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Look up X, x in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

X is the twenty-fourth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ex (IPA: /ɛks/),[1] plural exes. X is the twenty-fourth letter of the Roman alphabet. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Latin_alphabet_Xx. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see E (disambiguation). ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see G (disambiguation). ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see J (disambiguation). ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see L (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see M (disambiguation). ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see T (disambiguation). ... For other uses of U, see U (disambiguation). ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

History

The consonant cluster /ks/ was, in Ancient Greek, written as either Chi Χ (Western Greek) or Xi Ξ (Eastern Greek). In the end, Chi was standardized as /kʰ/ (/x/ in Modern Greek), while Xi was standardized for /ks/. But the Etruscans had taken over Χ from older Western Greek; therefore, it stood for /ks/ in Etruscan and Latin. In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Xi (upper case Ξ, lower case ξ) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


It is unknown whether the letters Chi and Xi are Greek inventions, or whether they are ultimately of Semitic origin. Chi was placed toward the end of the Greek alphabet, after the Semitic letters, along with Phi, Psi, and Omega, suggesting that it was an innovation; further, there is no letter corresponding specifically to the sound /ks/ in Semitic. There was a Phoenician letter kheth with a probable sound /ħ/, somewhat similar to /kʰ/, but this was adopted into Greek as first the consonant /h/, and later, the long vowel Eta (Η,η), and does not seem to have been the source of Greek Chi. The Phoenician letter Samekh (representing /s/) is usually considered the inspiration for Greek Xi, but as noted, Chi had a graphically distinct shape from Xi — although it may possibly have been another variant originally based on samekh. The original form of samekh may have been an Egyptian hieroglyph for the Djed column, but this too is uncertain, as no intervening Proto-Sinaitic form of this letter is attested. In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ψ, ψ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Heth. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Phoenician Samekh. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... The Djed pillar represents stability and has been interpreted as the backbone of the Egyptian god Osiris. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of alphabets. ...

Egyptian hieroglyph "column" Phoenician S Greek Xi Greek Chi Etruscan X
Image:PhoenicianX-01.png Image:EtruscanX-01.png

Image File history File links PhoenicianX-01. ... Image File history File links Xi_uc_lc. ... Image File history File links Chi_uc_lc. ... Image File history File links EtruscanX-01. ...

Usage

In some languages, as a result of assorted phonetic changes and handwriting adaptations, X has other pronunciations:

  • Basque: as a spelling for [ʃ].
  • Dutch: The island of Texel is pronounced as Tessel. This is because ss was written with a ligature closely resembling the x.
  • English: X is a double consonant or, rather, a sign for the compound consonants [ks]; or sometimes when followed by an accented syllable beginning with a vowel, or when followed by silent h and an accented vowel [gz] (e.g. exhaust, exam); usually [z] at the beginnings of words (e.g. xylophone), and in some compounds keeps the [z] sound, as in (e.g. meta-xylene). It also makes the sound [kʃ] in words ending in -xion (typically used only in British-based spellings of the language; American spellings tend to use -ction). It can also represent the sounds [gʒ] or [kʃ], for example, in the words luxury and sexual, respectively. When the letter X begins a word in the English language such as xynene and a z sound is created the X is said to be silent. Final x is always [ks] (e.g. ax/axe) except in loan words such as faux (see French, below).
  • French: at the ends of words, silent (or [z] in liaison if the next word starts with a vowel). This usage arose as a handwriting alteration of final -us. Two exceptions are pronounced [s]: six and dix.
  • In Norwegian, X is generally pronounced [ks], but since the nineteenth century there has been a tendency to spell it out as ks whenever possible; it may still be retained in names of people, though it is fairly rare, and occurs mostly in foreign words and SMS language.
  • Spanish: In Old Spanish, X was pronounced like [ʃ] as it is still currently in other Iberian languages. Later, the sound evolved to a hard [x] sound. In modern Spanish, the hard [x] sound is spelled with a j, or with a g before e and i, though x is still retained for some names (notably México, which alternates with Méjico). Now, X represents the sound [s] (word-initially), or the consonat clusters [ks] and [gs] (e.g. oxígeno, examen). Even rarer; like in Old Spanish, the x can be pronounced as [ʃ] in modern day in some proper nouns such as Raxel (a variant of Rachel) and Xelajú. In American and seseo Spanish, the xc in excelente is pronounced as [ks] but in Spain, this combination is pronounced [ks-θ].
  • In Albanian, x represents [dz], while the digraph xh represents [dʒ].
  • Polish doesn't use X. In loanwords, X is either replaced by ks like in 'ekstra' (extra), or gz like in 'egzotyczny' (exotic).
  • Nguni languages: represents the Lateral alveolar click [ǁ].
  • In some recently created alphabets based on the Roman alphabet, x represents [x]. This is the case in Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Uzbek, Tatar and Lojban.
  • In Hanyu Pinyin, the official transcription system for Mandarin Chinese, the letter x denotes the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/.
  • In the German and Italian languages, X is used mainly in foreign loan words.
  • In Maltese x is pronounced ʃ

No words in the Basic English vocabulary begin with X, but it occurs in words beginning with other letters. It is often found in a word with an E before it. Otherwise it is the third most rarely used letter in the English language. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Spelling differences redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article should be translated from material at fr:Liaison. ... txt redirects here. ... The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Buildings flanking the Central Park Square in Quetzaltenango Building flanking the Central Park Square in Quetzaltenango Quetzaltenango is the second most populous city of Guatemala, after Guatemala City. ... There are a series of significant differences in the way the Spanish language is spoken in the 20 or so countries and territories where it is an official language. ... Digraph has several meanings: directed graph, or digraph Digraph (orthography) Digraph (computing) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Nguni is a group of languages spoken in southern Africa including isiZulu, isiXhosa, siSwati, and isiNdebele. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... The esh is a letter: (upper-case), (lower-case). ... Look up Appendix:Basic English word list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Codes for computing

In Unicode the capital X is codepoint U+0058 and the lowercase x is U+0078. FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Image File history File links ICS_X-ray. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_X-ray. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Braille_X.svg en: Braille letter/symbol. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet in signals to or from ships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American Sign Language Alphabet is a manual alphabet that augments the vocabulary of American Sign Language when spelling individual letters of a word is the preferred or only option, such as with proper names or the titles of works. ... Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ...


The ASCII code for capital X is 88 and for lowercase x is 120; or in binary 01011000 and 01111000, correspondingly. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ...


The EBCDIC code for capital X is 231 and for lowercase x is 167. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM...


The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "X" and "x" for upper and lower case respectively. A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
X

For other uses and meanings of the letter "X", see X (disambiguation). See also: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... X is the twenty-fourth letter of the Roman alphabet. ...

Similar non-Latin letters: Look up ex, ex- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... XXXX (pronounced four-ex) is a brand of beers brewed in Milton, Brisbane by Queensland brewers, Castlemaine Perkins. ... Look up XXX in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... XX can mean more than one thing: For the Roman numeral XX, see 20 (number) For XX chromosomes, see XY sex-determination system See also XXXX, XXX, X This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up Rx in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... TX can be either: TX can mean thanks or thank you - commonly used in instant messaging The telegraph and CW abbreviation for transmit (see also RX and Rx) the USPS state code for Texas, and domain name as in houston. ...

Unicode has also several similar non-letter symbols: Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kha, or Ha, (Х, х) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /x/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... め, in hiragana, or メ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ...   Aleph (or alef) is the first letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew Aleph , and Arabic . Aleph originally represented the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the... Norman conquests in red. ... Gyfu is the name for the g-rune ᚷ in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, meaning gift or generosity: ᚷ Gyfu gumena byþ gleng and herenys, wraþu and wyrþscype and wræcna gehwam Generosity brings credit and honour, which support ones dignity; it furnishes help and subsistence... The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc are a runic alphabet, extended from the Elder Futhark, consisting of 29, and later even 33 characters. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

  • × : multiplication sign
  • ╳ : box drawings left diagonal cross
  •  : multiplication x
  •  : ballot x
  •  : heavy ballot x
  • × : vector or cross product

In mathematics, multiplication is an elementary arithmetic operation. ... Box drawing characters are widely used in text user interfaces to draw various frames and boxes. ... In its simplest form, multiplication is a quick way of adding identical numbers. ...

Other uses for the letter X

  • A colloquial name for the drug MDMA (derived from another of the drug's nicknames, ectasy or XTC)
  • A placeholder or modifier in usernames (e.g. MagmaX or ixamxthexmaster)
  • In genetics, the X chromosome
  • A strike in baseball or bowling
  • Denotes infantry on military maps
  • Marks a mountain summit on topographic maps, such as printed by the USGS
  • Slang, a kiss, as in "XOXO"
  • In American football schematics, a member of the defensive squad
  • In ASCII_tab, a muted or unplayed guitar string
  • In musical notation, a double sharp, raising a note by one full step
  • In electronic circuit diagrams, an unused pin of a chip, or, in a circle, a lamp
  • Short for "cross", including such abbreviations as "lax" for "lacrosse", or "x-country" for "cross country"
    • Generally speaking, Americans do not refer to a lone "x" as a cross, where as this usage does occur outside of the U.S., such as in the name noughts and crosses, which Americans call tic-tac-toe.
    • In Australia, pedestrian crossings are usually marked with, "XING".
  • The roman numeral for ten, X
  • Marks the spot, as on a map of buried treasure
  • Experimental, as in X-plane (aircraft)
  • Christ, as in Xmas
  • In older movie ratings, denoted films to which viewers younger than 18 were not admitted.
  • In the Devil's Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce, appears this entry: "In the algebra of psychology, X stands for woman's mind."
  • In Microsoft Windows, X is on a button that closes a window. To X one window means to close one window.
  • In algebra, X is very commonly associated with an unknown variable. Its first time use is attributed to Omar Khayyám in his Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra (1070).[2]
  • The X axis means the horizontal axis in graphs.
  • In France "L'X" is the nickname of the prestigious engineer school Polytechnique

ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... ASCII tab is a text file format used for writing guitar and bass guitar tab using plain ASCII numbers, letters and symbols. ... Tic-tac-toe, also called noughts and crosses and many other names, is a paper and pencil game between two players, O and X, who alternate in marking the spaces in a 3×3 board. ... A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. ... Bell X-1; for more photographs of X-planes see the image gallery. ... The Devils Dictionary, by Ambrose Bierce, was originally a newspaper serialization that offered an interesting reinterpretation of the English language in which cant and political double-talk were neatly lampooned. ... Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – 1914?) was an American editorialist, journalist, short-story writer and satirist, today best known for his Devils Dictionary. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Diverse women. ... “Windows” redirects here. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... For other Écoles Polytechniques, see École Polytechnique de Montréal and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. ...

References

  1. ^ "X" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "ex," op. cit.
  2. ^ Maalouf,Amin. Samarkand. ISBN 1-56656-293-7. 
The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter X with diacritics
ẌẍẊẋ
Two-letter combinations
Xa Xb Xc Xd Xe Xf Xg Xh Xi Xj Xk Xl Xm Xn Xo Xp Xq Xr Xs Xt Xu Xv Xw Xx Xy Xz
XA XB XC XD XE XF XG XH XI XJ XK XL XM XN XO XP XQ XR XS XT XU XV XW XX XY XZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
                X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9
                0X 1X 2X 3X 4X 5X 6X 7X 8X 9X
historypalaeographyderivationsdiacriticspunctuationnumeralsUnicodelist of letters

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