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Encyclopedia > X (IPA)
IPA – number 140
IPA – text x
IPA – image Image:Xsampa-x.png
Entity x
X-SAMPA x
Kirshenbaum x
Sound sample 

The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is x, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is x. The [x] sound is present in some dialects of English. To give English speakers an example of the sound with which they might be familiar, consider the sound represented by "ch" in Scottish loch. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ... Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci. ... Image File history File links Voiceless velar fricative. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...

Contents

Features

Features of the voiceless velar fricative:

In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... An oral consonant is a consonant sound in speech that is made by allowing air to escape from the mouth. ... A central or medial consonant is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue. ... In phonetics, initiation is the action by which an air-flow is created through the vocal tract. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ...

Varieties of [x]

IPA Description
x plain velar fricative
labialized
x’ ejective
xʷ’ ejective labialized
x̜ʷ semi-labialized
x̹ʷ strongly labialized

Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ...

Occurrence

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Esperanto flag Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language. ... Brazilian Portuguese is a collective name for the varieties of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 187 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants and temporary workers in other countries, mainly in Canada, United States, Portugal, Paraguay and Japan. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ...

See also

  Consonants (List, table) See also: IPA, Vowels  
Pulmonics Bilabial Lab'den. Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglottal Glottal Non-pulmonics and other symbols
Nasals m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Clicks  ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
Plosives p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Implo­­sives  ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Fricatives  ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Ejec­­tives 
Approximants  β̞ ʋ ð̞ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Other laterals  ɺ ɫ
Trills ʙ r ʀ Co-articulated approximants ʍ w ɥ
Flaps & Taps ѵ̟ ѵ ɾ ɽ Co-articulated fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ
Lat. Fricatives ɬ ɮ Affricates  ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ
Lat. Appr'mants l ɭ ʎ ʟ Co-articulated stops  k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged impossible.

 
 

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