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x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. The x86 architecture currently dominates the desktop computer, portable computer, and small server markets. Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated µP) is a digital electronic component with miniaturized transistors on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC). ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, HKEx: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


The architecture is called x86 because the earliest processors in this family were identified by model numbers ending in the sequence "86": the 8086, the 80186, the 80286, the 386, and the 486. Because one cannot trademark numbers, Intel and most of its competitors began to use trademarkable names such as Pentium for subsequent generations of processors, but the earlier naming scheme has stuck as a term for the entire family. The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... The 80186 is a microprocessor that was developed by Intel circa 1982. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... An Intel 80386 Microprocessor The 386DX architecture. ... The exposed die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor. ... Pentium logo, with MMX enhancement The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel employee Vinod Dahm which first shipped on March 22, 1993. ...


The architecture has twice been extended to a larger word size. In 1985, Intel released the 32-bit 386 to replace the 16-bit 286. The 32-bit architecture is called x86-32 or IA-32 (an abbreviation for Intel Architecture, 32-bit). In 2003, AMD introduced the Athlon 64, which implemented a further extension to the architecture to 64 bits, variously called x86-64, AMD64 (AMD), EM64T (Intel), and x64 (Microsoft). In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. ... IA-32, sometimes generically called x86-32, is the computer architecture of Intels most successful microprocessors. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... The Athlon 64 (codenamed ClawHammer, Newcastle, Winchester, Venice, and San Diego) represents AMDs entry into the consumer 64-bit microprocessor market, released on September 23, 2003. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ...

Contents


History

The x86 architecture first appeared inside the Intel 8086 CPU in 1978; the 8086 was a development of the 8080 processor (which itself followed the 4004 and 8008). It was adopted (in the simpler 8088 version) three years later as the standard CPU of the IBM PC. The ubiquity of the PC platform has resulted in the x86 becoming one of the most successful CPU architectures ever. An Intel 8086 Microprocessor The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in a ceramic PGA package A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets and executes instructions and data contained in software. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Intel C8080A processor. ... Intel C4004 microprocessor. ... Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April, 1972. ... An Intel 8088 Microprocessor The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ...


Other companies also manufacture or have manufactured CPUs conforming to the x86 architecture: examples include Cyrix (now owned by VIA Technologies), NEC Corporation, IBM, IDT, and Transmeta. The most successful of the clone manufacturers has been AMD, whose Athlon series, whilst not as popular as the Pentium series, has a significant marketshare. Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in a ceramic PGA package A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets and executes instructions and data contained in software. ... Cyrix corporate logo CPU manufacturer Cyrix began in 1988 as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ... VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) NYSE: IBM (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, NY, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and consulting services. ... IDT was founded in 1980 as a semiconductor vendor. ... Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops efficient computing technologies that improve performance and reduce power consumption in electronic devices. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... Pentium logo, with MMX enhancement The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel employee Vinod Dahm which first shipped on March 22, 1993. ...


Note that Intel also introduced a separate 64-bit architecture used in its Itanium processors which it calls IA-64 or more recently IPF (Itanium Processor Family). IA-64 is a completely new system that bears no resemblance whatsoever to the x86 architecture; it should not be confused with IA-32, which is essentially synonymous with the 32-bit version of x86. Itanium brand logo The Intel Itanium processor. ... In computing, IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... IA-32, sometimes generically called x86-32, is the computer architecture of Intels most successful microprocessors. ...


Design

The x86 architecture is a CISC design with variable instruction length. Word sized memory access is allowed to unaligned memory addresses. Words are stored in the little-endian order. Backwards compatibility has always been a driving force behind the development of the x86 architecture (the design decisions this has required are often criticised, particularly by proponents of competing processors, who are frustrated by the continued success of an architecture widely perceived as quantifiably inferior). Modern x86 processors translate the x86 instruction set to more RISC-like micro-instructions (or micro-ops) upon which modern micro-architectural techniques can be applied. A Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) is an instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can indicate several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... Endianness generally refers to sequencing methods used in a one-dimensional system (such as writing or computer memory). ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ...


The x86 assembly language is discussed in more detail in the x86 assembly language article. Assembly language commonly called assembly or asm, is a human-readable notation for the machine language that a specific computer architecture uses. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Programming:x86 assembly x86 assembly language is the assembly language for the x86 class of processors, which includes Intels Pentium series and AMDs Athlon series. ...


Real mode

The Intel 8086 and 8088 had 14 16-bit registers. Four of them (AX, BX, CX, DX) were general purpose (although each had also an additional purpose; for example only CX can be used as a counter with the loop instruction). Each could be accessed as two separate bytes (thus BX's high byte can be accessed as BH and low byte as BL). In addition to them, there are four segment registers (CS, DS, SS and ES). They are used to form a memory address. There are two pointer registers (SP which points to the bottom of the stack, and BP which can be used to point at some other place in the stack or the memory). There are two index registers (SI and DI) which can be used to point inside an array. Finally, there is the flag register (containing flags such as carry, overflow, zero and so on), and the instruction pointer (IP) which points at the current instruction. This article is about the unit of information. ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values—typically, the values being in the midst of a calculation at a given point in time. ... The term carry may refer to: A violation whilst dribbling in the game of basketball. ...


In real mode, memory access is segmented. This is done by shifting the segment address left by 4 bits and adding an offset in order to receive a final 20-bit address. For example, if DS is A000h and SI is 5677h, DS:SI will point at the absolute address DS × 16 + SI = A5677h. Thus the total address space in real mode is 220 bytes, or 1 MiB, quite an impressive figure for 1978. All memory addresses consist of both a segment and offset; every type of access (code, data, or stack) has a default segment register associated with it (for data the register is usually DS, for code it is CS, and for stack it is SS). For data accesses, the segment register can be explicitly specified (using a segment override prefix) to use any of the four segment registers. dyn and The_Decryptors retarded way of saying megabyte. ...


In this scheme, two different segment/offset pairs can point at a single absolute location. Thus, if DS is A111h and SI is 4567h, DS:SI will point at the same A5677h as above. In addition to duplicity, this scheme also makes it impossible to have more than four segments at once. Moreover, CS, DS and SS are vital for the correct functioning of the program, so that only ES can be used to point somewhere else. This scheme, which was intended as a compatibility measure with the Intel 8085 has caused no end of grief to programmers. The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ...


In addition to the above-said, the 8086 also had 64 KB of 8-bit (or alternatively 32 KB of 16-bit) I/O space, and a 64 KB (one segment) stack in memory supported by hardware. Only words (2 bytes) can be pushed to the stack. The stack grows downwards, its bottom being pointed by SS:SP. There are 256 interrupts, which can be created by both hardware and software. The interrupts can cascade, using the stack to store the return address. A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... This article is about the computer interface. ... Stack in computing refers to: Stack (data structure) Stack-based memory allocation as opposed to Heap-based memory allocation in computing architecture. ... Hardware is the general term that is used to describe physical artifacts of a technology. ... In computer science, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ...


Modern 32-bit x86 CPUs still support real mode, and in fact start up in real mode after reset. Real mode code running on these processors can take advantage of the 32-bit wide registers and additional segment registers (FS and GS) offered since the 80386.


16-bit protected mode

The Intel 80286 could support 8086 real mode 16-bit software without any changes, however it also supported another mode of work called the protected mode, which expanded addressable physical memory to 16MB and addressable virtual memory to 1GB. This was done by using the segment registers only for storing an index to a segment table. There were two such tables, the GDT and the LDT, holding each up to 8192 segment descriptors, each segment giving access to up to 64 KB of memory. The segment table provided a 24-bit base address, which could then be added to the desired offset to create an absolute address. In addition, each segment could be given one of four privilege levels (called the rings). Real mode is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ... Protected mode (sometimes abbreviated p-mode) is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... mb, Mb, and MB may stand for: Bachelor of Medicine (academic degree) Honda MB is a Honda 50cc motorcycle from the early 80s. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion bytes. ... The GDT or Global Descriptor Table is a data structure used by Intel x86-family processors starting with the 80286 in order to define the characteristics of the various memory areas used during program execution, for example the base address, the size and access privileges like executability and writability. ... LDT means Local Descriptor Table Someone to write more about these tables. ... In computing, a base address denotes a memory address serving as a reference point (base) for other addresses. ...


Although the introductions were an improvement, they were not widely used because a protected mode operating system could not run existing real mode software as processes. Such capability only appeared with the virtual 8086 mode of the subsequent 80386 processor. In the x86 CPU architecture Virtual 8086 mode, also called virtual-real mode, allows the execution of real mode code under the control of a protected mode operating system. ...


In the meantime, operating systems like OS/2 tried to ping-pong the processor between protected and real modes. This was both slow and unsafe, as in real mode a program could easily crash the computer. OS/2 also defined restrictive programming rules which allowed a Family API or bound program to run either in real mode or in protected mode. This was however about running programs originally designed for protected mode, not vice-versa. By design, protected mode programs did not suppose that there is a relation between selector values and physical addresses. It is sometimes mistakenly believed that problems with running real mode code in 16-bit protected mode resulted from IBM having chosen to use Intel reserved interrupts for BIOS calls. It is actually related to such programs using arbitrary selector values and performing "segment arithmetic" described above on them. OS/2 is an operating system created by Microsoft and IBM and later developed by IBM exclusively. ...


This problem also appeared with Windows 3.0. Optimally, this release wanted to run programs in 16-bit protected mode, while previously they were running in real mode. Theoretically, if a Windows 1.x or 2.x program was written "properly" and avoided segment arithmetic it would run indifferently in both real and protected modes. Windows programs generally avoided segment arithmetic because Windows implemented a software virtual memory scheme and moved program code and data in memory when programs were not running, so manipulating absolute addresses was dangerous; programs were supposed to only keep handles to memory blocks when not running, and such handles were quite similar to protected-mode selectors already. Starting an old program while Windows 3.0 was running in protected mode triggered a warning dialog, suggesting to either run Windows in real mode (it could presumably still use expanded memory, possibly emulated with EMM386 on 80386 machines, so it was not limited to 640 KB) or to obtain an updated version from the vendor. Well-behaved programs could be "blessed" using a special tool to avoid this dialog. It was not possible to have some GUI programs running in 16-bit protected mode and other GUI programs running in real mode, probably because this would require having two separate environments and (on 80286) would be subject to the previously mentioned ping-ponging of the processor between modes. In version 3.1 real mode disappeared. The Windows 3. ... EMM386 was Microsofts expanded memory manager, which created expanded memory using extended memory on Intel 80386 CPUs. ... The 640K Barrier is an aspect of the IBM PC and compatible personal computers when running under MS-DOS or DR-DOS, which could only address up to 640KB of memory for running applications. ...


32-bit protected mode

The Intel 80386 introduced, perhaps, the greatest leap so far in the x86 architecture. With the notable exception of the Intel 80386SX, which was 32-bit yet only had 24-bit addressing (and a 16-bit data bus), it was all 32-bit - all the registers, instructions, I/O space and memory. To work with the latter, it used a 32-bit extension of Protected Mode. As it was in the 286, segment registers were used to index inside a segment table that described the division of memory. Unlike the 286, however, inside each segment one could use 32-bit offsets, which allowed every application to access up to 4 GB without segmentation and even more if segmentation was used. In addition, 32-bit protected mode supported paging, a mechanism which made it possible to use virtual memory. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion bytes. ... In computer operating systems, paging memory allocation algorithms divide computer memory into small partitions, and allocates memory using a page as the smallest building block. ... The memory pages of the virtual address space seen by the process, may reside non-contiguously in primary, or even secondary storage. ...


No new general-purpose registers were added. All 16-bit registers except the segment ones were expanded to 32 bits. Intel represented this by adding "E" to the register mnemonics (thus the expanded AX became EAX, SI became ESI and so on). Since there was a greater number of registers, instructions and operands, the machine code format was expanded as well. In order to provide backwards compatibility, the segments which contain executable code can be marked as containing either 16 or 32 bit instructions. In addition, special prefixes can be used to include 32-bit instructions in a 16-bit segment and vice versa.


Paging and segmented memory access were both required in order to support a modern multitasking operating system. Linux, 386BSD, Windows NT were all initially developed for the 386, because it was the first CPU that made it possible to reliably support the separation of programs' memory space (each into its own address space) and the preemption of them in the case of necessity (using rings). The basic architecture of the 386 became the basis of all further development in the x86 series. Tux is the official Linux mascot. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free operating system produced from the BSD derived UNIX operating systems for the Intel 80386. ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, and was succeeded by Windows 2000 (still based on Windows NT). ...


The Intel 80387 math co-processor was integrated into the next CPU in the series, the Intel 80486. The new FPU could be used to make floating point calculations, important for scientific calculation and graphic design. The Intel 80387 (387) was the math coprocessor for the Intel 80386 series of microprocessors. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a CPU specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ...


MMX and beyond

1996 saw the appearance of the MMX (Matrix Math Extensions, though sometimes incorrectly referred to as Multi-Media Extensions) technology by Intel. While the new technology has been advertised widely and vaguely, its essence is very simple: MMX defined eight 64-bit SIMD registers overlayed onto the FPU stack to the Intel Pentium CPU design. Unfortunately, these instructions were not easily mappable to the code generated by ordinary C compilers, and Microsoft, the dominant compiler vendor, was slow to support them even as intrinsics. MMX is also limited to integer operations. These technical shortcomings caused MMX to have little impact in its early existence. Nowadays, MMX is typically used for some 2D video applications. MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... -1... Pentium MMX - top view The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel which first shipped on March 22, 1993. ... The C Programming Language, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the original edition that served for many years as an informal specification of the language The C programming language is a standardized imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the Unix operating system. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language compiler. ...


3DNow!

In 1997 AMD introduced the 3DNow! which were SIMD floating point instruction enhancements to MMX (targeting the same MMX registers). While this did not solve the compiler difficulties, the introduction of this technology coincided with the rise of 3D entertainment applications in the PC space. 3D video game developers and 3D graphics hardware vendors used 3DNow! to help enhance their performance on AMD's K6 and Athlon series of processors. The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant...


SSE

In 1999 Intel introduced the SSE instruction set which added eight new 128 bit registers (not overlayed with other registers). These instructions were analogous to AMD's 3DNow! in that they primarily added floating point SIMD. SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), describes the aspects of a computer architecture visible to a programmer, including the native datatypes, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O (if any). ...


SSE2

In 2000 Intel introduced the SSE2 instruction set which added 1) a complete complement of integer instructions (analogous to MMX) to the original SSE registers and 2) 64-bit SIMD floating point instructions to the original SSE registers. The first addition made MMX almost obsolete, and the second allowed the instructions to be realistically targeted by conventional compilers. SSE2 is one of the IA-32 SIMD instruction sets, first introduced by Intel with the initial version of the Pentium 4 in 2001. ...


SSE3

Introduced in 2004 along with the Prescott revision of the Pentium 4 processor, SSE3 added specific memory and thread-handling instructions to boost the performance of Intel's HyperThreading technology. AMD later licensed the SSE3 instruction set for its latest (E) revision Athlon 64 processors. The SSE3 instruction set included on the new Athlons are only lacking a couple of the instructions that Intel designed for HyperThreading, since the Athlon 64 does not support HyperThreading; however SSE3 is still recognized in software as being supported on the platform. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pentium 4 (with hyper-threading) brand logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... Pentium 4 (with hyper-threading) brand logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... Many programming languages, operating systems, and other software development environments support what are called threads of execution. ... Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... The Athlon 64 (codenamed ClawHammer, Newcastle, Winchester, Venice, and San Diego) represents AMDs entry into the consumer 64-bit microprocessor market, released on September 23, 2003. ...


64-bit

By 2002, it was obvious that the 32-bit address space of the x86 architecture was limiting its performance in applications requiring large data sets. A 32-bit address space would allow the processor to directly address only 4 GB of data - a size frequently surpassed by applications such as video processing or database engines. A database is an information set with a regular structure. ...


Intel had originally decided not to extend x86 to 64-bit as they had to 32-bits, and instead introduced a new architecture called IA-64. IA-64 technology is the basis for its Itanium line of processors. IA-64 provides a backward compatibility for older 32-bit x86; this mode of operation, however, is exceedingly slow. In computing, IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed in cooperation by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, implemented by processors such as Itanium and Itanium 2. ... Itanium brand logo The Intel Itanium processor. ...


AMD took the initiative of extending the 32-bit x86 (which Intel calls IA-32) to 64-bit. It came up with an architecture, called AMD64 (or x86-64, prior to rebranding), and based the Opteron and Athlon 64 family of processors on this technology. The success of the AMD64 line of processors coupled with the lukewarm reception of the IA-64 architecture prompted Intel to adopt the AMD64 instruction set, adding some new extensions of its own and branding it the EM64T architecture. In its literature and product version names, Microsoft refers to this processor architecture as x64. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... IA-32, sometimes generically called x86-32, is the computer architecture of Intels most successful microprocessors. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... The AMD Opteron is the first eighth-generation x86 processor (K8 core), and the first of AMDs AMD64 (x86-64) processors, released April 22, 2003. ... The Athlon 64 (codenamed ClawHammer, Newcastle, Winchester, Venice, and San Diego) represents AMDs entry into the consumer 64-bit microprocessor market, released on September 23, 2003. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ...


This was the first time that a major upgrade of the x86 architecture was initiated and originated by a manufacturer other than Intel. Perhaps more importantly, it was the first time that Intel actually accepted technology of this nature from an outside source.


Virtualization

x86 virtualization is difficult because the architecture does not meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. Nevertheless, there are several commercial x86 virtualization products, such as VMware and Microsoft Virtual PC. There is also an open source virtualization project Xen. Intel and AMD have both announced that future x86 processors will have new enhancements to facilitate more efficient virtualization. Intel's code names for their virtualization features are "Vanderpool" and "Silvervale"; AMD uses the code name "Pacifica". In general terms, a virtual machine in computer science is software that creates an environment between the computer platform and the end user in which the end user can operate software. ... The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for a computer architecture to efficiently support self-virtualization, introduced by Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg in the 1974 article Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third Generation Architectures (Communications of the ACM vol. ... The x86 processor architecture as used in modern PCs does not meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ... VMware Inc. ... Virtual PC is a virtualization suite for Apple Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows operating systems, originally created by Connectix, subsequently acquired by Microsoft. ... Xen is an open-source virtual machine monitor, or hypervisor, developed by the University of Cambridge. ...


Manufacturers

x86 and compatibles have been designed, manufactured and sold by a number of companies, including:

Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, HKEx: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Chips and Technologies was the first fabless semiconductor company, a model developed by its founder Gordon Campbell. ... Cyrix corporate logo CPU manufacturer Cyrix began in 1988 as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) NYSE: IBM (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, NY, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and consulting services. ... IDT was founded in 1980 as a semiconductor vendor. ... Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... NEC Corporation is a multi-national information technologies company headquarterd in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... A NexGen Nx586 processor NexGen was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 PC central processing units until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. ... The Rise mP6-PR266 microprocessor. ... STMicroelectronics logo. ... SiS is also an abbreviation for Silicon Integrated Systems Note that both S letters are capital. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry as TI, is a company based in Dallas, Texas, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops efficient computing technologies that improve performance and reduce power consumption in electronic devices. ... UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) was founded in 1980, as Taiwans first Semiconductor company. ... VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ...

See also

IA-32, sometimes generically called x86-32, is the computer architecture of Intels most successful microprocessors. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Programming:x86 assembly x86 assembly language is the assembly language for the x86 class of processors, which includes Intels Pentium series and AMDs Athlon series. ... Real mode is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ... Unreal mode is a mode in which the x86 processors and x86-64 processors can operate, as are real mode, protected mode and long mode. ... In the x86 CPU architecture Virtual 8086 mode, also called virtual-real mode, allows the execution of real mode code under the control of a protected mode operating system. ... Protected mode (sometimes abbreviated p-mode) is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... In the x86-64 CPU architecture Long mode, is the mode where an application (or operating system) can access the 64-bit instructions and registers, while 32-bit programs are executed in a compatibility mode. ...

External links

  • 8086/80186/80286/80386/80486 Instruction Set
  • The ChipList – By Adrian Offerman
  • X86 cpus' guide
  • CPU-INFO: x86 processor information and indepth processor history

  Results from FactBites:
 
bochs: The Open Source IA-32 Emulation Project (Home Page) (581 words)
Bochs is a highly portable open source IA-32 (x86) PC emulator written in C++, that runs on most popular platforms.
Bochs can be compiled and used in a variety of modes, some which are still in development.
The 'typical' use of bochs is to provide complete x86 PC emulation, including the x86 processor, hardware devices, and memory.
X86 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2712 words)
The architecture is called x86 because the earliest processors in this family were identified by model numbers ending in the sequence "86": the 8086, the 80186, the 80286, the 386, and the 486.
The x86 architecture first appeared inside the Intel 8086 CPU in 1978; the 8086 was a development of the 8008 processor (which itself followed the 4004).
In contrast, the Xbox moved from the x86 architecture in the original Xbox to a PowerPC architecture in the Xbox 360.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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