FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > X Window System
GNOME 2.18
GNOME 2.18
KDE 3.5
KDE 3.5
Xfce 4.4
Xfce 4.4

In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs) on Unix-like operating systems and OpenVMS, and is supported by almost all other modern operating systems. X11. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/png) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/png) http://www. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summary K Desktop Environment 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summary K Desktop Environment 3. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) is a free desktop environment and development platform built with Trolltechs Qt toolkit. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 1561 KB) Screenshot of Xfce 4. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 1561 KB) Screenshot of Xfce 4. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... RAM (Random Access Memory) Look up computing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A windowing system is a graphical user interface (GUI) which uses the window as one of its primary metaphors. ... Suppose the smiley face in the top left corner is an RGB bitmap image. ... “GUI” redirects here. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned...


X provides the basic framework, or primitives, for building GUI environments: drawing and moving windows on the screen and interacting with a mouse and/or keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface — individual client programs handle this. As such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly; different programs may present radically different interfaces. It should be noted that X is not part of the operating system on any of the systems it runs on. Instead it is a user application built as an additional layer on top of whatever the host operating system is. This is a direct consequence of X being designed to be network transparent and operating system independent. An example of a graphical user interface in Windows XP, with the My Music window displayed In computing, a window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ...


X features network transparency: the machine where an application program (the client application) runs can differ from the user's local machine (the display server). In a centralized database system, the only available resource that needs to be shielded from the user is the data, (that is, the storage system). ...


X originated at MIT in 1984. The current protocol version, X11, appeared in September 1987. The X.Org Foundation leads the X project, with the current reference implementation, version 11 release 7.3 (September 6 2007), available as free software under the MIT License and similar permissive licenses.[1] “MIT” redirects here. ... The X.Org swoosh logo. ... In computing, a reference implementation (or, infrequently, sample implementation) is a software example of a standard for use in helping others implement their own versions of the standard. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ...

Contents

The X client-server model and network transparency

For more details on this topic, see X Window System protocols and architecture.

X uses a client-server model: an X server communicates with various client programs. The server accepts requests for graphical output (windows) and sends back user input (from keyboard, mouse, or touchscreen). The server may function as: The X Window System logo In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a network-transparent windowing system for bitmap displays. ... Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ...

  • an application displaying to a window of another display system
  • a system program controlling the video output of a PC
  • a dedicated piece of hardware.

This client-server terminology — the user's terminal as the "server", the remote or local applications as the "clients" — often confuses new X users, because the terms appear reversed. But X takes the perspective of the program, rather than that of the end-user or of the hardware: the local X display provides display services to programs, so it acts as a server; any remote program uses these services, thus it acts as a client. A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ...

In this example, the X server takes input from a keyboard and mouse and displays to a screen. A web browser and a terminal emulator run on the user's workstation, and a system updater runs on a remote server but is controlled from the user's machine. Note that the remote application runs just as it would locally.
In this example, the X server takes input from a keyboard and mouse and displays to a screen. A web browser and a terminal emulator run on the user's workstation, and a system updater runs on a remote server but is controlled from the user's machine. Note that the remote application runs just as it would locally.

The communication protocol between server and client operates network-transparently: the client and server may run on the same machine or on different ones, possibly with different architectures and operating systems, but they run the same in either case. A client and server can even communicate securely over the Internet by tunneling the connection over an encrypted network session. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An example of a Web browser (Internet Explorer 7) A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Apple Terminal. ... In networking, a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. ... For the scientific and engineering discipline studying computer networks, see Computer networking. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... This article “Secure computing” redirects here. ... A tunneling protocol is a network protocol which encapsulates one protocol or session inside another. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ...


X client itself may contain an X server having display of multiple clients. This is known as "X nesting". Open-source clients such as, Xnest and Xephyr support such X nesting. Xnest is an X Window System server that shows its output in a window. ... Xephyr is a kdrive based X Server which targets a window on a host X Server as its framebuffer. ...


To start a remote client program displaying to a local server, the user will typically open a terminal window and telnet or ssh to the remote client application or shell and request local display/input service (e.g. export DISPLAY=[user's machine]:0 on a remote machine running bash). The client application or shell then connects to the local server, servicing a display and input session to the local user. Alternatively, the local machine may run a small helper program to connect to a remote machine and start the desired client application there. Apple Terminal. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel between two computers. ... -1...


Practical examples of remote clients include:

  • administering a remote machine graphically
  • running a computationally intensive simulation on a remote Unix machine and displaying the results on a local Windows desktop machine
  • running graphical software on several machines at once, controlled by a single display, keyboard and mouse.

Design principles of X

In 1984, Bob Scheifler and Jim Gettys set out the early principles of X: Robert W. Scheifler (born 1954) is a computer scientist. ... Jim Gettys is a computer programmer. ...

  • Do not add new functionality unless an implementor cannot complete a real application without it.
  • It is as important to decide what a system is not as to decide what it is. Do not serve all the world's needs; rather, make the system extensible so that additional needs can be met in an upwardly compatible fashion.
  • The only thing worse than generalizing from one example is generalizing from no examples at all.
  • If a problem is not completely understood, it is probably best to provide no solution at all.
  • If you can get 90 percent of the desired effect for 10 percent of the work, use the simpler solution. (See also Worse is better.)
  • Isolate complexity as much as possible.
  • Provide mechanism rather than policy. In particular, place user interface policy in the clients' hands.

The first principle was modified during the design of X11 to: "Do not add new functionality unless you know of some real application that will require it." Worse is better, also called the New Jersey style, is the name of a computer software design approach (or design philosophy) in which simplicity of both interface and implementation is more important than any other system attribute (including correctness, consistency, and completeness). ...


X has largely kept to these principles since. The reference implementation is developed with a view to extension and improvement of the implementation, whilst remaining almost entirely compatible with the original 1987 protocol


User interfaces

X deliberately contains no specification as to application user interface, such as buttons, menus, window title bars and so on. Instead, user software – such as window managers, GUI widget toolkits and desktop environments, or application-specific GUIs, such as point of sale – provide/define all such details. As such, the "typical" X interface has varied tremendously over the years. The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... In computing, a button (sometimes known as a command button or push button) is a widget that provides the user a simple way to trigger an event, like searching for a query at a search engine, or to interact with dialog boxes, like confirming his actions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The title bar is that part of a window where the title of the window appears. ... A window manager is computer software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface. ... In computer programming, widget toolkits (or GUI toolkits) are sets of basic building units for graphical user interfaces. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... The BancNet (BN) Point-Of-Sale System is a local PIN-based electronic funds transfer (EFTPOS) payments solution operated by BancNet on behalf of the member banks and China UnionPay (CUP). ...


A window manager controls the placement and appearance of application windows. This may have an interface akin to that of Microsoft Windows or of the Macintosh (examples include Metacity in GNOME, KWin in KDE or Xfwm in Xfce) or have radically different controls (such as a tiling window manager). The window manager may be bare-bones (e.g. twm, the basic window manager supplied with X) or offer functionality verging on that of a full desktop environment (e.g. Enlightenment). A window manager is computer software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface. ... Windows redirects here. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Metacity is the default window manager for the GNOME desktop environment. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... In Unix computing, Kwin is a window manager for the X Window System. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Xfce screenshots featuring the use of Xfwm In Unix computing, Xfwm is a window manager for the X Window System. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... A tiling window manager is a window manager with an organization of the screen into mutually non-overlapping frames, as opposed to the traditional approach of coordinate-based stacking of objects (windows) that tries to emulate the desk paradigm. ... twm desktop In computing, twm (Toms Window Manager or Tab Window Manager) is the standard window manager for the X Window System, version X11R4 onwards. ... Enlightenment, also known simply as E, is a free software/open source window manager for the X Window System which can be used alone or in conjunction with a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE. It has a rich feature set, including extensive support for themes and advanced graphics...


Many users use X with a full desktop environment, which includes a window manager, various applications and a consistent interface. GNOME, KDE and Xfce are the most popular desktop environments. The Unix standard environment is the Common Desktop Environment (CDE). The freedesktop.org initiative addresses interoperability between desktops and the components needed for a competitive X desktop. Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems to qualify for the name Unix. The SUS is developed and maintained by the Austin Group, based on earlier work by the IEEE and The Open Group. ... CDE on Unix (Solaris 8) DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... freedesktop. ...


As X is responsible for keyboard and mouse interaction with graphical desktops, certain keyboard shortcuts have become associated with X. Control-Alt-Backspace typically terminates the currently running X session, while Control-Alt in conjunction with a function key switches to the associated virtual console. Note, however, that this is an implementation detail left to an individual X server and is by no means universal; for example, X server implementations for Windows and Macintosh typically do not provide these shortcuts. A keyboard shortcut (also known as an accelerator key, shortcut key, or hotkey) is one or a set of keyboard keys that, when pressed simultaneously, perform a predefined task. ... A function key is a key on a computer or terminal keyboard which can be programmed so as to cause an operating system command interpreter or application program to perform certain actions. ... This article is about Nintendos emulation feature and download service. ...


Implementations

The X.Org reference implementation serves as the canonical implementation of X. Due to the liberal licensing, a number of variations, both free and proprietary, have appeared. Commercial UNIX vendors have tended to take the reference implementation and adapt it for their hardware, usually customising it heavily and adding proprietary extensions. In computing, a reference implementation (or, infrequently, sample implementation) is a software example of a standard for use in helping others implement their own versions of the standard. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ...

Cygwin/X running rootless on Microsoft Windows XP. The screen shows X applications (xeyes, xclock, xterm) sharing the screen with native Windows applications (Date and Time, Calculator).
Cygwin/X running rootless on Microsoft Windows XP. The screen shows X applications (xeyes, xclock, xterm) sharing the screen with native Windows applications (Date and Time, Calculator).

Up to 2004, XFree86 provided the most common X variant on free Unix-like systems. XFree86 started as a port of X for 386-compatible PCs and, by the end of the 1990s, had become the greatest source of technical innovation in X and the de facto steward of X development.[2] Since 2004, however, the X.Org reference implementation, a fork of XFree86, has become predominant. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 1106 KB)Screenshot of Microsoft Windows XP and cygwin-x (rootless) running together. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 1106 KB)Screenshot of Microsoft Windows XP and cygwin-x (rootless) running together. ... Cygwin/X running rootless on Microsoft Windows XP. The screen shows X applications (xeyes, xclock, xterm) sharing the screen with native Windows applications (Date and Time, Calculator). ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... A screenshot of xeyes xeyes is a graphical program showing two eyes which follow the cursor movements on the screen as if they were watching it. ... xterm is the standard terminal emulator for the X Window System. ... XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ... The Intel386[1] is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 2007. ... The X.Org Server (officially the ) is the official reference implementation of the X Window System. ... In software, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes code from a project and starts to develop independently of the rest. ...


While computer aficionados most often associate X with Unix, X servers also exist natively within other graphical environments. Hewlett-Packard's OpenVMS operating system includes a version of X with CDE, known as DECwindows, as its standard desktop environment. Apple's Mac OS X v10.3 (Panther) and up includes X11.app, based on XFree86 4.3 and X11R6.6, with better Mac OS X integration. Third-party servers under Macintosh System 7, 8 and 9 included MacX. The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... CDE on Unix (Solaris 8) DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Apple Inc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... X11. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... MacX is an X11 server implementation that ran on System 7, Mac OS 8, and Mac OS 9. ...


Microsoft Windows does not come with support for X, but many third-party implementations exist, both free software such as Cygwin/X, Xming, WeirdMind and WeirdX; and proprietary products such as MKS X/Server, Reflection X, Xmanager, X-Deep/32, WiredX, Exceed and X-Win32. They normally serve to control remote X clients. Windows redirects here. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... Cygwin/X running rootless on Microsoft Windows XP. The screen shows X applications (xeyes, xclock, xterm) sharing the screen with native Windows applications (Date and Time, Calculator). ... Xming is a port of the X Window System to Microsoft Windows. ... WeirdX is an X Window System server in pure Java under GNU GPL. External link http://www. ... MKS X/Server is for a commercial X server product for accessing UNIX/Linux systems from a PC developed by MKS Inc. ... In computing, X-Win32 is a proprietary X Window System server for Microsoft Windows, produced by StarNet Communications. ...


When another windowing system (such as those of Microsoft Windows or Mac OS) hosts X, the X system generally runs "rootless", meaning the host windowing environment looks after the root window (the background and associated menus) and manages the geometry of the hosted X windows — although some servers (Xmanager, and Exceed, for example) can also create the root window for the remote clients to display to as a separate window in the host system.


X terminals

A Network Computing Devices NCD-88k X terminal.
A Network Computing Devices NCD-88k X terminal.
Main article: X terminal

An X terminal is a thin client that runs an X server. This architecture became popular for building inexpensive terminal parks for many users to simultaneously use the same large server. This use very much aligns with the original intention of the MIT project. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Network Computing Devices is a company founded by Judith Estrin and William Carrico in the late 1980s to produce a new class of products now known as a thin client. At that time these devices were known as network terminals or X Terminals. ... In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... A HP T5700 thin client, with flash memory A Neoware m100 thin client. ...


X terminals explore the network (the local broadcast domain) using the X Display Manager Control Protocol to generate a list of available hosts that they can run clients from. The initial host needs to run an X display manager. A broadcast domain is a logical network segment in which any computer or other device connected to the network can directly transmit to any other in the domain without having to go through a routing device, provided that they share the same subnet and gateway address and are in the... In computing, in the X Window System, an X display manager keeps the X server process alive on the X server machine, connecting it to a physical screen and serving a login prompt on this screen when there are no clients running. ... In the X Window System, an X display manager runs as a program, allowing starting a session on an X server from the same or another computer. ...


Dedicated (hardware) X terminals have become less common; a PC or modern thin client with an X server typically provides the same functionality at the same, or lower, cost. A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ... A HP T5700 thin client, with flash memory A Neoware m100 thin client. ...


Limitations and criticisms of X

The UNIX-HATERS Handbook (1994) devoted an entire chapter[3], to the problems of X. Why X Is Not Our Ideal Window System (1990) by Gajewska, Manasse and McCormack detailed problems in the protocol with recommendations for improvement. The UNIX-Haters Handbook is an edited compilation of messages to the UNIX-HATERS mailing list. ...


User interface features

X deliberately contains no specification as to user interface or most inter-application communication. This has resulted in several vastly different interfaces, and in applications that have not always worked well together. The ICCCM, a specification for client interoperability, has a reputation as difficult to implement correctly. Further standards efforts such as Motif and CDE did not remedy matters. This has frustrated users and programmers for a long time.[4] Graphics programmers now generally address consistency of application look and feel and communication by coding to a specific desktop environment or to a specific widget toolkit, which also avoids having to deal directly with the ICCCM. In computing, the Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual (almost universally referred to by its initials, ICCCM) is a standard for X Window System clients to interoperate on a single server. ... Screenshot of an application that uses the Open Motif toolkit Motif is a widget toolkit for building graphical user interfaces under the X Window System on Unix and other POSIX-compliant systems. ... CDE on Unix (Solaris 8) DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look and feel refers to design aspects of a graphical user interface - in terms of both colours, shapes, layout, typefaces, etc (the look); and, the behaviour of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the feel). It is used in reference to both software and websites. ...


The X protocol provides no facilities for handling audio, leaving it to the operating system or audio systems like OSS or Alsa or to provide support for audio hardware and sound playback. Most programmers simply use local, OS-specific sound APIs. The first generation of client-server sound systems included rplay and Network Audio System. More recent efforts have produced EsounD (GNOME), aRts (KDE), and PulseAudio to name a few. In 2001, the X.org foundation announced the development of the Media Application Server (MAS) to remedy this problem. However, none of these are generally used as a solution to the problem. API and Api redirect here. ... The Network Audio System (NAS) is an open-source, network-transparent, client-server audio transport system. ... In computing, the Enlightened Sound Daemon (ESD or EsounD) is the sound server for Enlightenment and GNOME. It mixes several sound streams into one for output. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... PulseAudio (formerly Polypaudio) is a cross-platform networked sound server project. ... The X.Org logo The X.Org Foundation is the consortium holding the stewardship for the development of the X Window System. ...


Network

Example of tunnelling an X11 application over SSH.
Example of tunnelling an X11 application over SSH.

An X client cannot generally be detached from one server and reattached to another, as with Virtual Network Computing (VNC), though certain specific applications and toolkits are able to provide this facility.[5] Workarounds (VNC :0 viewers) also exist to make the current X-server screen available via VNC. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 244 KB) Summary Example of remotely running an X11 program through SSH tunnelling. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 244 KB) Summary Example of remotely running an X11 program through SSH tunnelling. ... Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a desktop sharing system which uses the RFB (Remote FrameBuffer) protocol to remotely control another computer. ...


Network traffic between an X server and remote X clients is not encrypted by default. An attacker with a packet sniffer can intercept it, making it possible to view anything displayed to or sent from the user's screen. The most common way to encrypt X traffic is to tunnel it over SSH. A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer or, for particular types of networks, an Ethernet sniffer or wireless sniffer) is computer software or computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic passing over a digital network or part of a network. ... Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel between two computers. ...


Client-server separation

X's design requires the clients and server to operate separately, and device independence and the separation of client and server incur overhead compared to an operating system where the graphics are integrated into the OS, such as early versions of Microsoft Windows or Mac OS. X advocates recommended 4 to 8 MB of RAM for reasonable performance; until the mid-1990s, this seemed bloated compared to Windows or Mac OS. Windows redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Current versions of Windows and Mac OS X Quartz have internal subsystem separation similar to the client/server divide in X and comparable performance and higher resource usage to X with KDE or GNOME[citation needed]. Most of the overhead comes from network round-trip delay time between client and server (latency rather than from the protocol itself): the best solutions to performance issues involve paying attention to application design.[6] A common misconception is that X's network features result in excessive complexity if only used locally, and that X's network capabilities cause an undesirable performance hit; modern X implementations use local sockets and shared memory, requiring very little overhead. Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Quartz is the marketing name of the proprietary graphics layer that sits on top of the open source Darwin core of Mac OS X. Quartz is part of the Core Graphics framework. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... In telecommunications, the term round-trip delay time or round-trip time (RTT) has the following meanings: The elapsed time for transit of a signal over a closed circuit, or time elapsed for a message to a remote place and back again. ... Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins. ...


Competitors to X

For graphics, Unix-like systems use X almost universally. However, some people have attempted writing alternatives to and replacements for X. Historical alternatives include Sun's NeWS, which failed in the market, and NeXT's Display PostScript, which was discarded in favor of Apple's entirely new Quartz in Mac OS X. Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Next. ... NeXT Computer Inc. ... Apple Inc. ... Quartz is the marketing name of the proprietary graphics layer that sits on top of the open source Darwin core of Mac OS X. Quartz is part of the Core Graphics framework. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Mike Paquette, one of the authors of Quartz, explained why Apple did not move from Display PostScript to X, and chose instead to develop its own window server, by saying that once Apple added support for all the features it wanted to include in to X11, it would not bear much resemblance to X11 nor be compatible with other servers anyway.[7]


Other attempts to address criticisms of X by replacing it completely include Berlin/Fresco and the Y Window System. These alternatives have seen negligible take-up, however, and commentators widely doubt the viability of any replacement that does not preserve backward compatibility with X. In computing, Fresco (formerly known as Berlin) is a windowing system. ... The Y Window System (Also known as Y-Windows) is a windowing system, consisting of a window server and a client library for writing applications. ...


Other competitors attempt to avoid the overhead of X by working directly with the hardware. Such projects include DirectFB and the very small FBUI. The Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI), which aims to provide a reliable kernel-level interface to the framebuffer, may make these efforts redundant. However, in Linux embedded systems requiring real-time capabilities (e.g. using RTAI), the use of hardware acceleration via DRI is discouraged; X may be unsuitable for such applications. DirectFB is a software library for the GNU/Linux operating system that provides hardware graphics acceleration, input device handling and abstraction, integrated windowing system with support for translucent windows and multiple display layers on top of the Linux Framebuffer Device. ... fbui (FrameBuffer UI) is an in-kernel graphical user interface for Linux that sits on top of the framebuffer subsystem. ... In computing, the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI) is an interface used in the X Window System to securely allow user applications to access the video hardware without requiring data to be passed (slowly) through the X Server. ... The framebuffer is a part of RAM in a computer allocated to hold the graphics information for one frame or picture. ... RTAI stands for Realtime Application Interface. ...


Other ways to achieve network transparency for graphical services include:

SVG redirects here. ... Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a desktop sharing system which uses the RFB (Remote FrameBuffer) protocol to remotely control another computer. ... Citrix Presentation Server (formerly Citrix MetaFrame) is a remote access/application publishing product built on the Independent Computing Architecture (ICA), Citrix Systems thin client protocol. ... The current logo of Tarantella, Inc. ... NX technology is a computer program that makes fast, secure, remote X11 connections to enable users to access remote Linux and Unix desktop sessions, and is fast enough even over a low bandwidth and high latency data link such as provided by a modem. ...

History

Predecessors

Several bitmap display systems preceded X. From Xerox came the Alto (1973) and the Star (1981). From Apple came the Lisa (1983) and the Macintosh (1984). The Unix world had the Andrew Project (1982) and Rob Pike's Blit terminal (1984). Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... A Xerox Alto Computer System The Xerox Alto, developed at Xerox PARC in 1973, was the first personal computer and the first computer to use the desktop metaphor and graphical user interface (GUI). ... The Star workstation, officially known as the 8010 Star Information System, was introduced by Xerox Corporation in 1981. ... Apple Inc. ... The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... // The Information Technology Center was a joint project of Carnegie Mellon University and IBM to develop and deploy a distributed computing environment on the Carnegie Mellon campus. ... Rob Pike (born 1956) is a software engineer and author. ... In computing, the Blit was a programmable bitmap graphics terminal designed by Rob Pike and Bart Locanthi of Bell Labs in 1983. ...


X derives its name as a successor to a pre-1983 window system called W (the letter X directly following W in the Latin alphabet). W Window System ran under the V operating system. W used a network protocol supporting terminal and graphics windows, the server maintaining display lists. The W Window System is a graphical windowing system and precursor in name and concept to the modern X Window System. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The V operating system (sometimes written V-System) is a microkernel operating system that was developed by faculty and students in the Distributed Systems Group at Stanford University in the 1980s, led primarily by Prof. ...

A late-80s style Unix desktop running the X Window System graphical user interface. Shown are a number of client applications common to the MIT X Consortium's distribution, including twm, an X Terminal, Xbiff, xload, and a graphical manual page browser.
A late-80s style Unix desktop running the X Window System graphical user interface. Shown are a number of client applications common to the MIT X Consortium's distribution, including twm, an X Terminal, Xbiff, xload, and a graphical manual page browser.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x750, 34 KB) This screenshot shows the X Window System running Toms Window Manager, and a number of client apps: the xlogo, an xterm, oclock, xbiff, xman, and xload. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x750, 34 KB) This screenshot shows the X Window System running Toms Window Manager, and a number of client apps: the xlogo, an xterm, oclock, xbiff, xman, and xload. ... twm desktop In computing, twm (Toms Window Manager or Tab Window Manager) is the standard window manager for the X Window System, version X11R4 onwards. ... xterm is the standard terminal emulator for the X Window System. ... xbiff is a small utility for the X Window System that shows a mailbox with its flag raised whenever the user has new e-mail. ... Almost all substantial UNIX and Unix-like operating systems have extensive documentation available as an electronic manual, split into multiple sections called man pages (short for manual pages and based on the command used to display them). ...

Origin and early development

The original idea of X emerged at MIT in 1984 as a collaboration between Jim Gettys (of Project Athena) and Bob Scheifler (of the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science). Scheifler needed a usable display environment for debugging the Argus system. Project Athena (a joint project between Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), MIT and IBM to provide easy access to computing resources for all students) needed a platform-independent graphics system to link together its heterogeneous multiple-vendor systems; the window system then under development in Carnegie Mellon University's Andrew Project did not make licences available, and no alternatives existed. Jim Gettys is a computer programmer. ... Project Athena was a joint project of MIT, Digital Equipment Corporation, and IBM. It was launched in 1983, and research and development ran through June 30, 1991, eight years after it began. ... Robert W. Scheifler (born 1954) is a computer scientist. ... Project MAC, later the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS), was a research laboratory at MIT. Project MAC would become famous for groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation. ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... // The Information Technology Center was a joint project of Carnegie Mellon University and IBM to develop and deploy a distributed computing environment on the Carnegie Mellon campus. ...


The project solved this by creating a protocol that could both run local applications and call on remote resources. In mid-1983 an initial port of W to Unix ran at one-fifth of its speed under V; in May 1984, Scheifler replaced the synchronous protocol of W with an asynchronous protocol and the display lists with immediate mode graphics to make X version 1. X became the first windowing system environment to offer true hardware-independence and vendor-independence. Synchronization is coordination with respect to time. ... For other senses of this word, see protocol. ... Asynchrony is the state of not being synchronized. ...


Scheifler, Gettys and Ron Newman set to work and X progressed rapidly. They released Version 6 in January 1985. DEC, then preparing to release its first Ultrix workstation, judged X the only windowing system likely to become available in time. DEC engineers ported X6 to DEC's QVSS display on MicroVAX. Ron Newman is a computer programmer. ... Ultrix (officially all-caps ULTRIX) was the brand name of Digital Equipment Corporations (DEC) native Unix systems. ... save Y100!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ...


In the second quarter of 1985 X acquired color support to function in the DEC VAXstation-II/GPX, forming what became version 9. Although MIT had licensed X6 to some outside groups for a fee, it decided at this time to license X9 and future versions under what became known as the MIT License. X9 appeared in September 1985. In computing, on the X Window System, X11 color names are represented in a simple text file, which maps certain strings to RGB color values. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ...


A group at Brown University ported version 9 to the IBM RT/PC, but problems with reading unaligned data on the RT forced an incompatible protocol change, leading to version 10 in late 1985. By 1986, outside organizations had started asking for X. The release of X10R2 took place in January 1986; that of X10R3 in February 1986. X10R3 became the first version to achieve wide deployment, with both DEC and Hewlett-Packard releasing products based on it. Other groups ported X10 to Apollo and to Sun workstations and even to the IBM PC/AT. Demonstrations of the first commercial application for X (a mechanical computer-aided engineering system from Cognition Inc. that ran on VAXes and displayed on PCs running an X server) took place at the Autofact trade show at that time. The last version of X10, X10R4, appeared in December 1986. Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The IBM RT was a computer based around on the PC-AT bus and IBMs ROMP microprocessor, a single-chip version of the IBM 801. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Apollo Computer, Inc. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The IBM PC/AT was IBMs third-generation PC, designed around the Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984. ...


Attempts were made to enable X servers as real-time collaboration devices, much as VNC would later allow a desktop to be shared. One such early effort was Philip J. Gust's SharedX tool. SharedX was an tool developed at HP in the mid 1980s to allow X servers to shared a window, thus allowing users at multiple workstations to interact with the same X window. ...


Although X10 offered interesting and powerful functionality, it had become obvious that the X protocol could use a more hardware-neutral redesign before it became too widely deployed; but MIT alone would not have the resources available for such a complete redesign. As it happened, DEC's Western Software Laboratory found itself between projects. Smokey Wallace of DEC WSL and Jim Gettys proposed that DEC WSL build X11 and make it freely available under the same terms as X9 and X10. This process started in May 1986, with the protocol finalised in August. Alpha-testing of the software started in February 1987, beta-testing in May; the release of X11 finally occurred on September 15, 1987. is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


The X11 protocol design, led by Scheifler, got extensively discussed on open mailing lists on the nascent Internet that were bridged to USENET newsgroups. X therefore represents one of the first very large-scale free software projects. This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ...


The MIT X Consortium and the X Consortium, Inc.

In 1987, with the success of X11 becoming apparent, MIT wished to relinquish the stewardship of X, but at a June 1987 meeting with nine vendors, the vendors told MIT that they believed in the need for a neutral party to keep X from fragmenting in the marketplace. In January 1988, the MIT X Consortium formed as a non-profit vendor group, with Scheifler as director, to direct the future development of X in a neutral atmosphere inclusive of commercial and educational interests. Jim Fulton joined in January 1988 and Keith Packard in March 1988 as senior developers, with Jim focusing on Xlib, fonts, window managers, and utilities; and Keith re-implementing the server. Donna Converse and Chris D. Peterson joined later that year, focusing on toolkits and widget sets, working closely with Ralph Swick of MIT Project Athena. The MIT X Consortium produced several significant revisions to X11, the first (Release 2 - X11R2) in February 1988. Keith Packard is a software developer, best known for his work on the X Window System. ... In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ... Xlib is an X Window System protocol client library in the C programming language. ...

CDE on UNIX (Solaris 8)
DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7.3-1
DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7.3-1

In 1993, the X Consortium, Inc. (a non-profit corporation) formed as the successor to the MIT X Consortium. It released X11R6 on May 16, 1994. In 1995 it took over stewardship of the Motif toolkit and of the Common Desktop Environment for Unix systems. The X Consortium dissolved at the end of 1996, producing a final revision, X11R6.3, and a legacy of increasing commercial influence in the development.[8][9] Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 39 KB)Solaris 8 CDE desktop screenshot by David Gerard. ... Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 39 KB)Solaris 8 CDE desktop screenshot by David Gerard. ... CDE on Unix (Solaris 8) DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 163 KB)DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 163 KB)DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Screenshot of an application that uses the Open Motif toolkit Motif is a widget toolkit for building graphical user interfaces under the X Window System on Unix and other POSIX-compliant systems. ... CDE on Unix (Solaris 8) DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ...


The Open Group

In mid-1997 the X Consortium passed stewardship of X to The Open Group, a vendor group formed in early 1996 by the merger of the Open Software Foundation and X/Open. This article or section reads like an advertisement. ... The Open Software Foundation (OSF) was an organization founded in 1988 to create an open standard for an implementation of the Unix operating system. ... X/Open Company, Ltd. ...


The Open Group released X11R6.4 in early 1998. Controversially, X11R6.4 departed from the traditional liberal licensing terms, as the Open Group sought to assure funding for X's development.[10] The new terms would have prevented its adoption by many projects (such as XFree86) and even by some commercial vendors. After XFree86 seemed poised to fork, the Open Group relicensed X11R6.4 under the traditional license in September 1998.[11] The Open Group's last release came as X11R6.4 patch 3. XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... In software, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes code from a project and starts to develop independently of the rest. ...


X.Org and XFree86

XFree86 originated in 1992 from the X386 server for IBM PC compatibles included with X11R5 in 1991, written by Thomas Roell and Mark W. Snitily and donated to the MIT X Consortium by Snitily Graphics Consulting Services (SGCS). XFree86 evolved over time from just one port of X to the leading and most popular implementation and the de facto steward of X's development.[12] XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In May 1999, the Open Group formed X.Org. X.Org supervised the release of versions X11R6.5.1 onward. X development at this time had become moribund[13]; most technical innovation since the X Consortium had dissolved had taken place in the XFree86 project.[14] In 1999, the XFree86 team joined X.Org as an honorary (non-paying) member[15], encouraged by various hardware companies[16] interested in using XFree86 with Linux and in its status as the most popular version of X. The X.Org logo The X.Org Foundation is the consortium holding the stewardship for the development of the X Window System. ...


By 2003, while the popularity of Linux (and hence the installed base of X) surged, X.Org remained inactive[17], and active development took place largely within XFree86. However, considerable dissent developed within XFree86. The XFree86 project suffered from a perception of a far too cathedral-like development model; developers could not get CVS commit access[18][19] and vendors had to maintain extensive patch sets.[20] In March 2003 the XFree86 organization expelled Keith Packard, who had joined XFree86 after the end of the original MIT X Consortium, with considerable ill-feeling.[21][22][23] The Cathedral and the Bazaar (abbreviated CatB) is an essay by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail. ... The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is an open-source version control system invented and developed by Dick Grune in the 1980s. ... In computing, a patch is a small piece of software designed to update or fix problems with a computer program or its supporting data. ...


X.Org and XFree86 began discussing a reorganisation suited to properly nurturing the development of X.[24][25][26] Jim Gettys had been pushing strongly for an open development model since at least 2000.[27] Gettys, Packard and several others began discussing in detail the requirements for the effective governance of X with open development.


Finally, in an echo of the X11R6.4 licensing dispute, XFree86 released version 4.4 in February 2004 under a more restricted license which many projects relying on X found unacceptable.[28] The added clause to the license was based upon the original BSD license's advertising clause, which was viewed by the Free Software Foundation and Debian as incompatible with the GNU General Public License.[29] Other groups saw further restrictions as being against the spirit of the original X (OpenBSD threatening a fork, for example). The license issue, combined with the difficulties in getting changes in, left many feeling the time was ripe for a fork.[30] The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... In software, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes code from a project and starts to develop independently of the rest. ...


The X.Org Foundation

In early 2004 various people from X.Org and freedesktop.org formed the X.Org Foundation, and the Open Group gave it control of the x.org domain name. This marked a radical change in the governance of X. Whereas the stewards of X since 1988 (including the previous X.Org) had been vendor organizations, the Foundation was led by software developers and used community development based on the bazaar model, which relies on outside involvement. Membership was opened to individuals, with corporate membership being in the form of sponsorship. Several major corporations such as Hewlett-Packard and Sun Microsystems currently support the X.Org Foundation. The X.Org swoosh logo. ... The term domain name has multiple related meanings: A name that identifies a computer or computers on the internet. ... The Cathedral and the Bazaar (abbreviated CatB) is an essay by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ...


The Foundation takes an oversight role over X development: technical decisions are made on their merits by achieving rough consensus among community members. Technical decisions are not made by the board of directors; in this sense, it is strongly modelled on the technically non-interventionist GNOME Foundation. The Foundation does not employ any developers. The GNOME Foundation is a non-profit organization based in Boston, Massachusetts, coordinating the efforts in the GNOME project. ...


The Foundation released X11R6.7, the X.Org Server, in April 2004, based on XFree86 4.4RC2 with X11R6.6 changes merged. Gettys and Packard had taken the last version of XFree86 under the old license and, by making a point of an open development model and retaining GPL compatibility, brought many of the old XFree86 developers on board.[31] The X.Org Server (officially the ) is the official reference implementation of the X Window System. ...


X11R6.8 came out in September 2004. It added significant new features, including preliminary support for translucent windows and other sophisticated visual effects, screen magnifiers and thumbnailers, and facilities to integrate with 3D immersive display systems such as Sun's Project Looking Glass and the Croquet project. External applications called compositing window managers provide policy for the visual appearance. Project Looking Glass is a free software project under the GPL to create an innovative 3D desktop environment for Linux, Solaris, and Windows. ... Real time, interactive, 3D map of this very same world. ... In the X Window System, a compositing window manager is a unified X window manager and compositing manager program. ...


On December 21, 2005[32] , X.Org released X11R6.9, the monolithic source tree for legacy users, and X11R7.0, the same source code separated into independent modules, each maintainable in separate projects.[33] The Foundation released X11R7.1 on May 22, 2006, about four months after 7.0, with considerable feature improvements.[34] is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Future directions

With the X.Org Foundation and freedesktop.org, the main line of X development has started to progress rapidly once more. The developers intend to release present and future versions as usable finished products, not merely as bases for vendors to build a product upon.


For sufficiently capable combinations of hardware and operating systems, X.Org plans to access the video hardware only via OpenGL and the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI). The DRI first appeared in XFree86 version 4.0 and became standard in X11R6.7 and later.[35] Many operating systems have started to add kernel support for hardware manipulation. This work proceeds incrementally. OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... In computing, the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI) is an interface used in the X Window System to securely allow user applications to access the video hardware without requiring data to be passed (slowly) through the X Server. ...


Nomenclature

People in the computer trade commonly shorten the phrase "X Window System" to "X11" or simply to "X". The term "X Windows" (in the manner of "Microsoft Windows") is not officially endorsed, though it has been in common use since early in the history of X and has been used deliberately for literary effect, for example in the UNIX-HATERS Handbook.[36] The UNIX-Haters Handbook is an edited compilation of messages to the UNIX-HATERS mailing list. ...


Release history

See also: XFree86#Release history
Version Release date Most important changes
X1 June 1984 First use of the name "X"; fundamental changes distinguishing the product from W.
X6 January 1985 First version licensed to a handful of outside companies.
X9 September 1985 Color. First release under MIT License.
X10 late 1985 IBM RT/PC, AT (running DOS), and others
X10R2 January 1986
X10R3 February 1986 First release outside MIT. uwm made standard window manager.
X10R4 December 1986 Last version of X10.
X11 September 15, 1987 First release of the current protocol.
X11R2 February 1988 First X Consortium release.[37]
X11R3 October 25, 1988 XDM
X11R4 December 22, 1989 XDMCP, twm brought in as standard window manager, application improvements, Shape extension, new fonts.
X11R5 September 5, 1991 PEX, Xcms (color management), font server, X386, X video extension
X11R6 May 16, 1994 ICCCM v2.0; Inter-Client Exchange; X Session Management; X Synchronization extension; X Image extension; XTEST extension; X Input; X Big Requests; XC-MISC; XFree86 changes.
X11R6.1 March 14, 1996 X Double Buffer extension; X keyboard extension; X Record extension.
X11R6.2
X11R6.3 (Broadway)
December 23, 1996 Web functionality, LBX. Last X Consortium release. X11R6.2 is the tag for a subset of X11R6.3 with the only new features over R6.1 being XPrint and the Xlib implementation of vertical writing and user-defined character support.[38]
X11R6.4 March 31, 1998 Xinerama.[39]
X11R6.5 Internal X.org release; not made publicly available.
X11R6.5.1 August 20, 2000
X11R6.6 April 4, 2001 Bug fixes, XFree86 changes.
X11R6.7.0 April 6, 2004 First X.Org Foundation release, incorporating XFree86 4.4rc2. Full end-user distribution. Removal of XIE, PEX and libxml2.[40]
X11R6.8.0 September 8, 2004 Window translucency, XDamage, Distributed Multihead X, XFixes, Composite, XEvIE.
X11R6.8.1 September 17, 2004 Security fix in libxpm.
X11R6.8.2 February 10, 2005 Bug fixes, driver updates.
X11R6.9
X11R7.0
December 21, 2005 EXA, major source code refactoring.[41] From the same source-code base, the modular autotooled version became 7.0 and the monolithic imake version was frozen at 6.9.
X11R7.1 May 22, 2006 EXA enhancements, KDrive integrated, AIGLX, OS and platform support enhancements.[42]
X11R7.2 February 15, 2007 Removal of LBX and the built-in keyboard driver, X-ACE, XCB, autoconfig improvements, cleanups.[43]
X11R7.3 September 6, 2007 Input hotplug, output hotplug (RandR 1.2), DTrace probes, PCI domain support, SELinux security module, Solaris Trusted Extensions security module, UnixWare support, projects completed during Summer of Code 2006.[44]
X11R7.4 March, 2008[45] MPX

XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... The W Window System is a graphical windowing system and precursor in name and concept to the modern X Window System. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... In computing, the name uwm can refer to two different X window managers: most commonly the very early Ultrix Window Manager, released in 1985, which was the standard window manager for the X Window System from X10R3 through to X11R3; and the later UDE Window Manager, released in 1998. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... XDM (in full, the X Window Display Manager) is the default display manager for the X Window System. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... In computing, in the X Window System, an X display manager keeps the X server process alive on the X server machine, connecting it to a physical screen and serving a login prompt on this screen when there are no clients running. ... twm desktop In computing, twm (Toms Window Manager or Tab Window Manager) is the standard window manager for the X Window System, version X11R4 onwards. ... The round oclock window. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... PHIGS is an API standard for rendering 3D computer graphics, at one time considered to be the 3D graphics standard for the 1990s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... The X video extension, often abbreviated as XVideo or Xv, is a video output mechanism for the X Window System. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... In computing, the Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual (almost universally referred to by its initials, ICCCM) is a standard for X Window System clients to interoperate on a single server. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... In the X Window System, the X keyboard extension or XKB extends the ability to control the keyboard over what is offered by the X Window core protocol. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... In computing, LBX, or Low Bandwidth X, was a protocol to use the X Window System over network links with low bandwidth and high latency. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Four Head Xinerama Xinerama is an extension to the X Window System which allows applications and window managers to use the two (or more) physical displays as one large virtual display. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PHIGS is an API standard for rendering 3D computer graphics, at one time considered to be the 3D graphics standard for the 1990s. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In computing, XFixes is an X Window System extension which makes useful additions to the X11 protocol. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... XPM (X PixMap) is an ASCII image format used by the X Window System. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the X Window System, in the X.Org Server, EXA is a graphics acceleration architecture to make the XRender extension more usable, with only minor changes needed to adapt XFree86 video drivers written to use XAA (the XFree86 Acceleration Architecture). ... The GNU build system is a suite of tools produced by the GNU project that assist in making packages portable to many UNIX-like systems. ... imake is a C preprocessor interface to the make utility for Unix Systems. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... KDrive (or freedesktop. ... Compiz running on Fedora Core 6 with AIGLX. Accelerated Indirect GLX (AIGLX) is an open source project founded by Red Hat and the Fedora Linux community to allow accelerated indirect GLX rendering capabilities to X.org and DRI drivers. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... In computing, LBX, or Low Bandwidth X, was a protocol to use the X Window System over network links with low bandwidth and high latency. ... In computing, XCB (X C Binding) is a C language binding for the X Window System. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Hot swapping is the ability to remove and replace components of a machine, usually a computer, while it is operating. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework created by Sun Microsystems. ... 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI), specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a version of the Linux kernel and utilities, which contains support for mandatory access controls based on the principle of least privilege. ... Trusted Solaris is a security-evaluated operating system based on Solaris by Sun Microsystems, featuring a mandatory access control model. ... UnixWare is a flavor of the Unix operating system. ... The Google Summer of Code is an annual program, first held during the northern hemisphere summer of 2005, in which Google awards cash prizes to students who successfully complete a free software / open-source coding project during the summer. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MPX with 18 different pointers available for use MPX is an acronym for the Multi-pointer X Server. ...

See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... The graphical user interface, or GUI (IPA: ), is a computer interface that uses graphic icons and controls in addition to text. ... A windowing system is a graphical user interface (GUI) which uses the window as one of its primary metaphors. ... The X Window System logo In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a network-transparent windowing system for bitmap displays. ... The X Window System logo The X Window System core protocol[1][2][3] is the base protocol of the X Window System, which is a networked windowing system for bitmap displays used to build graphical user interfaces on Unix, Unix-like, and other operating systems. ... In computing, on the X Window System, X11 color names are represented in a simple text file, which maps certain strings to RGB color values. ... Cube view on a hardware accelerated Xgl server Xgl is an X server architecture designed to take advantage of modern graphics cards via their OpenGL drivers, layered on top of OpenGL via glitz. ... The GGI Project (GGI - General Graphics Interface), is an active Free software project that aims to develop a reliable, stable and fast FOSS graphics system that works everywhere. ... Compiz running on Fedora Core 6 with AIGLX. Accelerated Indirect GLX (AIGLX) is an open source project founded by Red Hat and the Fedora Linux community to allow accelerated indirect GLX rendering capabilities to X.org and DRI drivers. ... Theres no denying that thin client has become a buzzword in the computing industry of late. ... rio is Plan 9s window system. ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... This is a list of Unix programs. ... DESQview was a text mode multitasking program which enjoyed modest popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... cairo is a free software graphics library with multiple backends that provides a vector based device-independent API for software developers. ... The Y Window System (Also known as Y-Windows) is a windowing system, consisting of a window server and a client library for writing applications. ... XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ...

References

  1. ^ Introduction to X11R7.0 manual 2005
  2. ^ Announcement: Modification to the base XFree86(TM) license. 02 Feb 2004
  3. ^ "The X-Windows Disaster"
  4. ^ Re: X is painful 15 Nov 1996
  5. ^ SNAP Computing and the X Window System 2005
  6. ^ An LBX Postmortem 2001-1-24
  7. ^ Why Apple didn't use X for the window system August 19, 2007
  8. ^ Financing Volunteer Free Software Projects 10 Jun 2005
  9. ^ Lessons Learned about Open Source 2000
  10. ^ X statement 02 Apr 1998
  11. ^ X11R6.4 Sample Implementation Changes and Concerns
  12. ^ Announcement: Modification to the base XFree86(TM) license. 02 Feb 2004
  13. ^ Q&A: The X Factor February 04, 2002
  14. ^ The Evolution of the X Server Architecture 1999
  15. ^ A Call For Open Governance Of X Development 23 Mar 2003
  16. ^ XFree86 joins X.Org as Honorary Member Dec 01, 1999
  17. ^ Another teleconference partial edited transcript 13 Apr 2003
  18. ^ Keith Packard issue 20 Mar 2003
  19. ^ Cygwin/XFree86 - No longer associated with XFree86.org 27 Oct 2003
  20. ^ On XFree86 development 9 Jan 2003
  21. ^ Invitation for public discussion about the future of X 20 Mar 2003
  22. ^ A Call For Open Governance Of X Development 21 Mar 2003
  23. ^ Notes from a teleconference held 2003-3-27 03 Apr 2003
  24. ^ A Call For Open Governance Of X Development 24 Mar 2003
  25. ^ A Call For Open Governance Of X Development 23 Mar 2003
  26. ^ Discussing issues 14 Apr 2003
  27. ^ Lessons Learned about Open Source 2000
  28. ^ XFree86 4.4: List of Rejecting Distributors Grows Feb 18, 2004
  29. ^ Appendix A: The Cautionary Tale of XFree86 June 5, 2002
  30. ^ X Marks the Spot: Looking back at X11 Developments of Past Year Feb 25, 2004
  31. ^ Appendix A: The Cautionary Tale of XFree86 June 5, 2002
  32. ^ X11R6.9 and X11R7.0 Officially Released December 21 2005
  33. ^ Modularization Proposal 2005-03-31
  34. ^ Proposed Changes for X11R7.1 2006-04-21
  35. ^ Getting X Off The Hardware July, 2004
  36. ^ X - a portable, network-transparent window system February 2005
  37. ^ The X Window System: History and Architecture 1 September 1999
  38. ^ XFree86 and X11R6.3 December 1999
  39. ^ The Open Group Announces Internet-Ready X Window System X11R6.4 March 31, 1998
  40. ^ X.Org Foundation releases X Window System X11R6.7 April 7, 2004
  41. ^ Changes Since R6.8 2005-10-21
  42. ^ Release Notes for X11R7.1 22 May 2006
  43. ^ The X.Org Foundation released 7.2.0 (aka X11R7.2) February 15th, 2007
  44. ^ X server version 1.4 release plans, accessed 2007-08-25
  45. ^ Debian X.org notes - X.org 7.4 plans - What we expect for Lenny (Brice Goglin, 11 September 2007)

“PDF” redirects here. ... The UNIX-Haters Handbook is an edited compilation of messages to the UNIX-HATERS mailing list. ... Keith Packard is a software developer, best known for his work on the X Window System. ... Jim Gettys is a computer programmer. ... The USENIX Association is the Advanced Computing Technical Association. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... OLS is an annual Linux conference held every year since 1999 in Ottawa, Canada. ... Categories: People stubs | 1965 births | Wikipedians with article ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:

Notable implementations

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... X11. ... Quartz is the marketing name of the proprietary graphics layer that sits on top of the open source Darwin core of Mac OS X. Quartz is part of the Core Graphics framework. ... The X Window System logo In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a network-transparent windowing system for bitmap displays. ... The X Window System logo The X Window System core protocol[1][2][3] is the base protocol of the X Window System, which is a networked windowing system for bitmap displays used to build graphical user interfaces on Unix, Unix-like, and other operating systems. ... Xlib is an X Window System protocol client library in the C programming language. ... Selections, cut buffers, and drag-and-drop are the mechanisms used in the X Window System to allow a user to tranfer data from a window to another. ... An X window manager is software that controls the placement and appearance of windows under the X Window System, a windowing system mainly used on Unix-like systems. ... In the X Window System, an X session manager is a session management program, a program that can save and restore the current state of a set of running applications. ... In the X Window System, an X display manager runs as a program, allowing starting a session on an X server from the same or another computer. ... Development software for building X Window applications. ... In the X Window System, programs connect to the X server, possibly via a computer network. ... Intrinsics (also known as Xt, for X toolkit) is a library used in the X Window System. ... In computing, on the X Window System, X11 color names are represented in a simple text file, which maps certain strings to RGB color values. ... An X window manager is software that controls the placement and appearance of windows under the X Window System, a windowing system mainly used on Unix-like systems. ... In the X Window System, a compositing window manager is a unified X window manager and compositing manager program. ... In the X Window System, every window has a parent window. ... A tiling window manager is a window manager with an organization of the screen into mutually non-overlapping frames, as opposed to the traditional approach of coordinate-based stacking of objects (windows) that tries to emulate the desk paradigm. ... X Image Extension, or XIE are extensions to X Window system that enhance its graphics capability. ... In the X Window System, the X keyboard extension or XKB extends the ability to control the keyboard over what is offered by the X Window core protocol. ... The X video extension, often abbreviated as XVideo or Xv, is a video output mechanism for the X Window System. ... The round oclock window. ... The MIT Shared Memory Extension or MIT-SHM is a X Window System extension for exchange of image data between client and server using shared memory. ... GLX (initialism for OpenGL Extension to the X Window System) provides the glue connecting OpenGL and the X Window System: it enables programs wishing to use OpenGL to do so within a window provided by the X Window System. ... Xrender (aka X Rendering Extension) introduces digital image composition as the foundation of a new rendering model within the X Window System. ... MPX with 18 different pointers available for use MPX is an acronym for the Multi-pointer X Server. ... X11. ... The X.Org Server (officially the ) is the official reference implementation of the X Window System. ... In computing, X-Win32 is a proprietary X Window System server for Microsoft Windows, produced by StarNet Communications. ... XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... XDarwin is an X11 server which runs on Mac OS X and Darwin. ... Xming is a port of the X Window System to Microsoft Windows. ... The Solaris operating system developed by Sun Microsystems uses proprietary version of X Window System called Xsun. ... In computing, the Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual (almost universally referred to by its initials, ICCCM) is a standard for X Window System clients to interoperate on a single server. ... Extended Window Manager Hints is an X Window System standard for window managers. ... The Direct Save Protocol, abbreviated XDS (for X Window Direct Save Protocol), is a software protocol that supports saving files by dragging them to file manager windows. ... xterm is the standard terminal emulator for the X Window System. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
X Window System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4381 words)
X provides the basic framework for a GUI environment: drawing and moving windows on the screen and interacting with a mouse and keyboard.
X derives its name as a successor to a pre-1983 window system called W (the letter X directly following W in the Latin alphabet).
The term "X Windows" (in the manner of "Microsoft Windows") is officially deprecated and generally considered incorrect, though it has been in common use since early in the history of X and has been used deliberately for literary effect, for example in the UNIX-HATERS Handbook.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m