below lists brands of famous[6] x86 (instruction set) consumer targeted processors grouped by generations. Note: A definition of CPU generation is not strict. Each generation is roughly marked by significantly improved and commercially successful processor microarchitecture designs. It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... Microarchitecture consists of a set of microprocessor design techniques used to implement the instruction set (including microcode, pipelining, cache systems, etc. ...

Generation Introduction Prominent CPU brands Addressing Notable features
1 (IA-16) 1978 Intel 8086, Intel 8088, Intel 80186, NEC V20 16-bit First x86 microprocessors
2 1982 Intel 80286 16-bit built-in MMU
3 (IA-32) 1985 Intel386, AMD Am386 32-bit IA-32 instruction set, MMU with paging
4 1989 Intel486 32-bit Instruction pipeline, integrated FPU, integrated cache
5 1993 Pentium, AMD K5, AMD K6 32-bit Superscalar, 64-bit bus, MMX
6 1995 Pentium Pro, Pentium II, AMD K6-2, Cyrix 6x86, Pentium III 32-bit RISC core, L2 cache, superpipelining, SSE
6-M 2003 Pentium M 32-bit low power,
7 (IA-32, X86-64) 1999 Athlon, Athlon XP, Pentium 4, Pentium D 32-bit, 64-bit SSE2, SSE3, Hyper-Threading
7-M 2006 Intel Core 32-bit dual-core
8 (X86-64) 2003 Athlon 64, Intel Core 2, AMD K10 64-bit x86-64 instruction set, multi-core

IA-16 refers to Intel Architecture, 16-bit The 16-bit chips established the x86 lineage, and were mostly code compatible with the progenitors of the family, the IA-8 8-bit chips. ... The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... An Intel 80186 Microprocessor The 80186 architecture. ... The NEC V20 was a processor made by NEC that featured approximately 29,000 transistors. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... The Intel386[1] is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 2007. ... AMD Am386DX-40 CPU The Am386 CPU was released by AMD in 1991. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... Intel i486 DX2- top view The Intel i486 (also called 486 or 80486) is a range of Intel CISC microprocessors which is part of the Intel x86 family of processors. ... Basic five-stage pipeline in a RISC machine (IF = Instruction Fetch, ID = Instruction Decode, EX = Execute, MEM = Memory access, WB = Register write back) An instruction pipeline is a technique used in the design of computers and other digital electronic devices to increase their performance. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... K5 core diagram AMD 5K86-P90 (SSA/5) AMD K5 PR166 The K5 was AMDs first in-house processor, developed to compete with Intels Pentium microprocessor range. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... Simple superscalar pipeline. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor (P6 core) produced by Intel and was originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of applications, but later, was reduced to a more narrow role as a server and high-end desktop chip. ... Intel Pentium II Logo The Pentium II is an x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on May 7, 1997. ... The K6-2 was an x86 microprocessor manufactured by AMD, available in speeds ranging from 266 to 550 MHz. ... The Cyrix 6x86 is a sixth-generation, 32-bit 80x86-compatible microprocessor designed by Cyrix and manufactured by IBM and SGS-Thomson. ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... Basic five-stage pipeline in a RISC machine (IF = Instruction Fetch, ID = Instruction Decode, EX = Execute, MEM = Memory access, WB = Register write back) An instruction pipeline is a technique used in the design of computers and other digital electronic devices to increase their performance. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... SSE2, Streaming Single Instruction, Multiple Data Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD instruction sets, first introduced by Intel with the initial version of the Pentium 4 in 2001. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... It has been suggested that Intel Pentium Dual Core be merged into this article or section. ... A Dual-core CPU combines two independent processors and their respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon die, or integrated circuit. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003. ... The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intels consumer dual-core and quad-core (2x2) 64-bit x86 CPUs based on the Intel Core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah laptop processor. ... The AMD K10 is AMDs next generation of processors. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... A dual-core CPU combines two independent processors and their respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon chip, or integrated circuit. ...

History

The x86 architecture first appeared in the Intel 8086 CPU released in 1978, as a fully 16-bit design based on the earlier instruction set of the Intel 8085. Although not binary compatible with the 8085, the 8086 was designed to allow assembly language programs written for the 8085 be mechanically translated into the equivalent 8086 assembly. This made the 8086 a tempting migration path aim for the 8085 hardware and software vendors, but – due to the 16-bit databus – not without significant redesign of the 8085 system hardware. To reduce such a redesign need, Intel introduced the 8088, which external 8-bit databus more easily interfaced to already established, and therefore low-cost, 8-bit system and peripheral chips. This – and other, non technical factors – encouraged IBM to build their IBM PC around the 8088, despite a presence (at the time) of technically superior competitors, like the Motorola 68000. Subsequently, the IBM PC became a dominant personal computer platform, and the 8088 (8086) and its successors became a dominant CPU for desktop and laptop computers making their (named later as x86) instruction set architecture dominant as well. The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... In computer software, an application binary interface (ABI) describes the low-level interface between an application program and the operating system, between an application and its libraries, or between component parts of the application. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... PCI Express bus card slots (from top to bottom: x4, x16, x1 and x16), compared to a traditional 32-bit PCI bus card slot (bottom) In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers, and a bus... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32-bit CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ...


At various times, companies such as IBM, NEC, AMD, TI, STM, Fujitsu, OKI, Siemens, Cyrix, Intersil, C&T, NexGen, and UMC started to design and/or manufacture processors, which implemented the x86 instruction set architecture (but in varying CPU hardware designs, called "microarchitectures", and so-called "compatible" with the original) and were intended for personal computers as well as embedded systems. For the personal computer market, real quantities started to appear around 1990 with 386 and 486 compatible processors, often named similarly to Intel's original chips. Other companies, which designed or manufactured x86 or x87 processors, include ITT Corporation, National Semiconductor, ULSI Systems, and Weitek. For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... NEC Corporation (Japanese: Nippon Denki Kabushiki Gaisha; TYO: 6701 , NASDAQ: NIPNY) is a Japanese multinational IT company headquartered in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... STMicroelectronics is an international leading supplier of semiconductors. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... Oki (隠岐国; -no kuni) was an old province of Japan which consisted of Oki Islands in the Sea of Japan, located off the coast of Izumo and Hoki provinces. ... Siemens has the following uses: Siemens is a German family name carried by generations of the telecommunications industrialists, including Werner von Siemens, Sir William Siemens, Wilhelm von Siemens and Peter von Siemens Siemens AG is a German electrical and telecommunications company, founded as a telegraph equipment manufacturer by Werner von... Cyrix was a CPU manufacturer that began in 1988 in Richardson, TX as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ... Intersil Corporation NASDAQ: ISIL produces integrated circuits and semiconductors. ... Chips and Technologies was the first fabless semiconductor company, a model developed by its founder Gordon Campbell. ... A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ... UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) was founded in 1980, as Taiwans first Semiconductor company. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... Microarchitecture consists of a set of microprocessor design techniques used to implement the instruction set (including microcode, pipelining, cache systems, etc. ... A family of computer models is said to be compatible if certain software that runs on one of the models can also be run on all other models of the family. ... Referrs to math-related instruction subset of Intel X86 family line of processors. ... For other uses, see ITT (disambiguation). ... Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... Weitek Corporation was a former chip-design company that originally concentrated on floating point units for a number of commercial CPU designs. ...


Following the fully pipelined i486, Intel introduced the Pentium brand name (which could be trademarked, unlike numbers) for their new line of superscalar x86 designs. With the 80x86 naming scheme now legally cleared, IBM partnered with Cyrix to produce the 5x86 and then the very efficient 6x86 (M1) and 6x86MX (MII) lines of Cyrix designs, which were the first x86 (instruction set architecture) chips implementing register renaming to enable speculative execution. AMD meanwhile designed and manufactured the advanced but delayed 5k86 (K5), heavily based on their earlier 29K RISC type (hardware) microarchitecture. Like NexGen's Nx586, it used a strategy where dedicated pipeline stages decode x86 instructions into uniform and easily handled micro-operations, a method that has remained standard to this day. Intel i486 DX2- top view The Intel i486 (also called 486 or 80486) is a range of Intel CISC microprocessors which is part of the Intel x86 family of processors. ... Intel redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Simple superscalar pipeline. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Cyrix was a CPU manufacturer that began in 1988 in Richardson, TX as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ... 5x86 may refer to: Cyrix Cx5x86, computer chip made by Cyrix Am5x86, 486 computer chip made by AMD x86 for a more general explanation of this line of chips. ... The Cyrix 6x86 is a sixth-generation, 32-bit 80x86_compatible microprocessor designed by Cyrix and manufactured by IBM and SGS_Thomson. ... The Cyrix 6x86 is a sixth-generation, 32-bit 80x86_compatible microprocessor designed by Cyrix and manufactured by IBM and SGS_Thomson. ... For other uses of the word Mii and the acronym MII, see MII. A Mii (IPA: []) is a digital avatar created by Nintendo for the Wiis Mii Channel. ... Cyrix was a CPU manufacturer that began in 1988 in Richardson, TX as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ... In computer engineering, register renaming refers to a technique used to avoid unnecessary serialization of program operations imposed by the reuse of registers by those operations. ... In computer science, speculative execution is the execution of code whose result may not actually be needed. ... K5 core diagram AMD 5K86-P90 (SSA/5) AMD K5 PR166 The K5 was AMDs first in-house processor, developed to compete with Intels Pentium microprocessor range. ... K5 or K-5 may be: the complete graph on five vertices AMD K5 CPU chip released in the 1990s Chevrolet K5 Blazer Daewoo K5 pistol , used by the South Korean police and military Gasherbrum I, 11th highest mountain peak HMS K5, a Royal Navy submarine sunk in 1921 Kerberos... AMD 29000 Microprocessor The AMD 29000, often simply 29k, was a popular family of RISC-based 32-bit microprocessors and microcontrollers from Advanced Micro Devices. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ... A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ... Micro-operations, also known as a micro-ops or μops, are simple, RISC-like microprocessor instructions used by some CISC processors to implement more complex instructions. ...


Some early versions of these competitors' chips had heat dissipation problems. The 6x86 was also affected by a few minor compatibility issues, and the Nx586 lacked an FPU as well as (the then crucial) pin-compatibility, while the K5 had somewhat disappointing performance when it was (eventually) launched. A low customer awareness of alternatives to the Pentium line further contributed to these designs being comparatively unsuccessful, despite the fact that the K5 had very good Pentium compatibility and the 6x86 was significantly faster than the Pentium on integer code.[7] On the other hand, AMD later established itself as a serious contender with the K6 line of processors, which gave way to the highly successful Athlon and Opteron. There were also other contenders, such as Centaur Technology, (IDT), Rise Technology, and Transmeta. VIA Technologies' energy efficient C3 and C7 processors were designed by Centaur and are in full production today. A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a CPU specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... K5 or K-5 may be: the complete graph on five vertices AMD K5 CPU chip released in the 1990s Chevrolet K5 Blazer Daewoo K5 pistol , used by the South Korean police and military Gasherbrum I, 11th highest mountain peak HMS K5, a Royal Navy submarine sunk in 1921 Kerberos... K5 or K-5 may be: the complete graph on five vertices AMD K5 CPU chip released in the 1990s Chevrolet K5 Blazer Daewoo K5 pistol , used by the South Korean police and military Gasherbrum I, 11th highest mountain peak HMS K5, a Royal Navy submarine sunk in 1921 Kerberos... The Cyrix 6x86 is a sixth-generation, 32-bit 80x86_compatible microprocessor designed by Cyrix and manufactured by IBM and SGS_Thomson. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... The AMD Opteron was the AMDs x86 server processor line, and the first processors to implement the AMD64 (also known as x86-64) instruction set architecture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... IDT was founded in 1980 as a semiconductor vendor. ... The Rise mP6-PR266 microprocessor. ... Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops computing technologies with a focus on reducing power consumption in electronic devices. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... The VIA C3 is an x86 central processing unit for personal computers produced by VIA Technologies. ... VIA C7 Logo The VIA C7 is an x86 central processing unit for personal computers designed by Centaur Technology and sold by VIA Technologies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The architecture has twice been extended to a larger word size. In 1985, Intel released the 32-bit 386 to gradually replace the earlier 16-bit chips (which were sold for many more years). This extension to the architecture is sometimes called x86-32 to differentiate it from the original "x86-16" or the newer x86-64 extension. However, it was originally referred to as i386 by Intel (and others) and later renamed IA-32 (for Intel Architecture-32-bit) when Intel unveiled its unrelated 64-bit Itanium architecture, referred to as IA-64. In 1999-2003, AMD further extended the architecture to 64 bits, originally called x86-64 in AMD documents, but now AMD64. Intel soon adopted AMD's architectual extensions under the name IA-32e which was later renamed EM64T and finally Intel 64 (no to be confused with the unrelated IA-64 architecture). Microsoft and Sun Microsystems have used their own vendor-neutral x64 for this same x86-64 architecture. In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... “AMD” redirects here. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMDs AMD64 architecture, an extension to the IA-32 instruction set which adds 64 bit extensions to the x86 architecture. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... x86-64 is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set; it is a superset of the Intel x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... x64 is Microsoft Corporations marketing designation for the Advanced Micro Devices AMD64 and Intel EM64T 64-bit Instruction Set Extensions to the x86 architecture, which were substantially similar as of 2004. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...


Design

This section assumes some knowledge in assembly programming and computer architecture. Readers not interested in those details may skip these parts. It has been suggested that Assembler be merged into this article or section. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ...


Technical overview

The x86 architecture is a variable instruction length, primarily two-address, "CISC" design with emphasis on backward compatibility. The instruction set is not typical CISC however, but basically an extended and orthogonalized version of the simple eight-bit 8085 architecture. Words are stored in little-endian order and 16-bit and 32-bit accesses are allowed to unaligned memory addresses. To conserve opcode space, most register-addresses are three bits, and at most one operand can be in memory (in contrast with some highly orthogonal CISC designs such as PDP-11 where both operands can be in memory), but this memory operand may also be the destination, while the other operand, the source, can be either register or immediate. This contributes, among other factors, to a code footprint that rivals 8-bit machines and enables efficient use of instruction cache memory. During execution, current x86 processors employ a few extra decoding steps to split most instructions into smaller pieces, micro-ops, which are readily executed by a micro-architecture that could be (simplistically) described as a RISC-machine without the usual load/store limitations. The small number of general registers (also inherited from 8085) has made register-relative addressing (using small immediate offsets) an important method of accessing operands, especially on the stack. Much work has therefore been invested in making such accesses as fast as register accesses, i.e. a one cycle instruction throughput in most circumstances. A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a microprocessor instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... A Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) is an instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can indicate several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... In computer science and computer engineering, a microarchitecture (sometime abbreviated to µarch or uarch) is the design and layout of a microprocessor, microcontroller, or digital signal processor. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ...


Segmentation

Minicomputers during the late 1970s were running up against the 16-bit 64-KB address limit, as memory had become cheaper. Most such companies therefore redesigned their processors to directly handle 32-bit addressing and data. The original 8086, developed from the simple 8085 microprocessor and primarily aiming at another market, instead adopted a much-criticized concept of segment registers which raised the memory address limit by only 4 bits, to 20 bits (1 megabyte). A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ...


Data and/or code could be managed within "near" 16-bit segments within this 1 MB address space, or a compiler could operate in a "far" mode using 32-bit segment:offset pairs reaching (only) 1 MB. While that would also prove to be quite limiting by the mid-1980s, it was working for the emerging PC market, and made it very simple to translate software from the older 8080, 8085, and Z80 to the newer processor. Seven years later, in 1985, this cumbersome addressing model was effectively factored out by the introduction of 32-bit offset registers, in the 386 design. MB, Mb, mB or mb may mean: Mb (digraph) Megabit (1,000,000 bits) or mebibit (220 = 1,048,576 bits); the preferred symbols are Mb and Mibit, respectively¹ Megabyte (1,000,000 bytes) or mebibyte (220 = 1,048,576 bytes); the preferred symbols are MB and MiB, respectively¹ MB... The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. ... Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them. ...


The original 8086 and 8088

The original Intel 8086 and 8088 have fourteen 16-bit registers. Four of them (AX, BX, CX, DX) are general registers (although each have an additional purpose; for example only CX can be used as a counter with the loop instruction). Each can be accessed as two separate bytes (thus BX's high byte can be accessed as BH and low byte as BL). Four segment registers (CS, DS, SS and ES) are used to form a memory address. There are two pointer registers. SP points to the bottom of the stack and BP which is used to point at some other place in the stack or the memory(Offset). Two registers (SI and DI) are for array indexing.The FLAGS register contains flags such as carry flag, overflow flag and zero flag. Finally, the instruction pointer (IP) points to the current instruction. The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to frequently used values—typically, these values are involved in multiple expression evaluations occurring within a small region on the program. ... The FLAGS register is a special register in Intel x86 microprocessors that contains the current state of the processor. ... In computer programming, flag refers to one or more bits that are used to store a binary value or code that has an assigned meaning. ... In computer processors carry flag is a single bit in a system status (flag) register used to indicate when an arithmetic carry or borrow has been generated out of the most significant ALU bit position. ... In computer processors, the overflow flag is usually a single bit in a system status register used to indicate when an arithmetic overflow has occurred in an operation. ...


The 8086 has 64 KB of 8-bit (or alternatively 32 K-word of 16-bit) I/O space, and a 64 KB (one segment) stack in memory supported by hardware. Only words (2 bytes) can be pushed to the stack. The stack grows downwards (toward numerically lower addresses), its bottom being pointed by SS:SP. There are 256 interrupts, which can be invoked by both hardware and software. The interrupts can cascade, using the stack to store the return address. This article is about the computer interface. ... Simple representation of a stack In computer science, a stack is a temporary abstract data type and data structure based on the principle of Last In First Out (LIFO). ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... In both conventional and electronic messaging, a return address is an explicit inclusion of the address of the person sending the message. ...


Real mode

Main article: Real mode

Real mode is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. Real mode is characterized by a 20 bit segmented memory address space (meaning that only 1 MB of memory can be addressed), direct software access to BIOS routines and peripheral hardware, and no concept of memory protection or multitasking at the hardware level. All x86 CPUs in the 80286 series and later start up in real mode at power-on; 80186 CPUs and earlier had only one operational mode, which is equivalent to real mode in later chips. Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... For other uses, see Bios. ... Memory protection is a system that prevents one process from corrupting the memory of another process running on the same computer at the same time. ... In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... The 80186 is a microprocessor that was developed by Intel circa 1982. ...


In real mode, memory access is segmented. This is done by shifting the segment address left by 4 bits and adding an offset in order to receive a final 20-bit address. For example, if DS is A000h and SI is 5677h, DS:SI will point at the absolute address DS × 16 + SI = A5677h. Thus the total address space in real mode is 220 bytes, or 1 MB, quite an impressive figure for 1978. All memory addresses consist of both a segment and offset; every type of access (code, data, or stack) has a default segment register associated with it (for data the register is usually DS, for code it is CS, and for stack it is SS). For data accesses, the segment register can be explicitly specified (using a segment override prefix) to use any of the four segment registers. ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ...


In this scheme, two different segment/offset pairs can point at a single absolute location. Thus, if DS is A111h and SI is 4567h, DS:SI will point at the same A5677h as above. This scheme makes it impossible to use more than four segments at once. CS and SS are vital for the correct functioning of the program, so that only DS and ES can be used to point to data segments outside the program (or, more precisely, outside the currently-executing segment of the program) or the stack. This scheme was intended as a compatibility measure with the Intel 8085. The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ...


The segmented nature can make programming and compilers design difficult because the use of near and far pointers affect performance. The introduction of bank switching schemes such as EEMS made programming even more complicated before the adoption of 32 bit addressing methods with later processors.


16-bit protected mode

Main article: Protected mode

In addition to real mode, the Intel 80286 supports protected mode, expanding addressable physical memory to 16 MB and addressable virtual memory to 1GB. This is done by using the segment registers only for storing an index to a segment table. There were two such tables, the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) and the Local Descriptor Table (LDT), each holding up to 8192 segment descriptors, each segment giving access to 64 KB of memory. The segment table provided a 24-bit base address, which can be added to the desired offset to create an absolute address. Each segment can be assigned one of four ring levels used for hardware-based computer security. Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Primary storage. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... How virtual memory maps to physical memory Virtual memory is an addressing scheme implemented in hardware and software that allows non-contiguous memory to be addressed as if it were contiguous. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... The Global Descriptor Table or GDT is a data structure used by Intel x86-family processors starting with the 80286 in order to define the characteristics of the various memory areas used during program execution, for example the base address, the size and access privileges like executability and writability. ... The Local Descriptor Table (LDT) is a memory table used in the x86 architecture in protected mode and containing memory segment descriptors: start in linear memory, size, executability, writability, access privilege, actual presence in memory, etc. ... In computing, a base address denotes a memory address serving as a reference point (base) for other addresses. ... In computer science, hierarchical protection domains, often called protection rings, are a mechanism to protect data and functionality from faults (fault tolerance) and malicious behaviour (computer security). ... This article “Secure computing” redirects here. ...


Because real mode DOS programs may do direct hardware access or perform segment arithmetic, both incompatible with protected mode, an operating system (OS) is limited in its ability to run these applications as processes. To overcome these difficulties, Intel introduced the 80386 with virtual 8086 mode. While still subject to paging, it uses real mode to form linear addresses and allows the OS to trap both I/O and memory access. By design, protected mode programs do not assume a relation between selector values and physical addresses. This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. ... In the 80386 and later, Virtual 8086 mode, also called virtual real mode (or VM86), allows the execution of real mode applications that violate the rules under the control of a protected mode operating system. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ...


Operating systems like OS/2 1.x try to switch the processor between protected and real modes. This is both slow and unsafe, because a real mode program can easily crash a computer. OS/2 1.x defines restrictive programming rules allowing a Family API or bound program to run in either real or protected mode. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A crash in computing is a condition where a program (either an application or part of the operating system) stops performing its expected function and also stops responding to other parts of the system. ...


Windows 3.0 should run real mode programs in 16-bit protected mode. Windows 3.0, when transitioning to protected mode, decided to preserve the single privilege level model that was used in real mode, which is why Windows applications and DLLs can hook interrupts and do direct hardware access. That lasted through the Windows 9x series. If a Windows 1.x or 2.x program is written properly and avoids segment arithmetic, it will run the same way in both real and protected modes. Windows programs generally avoid segment arithmetic because Windows implements a software virtual memory scheme, moving program code and data in memory when programs are not running, so manipulating absolute addresses is dangerous; programs should only keep handles to memory blocks when not running. Starting an old program while Windows 3.0 is running in protected mode triggers a warning dialog, suggesting to either run Windows in real mode or to obtain an updated version of the application. Updating well-behaved programs using the MARK utility with the MEMORY parameter avoids this dialog. It is not possible to have some GUI programs running in 16-bit protected mode and other GUI programs running in real mode. In Windows 3.1 real mode disappeared. Windows 3. ... Windows 3. ... Windows 9x is a term used to describe the DOS-based operating systems Windows 95 and Windows 98, similar versions of Microsoft Windows which were produced in the 1990s. ... A smart pointer is an abstract data type that simulates a pointer while providing additional features, such as automatic garbage collection or bounds checking. ... A typical Windows 3. ...


32-bit protected mode

Further information: IA-32

The Intel 80386 introduced a significant advance in x86 architecture: an all 32-bit design supporting paging. All of the registers, instructions, I/O space and memory are 32-bit. Memory is accessed through a 32-bit extension of protected mode. As in the 286, segment registers are used to index a segment table describing the division of memory. With a 32-bit offset, every application may access up to 4 GB (or more with memory segments). In addition, 32-bit protected mode supports paging, a mechanism making it possible to use virtual memory. An exception to this design is the Intel 80386SX, which is 32-bit with 24-bit addressing and a 16-bit data bus. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... The Intel386[1] is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 2007. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... In computer operating systems, paging memory allocation, paging refers to the process of managing program access to virtual memory pages that do not currently reside in RAM. It is implemented as a task that resides in the kernel of the operating system and gains control when a page fault takes... GB may stand for: // Gordon Brown, the new British Prime Minister George W. Bush, the US President Gb (digraph), a digraph in the Latin alphabet Government and binding, theory by Noam Chomsky Sarin, nerve gas (NATO designation: GB) Gigabit (symbol: Gb or Gbit) Gigabyte (symbol: GB) Game Boy line, a... On the Intel x86 architecture, a memory segment is the portion of memory which may be addressed by a single index register without changing a 16-bit segment selector. ... In computer operating systems, paging memory allocation, paging refers to the process of managing program access to virtual memory pages that do not currently reside in RAM. It is implemented as a task that resides in the kernel of the operating system and gains control when a page fault takes... How virtual memory maps to physical memory Virtual memory is an addressing scheme implemented in hardware and software that allows non-contiguous memory to be addressed as if it were contiguous. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In computer architecture, 24-bit is an adjective used to describe integers, memory addresses or other data units that are at most 24 bits (3 octets) wide, or to describe CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers. ...


No new general-purpose registers were added. All 16-bit registers except the segment registers were expanded to 32 bits. This is represented by prefixing an "E" (for Extended) to the register opcodes (thus the expanded AX became EAX, SI became ESI and so on). With a greater number of registers, instructions and operands, the machine code format was expanded. To provide backward compatibility, segments with executable code can be marked as containing either 16 or 32 bit instructions. Special prefixes allow inclusion of 32-bit instructions in a 16-bit segment or vice versa. Microprocessors perform operations using binary bits (on/off/1or0). ... Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data directly understandable by a computers central processing unit. ...


Paging and segmented memory access are required for modern multitasking operating systems. Linux, 386BSD and Windows NT were developed for the 386 because it was the first Intel architecture CPU to support paging and 32-bit segment offsets. The 386 architecture became the basis of all further development in the x86 series. The success of Windows 3.1, the first widely accepted version of Microsoft Windows, was largely due to its ability to take advantage of 386 features, even though it was used mainly to run multiple sessions rather than to take advantage of the native 32-bit instruction set. This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free BSD operating system for the Intel 80386. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... A typical Windows 3. ... Windows redirects here. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ...


The Intel 80387 math co-processor was integrated into the next CPU in the series, the Intel 80486 (the 486SX, sold as a budget processor, had its co-processor disabled or removed). The new floating point unit (FPU) performed floating point calculations, important for scientific applications and graphic design. The Intel 80387 (387) was the math coprocessor for the Intel 80386 series of microprocessors. ... A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU). ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ...


MMX and beyond

Main article: MMX

MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 for Pentium MMX microprocessors. It developed out of a similar unit first used on the Intel i860. It is supported on most subsequent IA-32 processors by Intel and other vendors. MMX is typically used for video applications. MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... -1... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Intel i860 (also 80860, and code named N10) was a RISC microprocessor from Intel, first released in 1989. ...


MMX added 8 new 64-bit registers to the architecture, known as MM0 through MM7 (generically MMn). In reality, these new registers are aliases for the existing x87 FPU stack registers. Hence, anything done to the floating point stack also affects the MMX registers. Unlike the floating point stack, these MMn registers are randomly accessible. In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... In computer science, random access is the ability to access a random element of a group in equal time. ...


3DNow!

Main article: 3DNow!

In 1997 AMD introduced 3DNow! which consisted of SIMD floating point instruction enhancements to MMX. The introduction of this technology coincided with the rise of 3D entertainment applications and was designed to improve the CPU's vector processing performance of graphic-intensive applications. 3D video game developers and 3D graphics hardware vendors use 3DNow! to enhance their performance on AMD's K6 and Athlon series of processors. The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... A three dimensional object has height, width and depth. ... A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design that is able to run mathematical operations on a large number of data elements very quickly. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant...


SSE

Main articles: Streaming SIMD Extensions, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4, and SSE5

In 1999, Intel introduced the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) instruction set which added eight new 128 bit registers (not overlaid with other registers) and 70 floating point instructions. SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming Single Instruction, Multiple Data Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD instruction sets, first introduced by Intel with the initial version of the Pentium 4 in 2001. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extension 3 (SSSE3)[1] is Intels name for the SSE instruction sets fourth iteration, as they appear to consider it merely a revision of SSE3. ... SSE4, also known by its Intel code name Tejas New Instructions (TNI), is the fourth iteration of the SSE instruction set. ... The SSE5 (short for Streaming SIMD Extensions 5), announced on August 30, 2007, is a new 128-bit extension to the AMD64 instruction set (itself a 64-bit extension to the 32-bit Intel x86 instruction set) for the AMD Bulldozer processor, due to begin production in 2009. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ...


In 2000 Intel introduced the SSE2 instruction set, adding a complete complement of integer instructions (analogous to MMX) to the original SSE registers and 64-bit SIMD floating point instructions to the original SSE registers. The first addition made MMX almost obsolete, and the second allowed the instructions to be realistically targeted by conventional compilers.


Introduced in 2004 along with the Prescott revision of the Pentium 4 processor, SSE3 added specific memory and thread-handling instructions to boost the performance of Intel's HyperThreading technology. AMD licensed the SSE3 instruction set and implemented most of the SSE3 instructions for its revision E and later Athlon 64 processors. The Athlon 64 does not support HyperThreading and lacks those SSE3 instructions used only for HyperThreading. The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... Many programming languages, operating systems, and other software development environments support what are called threads of execution. ... Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ...


64-bit Long mode

Main article: x86-64

By 2002, it was obvious that the 32-bit address space of the x86 architecture was limiting its performance in applications requiring large data sets. A 32-bit address space would allow the processor to directly address only 4 GB of data, a size surpassed by applications such as video processing and database engines, while using the 64-bit address, one can directly address 16777216 TiB (more than 16 billion MB) of data, although most 64-bit architectures don't support access to the full 64-bit address space (AMD64, for example, supports only 48 bits, split into 4 paging levels, from a 64-bit address). The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Video editing software is application software which handles the editing of video sequences on a computer. ... A dfgyfgdcdfgis the underlying component that a Database Management System (DBMS) uses to create, retrieve, update and delete (CRUD) data from a database. ... A tebibyte is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated TiB. 1 tebibyte = 240 bytes = 1 099 511 627 776 bytes The tebibyte is closely related to the terabyte, which can either be a synonym for tebibyte, or refer to 1012 bytes = 1 000 000 000 000 bytes...


AMD, who would traditionally follow the lead of Intel, took the initiative of extending the 32-bit x86 architecture to 64-bit, initially calling it x86-64, later renaming it AMD64. The Opteron, Athlon 64, Turion 64, and later Sempron families of processors use this architecture. The success of the AMD64 line of processors coupled with the lukewarm reception of the IA-64 architecture prompted Intel to reverse-engineer and adopt the instruction set, adding new extensions of its own and branding it the EM64T architecture, and later re-branding it Intel 64. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... The AMD Opteron was the AMDs x86 server processor line, and the first processors to implement the AMD64 (also known as x86-64) instruction set architecture. ... The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003. ... For other uses, see Turion. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


In its literature and product version names, Microsoft and Sun refer to AMD64/Intel 64 collectively as x64 in the Windows and Solaris operating systems respectively. Linux distributions refer to it either as "x86-64", its variant "x86_64", or "amd64". BSD systems use "amd64" while Mac OS X uses "x86_64". Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


This was the first time that a major upgrade of the x86 architecture was initiated and originated by a manufacturer other than Intel. It was also the first time that Intel accepted technology of this nature from an outside source.


Virtualization

x86 virtualization is difficult because the architecture did not meet the Popek and Goldberg requirements until recently. Nevertheless, there are several commercial x86 virtualization products, such as VMware, Parallels and Microsoft Virtual PC, as well as open source virtualization projects such as Bochs, QEMU. Other solutions, such as the Kernel-based Virtual Machine ("KVM"), require newer processors which provide better hardware support for virtualization. In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of sufficient conditions for a computer architecture to efficiently support system virtualization. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based guest operating systems are run under another host x86 operating system, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ... VMware Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Virtual PC is a virtualization suite for Apple Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows operating systems, originally created by Connectix, subsequently acquired by Microsoft. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Bochs for Windows displaying HAL91 (Linux) Bochs is a portable open source x86 and AMD64 PCs emulator mostly written in C++ and distributed under GNU Lesser General Public License. ... It has been suggested that Qemu-Launcher be merged into this article or section. ... KVM (for Kernel-based Virtual Machine) is a full virtualization solution for Linux on x86 hardware. ...


Intel and AMD have introduced x86 processors with hardware-based virtualization extensions that overcome the classical virtualization limitations of the x86 architecture. These extensions are known as Intel VT (IVT or simply VT) that was code named "Vanderpool," and AMD-V that was code named "Pacifica." Although most modern x86 server-based and many modern x86 desktop-based processors include these extensions, the technology is generally considered immature at this point with most software-based virtualization outperforming these extensions.[8] This is expected to change as the technology matures. x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based guest operating systems are run under another host x86 operating system, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based guest operating systems are run under another host x86 operating system, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... The correct title of this article is . ... // Wikibooks X86 Assembly has a page on the topic of X86 Instructions The x86 instruction set has undergone numerous changes over time. ... Referrs to math-related instruction subset of Intel X86 family line of processors. ... Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ... For efficiency reasons, the 80286 and later X86 processors use the base address stored in their internal descriptor cache whenever accessing memory, regardless if they are operating in real or protected mode. ... In the 80386 and later, Virtual 8086 mode, also called virtual real mode (or VM86), allows the execution of real mode applications that violate the rules under the control of a protected mode operating system. ... Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... In the x86-64 CPU architecture Long mode, is the mode where an application (or operating system) can access the 64-bit instructions and registers, while 32-bit programs are executed in a compatibility mode. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... In computing, IA-64 (Instruction Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard for processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... Microarchitecture consists of a set of microprocessor design techniques used to implement the instruction set (including microcode, pipelining, cache systems, etc. ... This generational and chronological list of Intel microprocessors attempts to present all of Intels processors from the pioneering 4-bit 4004 (1971) to the present high-end offerings, the 64-bit Itanium 2 (2002) and Intel Core 2 and Xeon 5100 and 7100 series processors (2006). ... This article gives a list of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) microprocessors, sorted by generation and release year. ... . ... // x86-compatible processors have been designed, manufactured and sold by a number of companies, including: Intel AMD VIA Transmeta (discontinued its x86 line) Rise Technology (acquired by SiS) IDT (Centaur Technology x86 division acquired by VIA) National Semiconductor (sold the x86 PC designs to VIA and later the x86 embedded...

Footnotes

  1. ^ With the introduction of the Pentium brand in 1993, Intel ended its "80x86" naming scheme as numbers could not be trademarked. However, the term x86 was already firmly established among technicians, compiler writers etc.
  2. ^ Linux* Kernel Compiling. Intel. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  3. ^ Intel Web page search result for "x64". Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  4. ^ Intel's equivalents of the x86 and x86-64 have been the IA-32 and Intel 64 (EM64T or IA-32e) respectively. Likewise, AMD prefers the AMD64 name over the x86-64 they introduced themselves.
  5. ^ The embedded processor's market is populated by more than 20 different architectures, which, due to the price sensitivity, low power and hardware simplicity requirements, outnumber the x86.
  6. ^ Microprocessor Hall of Fame. Intel. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  7. ^ It had a slower Floating point unit however, which is slightly ironic as Cyrix started out as a designer of fast Floating point units for x86 processors.
  8. ^ A Comparison of Software and Hardware Techniques for x86 Virtualization

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ...

References

  • Rosenblum, Mendel; Garfinkel, Tal (May, 2005). "Virtual machine monitors: current technology and future trends". IEEE Computer, volume 38, issue 5. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
X86 architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2696 words)
The architecture is called x86 because the earliest processors in this family were identified by model numbers ending in the sequence "86": the 8086, the 80186, the 80286, the 386, and the 486.
The x86 architecture first appeared inside the Intel 8086 CPU in 1978; the 8086 was a development of the Intel 8080 processor (which itself followed the 4004 and 8008), and programs in 8080 assembler language could be mechanically translated to equivalent programs in 8086 assembler language.
An x86 system-on-a-chip is a combination of an x86 CPU core with a northbridge (memory controller) and a southbridge (input/output (I/O) controller) in a single integrated circuit (IC).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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