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Encyclopedia > Wyandot
Wendat
(Huron, Wyandot, Wyandotte)
Total population

circa 2001: 8,000[citation needed]

Regions with significant populations
CanadaQuebec, southwest Ontario;

United StatesOhio, Oklahoma, Michigan, Kansas This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Language(s)
Wendat, French, English
Religion(s)
Animism, Roman Catholicism, Other, None
Related ethnic groups
Petuns, other Iroquoians

The Wyandot and Huron are indigenous peoples of North America known in their native language as the Wendat. Modern Wyandots and Hurons emerged in the 17th century from the remnants of two earlier groups, the Huron Confederacy and the Petun, who were located in what is now the Canadian province of Ontario before being decimated by disease and dispersed by war. Wyandots and Hurons today live in various locations in Canada and the United States. Wyandot is the Iroquoian language traditionally spoken by the people known variously as Wyandot, Wendat, or Huron. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... A Hupa man, 1923 The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... North American redirects here. ... Wyandot is the Iroquoian language traditionally spoken by the people known variously as Wyandot, Wendat, or Huron. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Contents

Before 1650: Hurons and Petuns

Names and organization

In the early seventeenth century, the people known as Hurons by the French called themselves the Wendat, which means "Dwellers of the Peninsula" or "Islanders", because the Wendat homeland was bordered on three sides by the waters of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe.[1] Early French explorers called them the Huron, either from the French huron ("ruffian", "rustic"), or from hure ("boar's head"), because, according to tradition, French sailors thought that the bristly hairstyle of Wendat men resembled that of a boar.[1] Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, Canada, the fourth largest lake in the province. ...


The Wendat were not a tribe, but a confederacy four or more tribes with a mutually intelligible language.[2] According to tradition, this Wendat (or Huron) Confederacy was initiated by the Attignawantans ("People of the Bear") and the Attigneenongnahacs ("Cord"), who confederated in the 15th century.[2] They were joined by the Arendarhonons ("People of the Rock") in about 1590, and the Tahontaenrats ("People of the Deer") around 1610.[2] A fifth group, the Ataronchronons ("People of the Marshes" or "Bog"), may not have attained full membership in the confederacy,[2] and may have been a division of the Attignawantan.[3] In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ...


Closely related to the people of the Huron Confederacy were a group known to the French as the Petuns ("Tobacco People"), who lived further south. The Petun comprised two groups: the Deer and the Wolves.[4] What the Petun called themselves is not known, but considering that they formed the nucleus of the tribe later known as the Wyandot, they too may have called themselves Wendat.[5]


Culture

Hurons, like other Iroquoian people, were farmers who supplemented their diet with hunting and fishing.[2] Maize was the mainstay of their diet, which was supplemented primarily by fish, although some venison and other meats were eaten during the hunting seasons.[6] Women did most of the agricultural work, although men helped to clear the fields, which was usually done by slashing and burning.[7] Men did most of the fishing and hunting, and constructed the houses, canoes, and tools.[8] Each family owned a plot of land that they farmed; this land reverted to the common property of the tribe when the family no longer used it.[9] The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Leg of venison on apple sauce with dumplings and vegetables Venison is meat of the family Cervidae. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...


Hurons lived in villages spanning from one to ten acres (40,000 m²), most of which were fortified in defense against enemy attack. They lived in long houses similar to other Iroquoian cultural groups. The typical village had 900 to 1600 people organized into 30 or 40 longhouses.[10] Villages were moved about every ten years as the soil became less fertile and the nearby forest, which provided firewood, grew thin.[11] Hurons engaged in trade with neighboring tribes, notably for tobacco with the neighboring Petun and Neutral nations.[12] A longhouse at the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Tuberculosis was endemic among Hurons, aggravated by the close and smoky living conditions in the long houses.[13] Hurons were on the whole healthy, however; the Jesuits believed that the Huron were "more healthy than we".[14] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


European contact and Wendat dispersal

The earliest written accounts of the Huron were made by the French, who began exploring North America in the 16th century. News of the newcomers reached the Huron, particularly when Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River in the early 1600s, and some Hurons decided to go and meet the Europeans for themselves. Atironta, the principal headman of the Arendarhonon tribe, went to Quebec and made an alliance with the French in 1609. Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


The total population of the Huron at the time of European contact has been estimated on average at about 20,000 to 40,000 people.[15] From 1634 to 1640, Hurons were devastated by European diseases such as measles and smallpox, and numerous villages and areas were permanently abandoned. About two-thirds of the population died in the epidemics,[16] decreasing the population to about 12,000.[10] Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Before the French arrived, the Huron had already been in conflict with the Iroquois to the south. Once the European powers became involved, this conflict intensified significantly. The French allied with the Huron, because they were the most advanced trading nation at the time. The Iroquois tended to ally with the English, who took advantage of their hatred of the Huron and their new French allies. The introduction of European weapons increased the severity of wars, and, by about 1650, the Iroquois had almost completely destroyed the Huron tribes. The Jesuit mission of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, near modern Midland, Ontario, was one focus of Iroquois attacks, and many of the Jesuit missionaries were killed (see Canadian Martyrs); the mission was eventually burned on abandonment by the Jesuits, so as to prevent capture in 1649. After relocating and spending the bitter winter of 1649-50 on Christian Island, Ontario, some Huron relocated near Quebec City and settled at Wendake, Quebec, becoming the Huron-Wendat Nation. For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Main entrance. ... Midland (population 16,300, 2006 Canada Census) is a town located on Georgian Bay in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada. ... The Canadian Martyrs were eight Jesuit missionaries from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, who were martyred in the 17th century in Canada and Upstate New York. ... Christian Island is a large island in Georgian Bay close to the communities of Penatanguishene and Midland, Ontario. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Wendake is the current name for the Huron-Wendat reserve a short distance north of Quebec City, Quebec. ... The Huron-Wendat Nation is a Huron-Wendat community whose reserve is at Wendake, just outside of Quebec City. ...


Emergence of the "Wyandot"

In the late 17th century, elements of the Huron Confederacy and the Petuns joined together and became known as the "Wyandot" (or "Wyandotte"), which is a variation of Wendat.[2] The western Wyandot eventually re-established themselves in the area of Ohio and southern Michigan. Some Wyandot of the Wyandot Nation of Anderdon still live in Michigan. However, most of the surviving people were displaced through Indian removal in the early 19th century, and today a large population of Wyandot (over 4,000) can be found in eastern Kansas and Oklahoma. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


In June 1853 Big Turtle, a chief of the Wyandot tribe, wrote to the Ohio State Journal regarding the current condition of his tribe. The Wyandots received nearly $127,000 in 1845. Big Turtle noted that in the spring of 1850 the tribal chiefs retroceded the granted land to the government. $100,000 of the proceeds was invested in 5% government stock. Removed from Ohio to the Indian Territory, the Wyandot tribe had good libraries along with two thriving Sabbath Schools. They were in the process of organizing a division of the Sons of Temperance and maintained a sizable Temperance Society. Big Turtle commented on the agricultural yield, which produced an annual surplus for market. He said that the Wyandot's general thrift exceeded that of any tribe north of the Arkansas line. The Wyandot nation was contented and happy, and enjoyed better living conditions than formerly in Ohio.[17] Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


A United States government treaty ceded the Wyandot Nation a small portion of fertile land located in an acute angle of the Missouri River and Kansas River. In addition the government granted thirty-two floating sections which were located on public lands west of the Mississippi River. By 1855 the number of Wyandots had diminished to 600 or 700. On August 14 of that year the Wyandot nation elected a chief, using polls which were located at a lodge about 200 yards from the confluence of the Kansas River and the Missouri River. The Kansas correspondent of the Missouri Republican reported that the judges of the election were three elderly braves, who were trusted by their peers. Some of the floating sections were offered for sale on the same day at a price of $800. A section was composed of 640 acres (2.6 km²). Altogether 20,480 acres (82.9 km²) were sold for $25,600. They were located in Kansas, Nebraska, and unspecified sites. Surveys were not required, with the title becoming complete at the time of location.[18] The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Kansas River near De Soto Kaw River (map) looking southward from middle of Turner Diagonal bridge. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Atlanta Braves are a Major League Baseball team based in Atlanta, Georgia. ...


An October 1855 article in the New York Times reported that the Wayandots were free and without restrictions placed on other tribes. Their leaders were unanimously Pro Slavery, which meant 900 or 1,000 additional votes in opposition to the Free State movement of Kansas.[19] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the term free state as it arises in United States history, see: Free state. ...


The last of the original Wyandot of Ohio was Margaret "Grey Eyes" Solomon, a.k.a. "Mother Solomon". The daughter of Chief John Grey Eyes, she was born in 1816 and departed Ohio in 1843. She had returned to Ohio by 1889 when she was a spectator to the restoration of the Wyandot's "Old Mission Church," a Wyandot Mission Church at Upper Sandusky. She died in Upper Sandusky on August 17, 1890.[20] For photograph see this reference site.


20th century to present

In February 1985 the U.S. government agreed to pay descendants of the Wyandot Indians $5.5 million. The decision settled a 143-year-old treaty which forced the tribe to sell their Ohio homes for less than fair value in 1842. A spokesman for the Bureau of Indian Affairs said that the government would pay $1,600 each, in July 1985, to 3,600 people in Kansas and Oklahoma who could prove they are Wyandot descendants. A program founded in the 1940s to address grievances filed by various Native American tribes allocated $800 million to rectify promises broken by settlers who invaded their territories. The Wyandot settlement was based on an 1830 Federal law which required Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River. Originally the Wyandots were paid .75 cents per acre for land that was worth $1.50 an acre.[21] The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ...


In 1999, representatives the far-flung Wyandot bands of Quebec, Kansas, Oklahoma and Michigan gathered at their historic homeland in Midland, Ontario, and formally re-established the Wendat Confederacy.


Each modern Wyandot community is a self-governing band: Tribal sovereignty map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ...

The Kansas and Oklahoma groups have fought legal battles over the Huron Indian Cemetery in Kansas City, Kansas for over 100 years, and continue to do so in the 21st century. The local Wyandots wish to preserve the 400 plus grave cemetery, while the Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma wants to use the land to establish commercial gambling. The Huron-Wendat Nation is a Huron-Wendat community whose reserve is at Wendake, just outside of Quebec City. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Coordinates: , Country State County Wayne Settled 1816 Incorporation 1855 Government  - Mayor Gerald R. Brown Area  - Total 7. ... Nickname: Location in Wyandotte, County in the state of Kansas. ... Categories: Stub | Native Americans ... Wyandotte is a town located in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. ... Categories: Stub | Native Americans ...


The approximately 3,000 Wyandots in Quebec are primarily Catholic and speak French as a first language. There are now efforts to promote the use and study of the Wyandot language. For many decades, a leading source of income for the Wyandots of Quebec has been selling pottery and other locally produced crafts. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Wyandot is the Iroquoian language traditionally spoken by the people known variously as Wyandot, Wendat, or Huron. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Trigger, Children of Aataentsic, 27.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Dickason, "Huron/Wyandot", 263–65.
  3. ^ Trigger, Children of Aataentsic, 30.
  4. ^ Garrad and Heidenreich, "Khionontateronon (Petun)", 394.
  5. ^ Steckley, "Wendat Dialects".
  6. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 378.
  7. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 380, 382–83.
  8. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 383.
  9. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 380.
  10. ^ a b Gary Warrick, "European Infectious Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionontate (Huron-Petun)" World Archaeology 35 (October 2003), 258–275.
  11. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 381.
  12. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 385.
  13. ^ P. C. Hartney, "Tuberculosis lesions in a prehistoric population sample from southern Ontario" in Jane F. Buikstra, ed., Prehistoric Tuberculosis in the Americas Northwestern University Archaeological Program Scientific Papers No. 5, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. 1981, 141-160. OCLC 7197014
  14. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 379.
  15. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 369.
  16. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 369.
  17. ^ Civilization of the Wyandot Indians, New York Times, June 1, 1853, Page 3.
  18. ^ Wyandot Indians holding an Election-Their Land Claims, New York Times, August 24, 1855, Page 2.
  19. ^ Affairs In Kansas, New York Times, October 2, 1855, Page 2.
  20. ^ Howe, Henry. Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio. Volume 2. pp. 900-902.
  21. ^ Wyandot Indians Win $5.5 Million Settlement, New York Times, February 11, 1985, Page A10.

References

  • Dickason, Olive Patricia. "Huron/Wyandot". Encyclopedia of North American Indians, 263–65. Ed. Frederick E. Hoxie. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. ISBN 0-395-66921-9.
  • Steckley, John. "Wendat Dialects and the Development of the Huron Alliance"
  • Trigger, Bruce G. The Huron: Farmers of the North. New York: Holt, 1969. ISBN 0-03-079550-8.
  • Trigger, Bruce G. The Children of Aataentsic: A History of the Huron People to 1660. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. 1987. ISBN 0-7735-0627-6

Bruce Graham Trigger (June 18, 1937–December 1, 2006) was a Canadian archaeologist. ... Bruce Graham Trigger (June 18, 1937–December 1, 2006) was a Canadian archaeologist. ...

Further reading

  • Clarke, Peter Dooyentate. Origin and Traditional History of the Wyandotts, and Sketches of Other Indian Tribes of North America, True Traditional Stories of Tecumseh and His League. Global Language Press, 2006. Reprint of 1870 history written by a Wyandot. ISBN 0-9738924-9-8

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Huron
Official tribal websites
  • Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma
  • Wyandot Nation of Kansas
  • Wyandot of Anderdon Nation, Michigan
  • Huron-Wendat Nation, Wendake, Quebec
Other
  • Huron Indian Cemetery in Kansas City
  • Kanata: Legacy of the Children of Aataentsic, 1999 documentary
Wendake is the current name for the Huron-Wendat reserve a short distance north of Quebec City, Quebec. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
WYANDOT COUNTY, OHIO - 1884 HISTORY - CHAPTER V - EARLY SETTLEMENTS (5347 words)
Hence when it was agreed that the principal reservation of the Wyandots should have Fort Ferree at Upper Sandusky for its center, the central -and greater portion of the present county was reserved to its aboriginal owners.
The small Wyandot reserve at the Big Spring, and the Delaware reserve lying south east of the reservation first mentioned, also encroached upon the limits of the county as now formed.
The pioneers had many discomforts to endure, and some dangers to enwhen Wyandot County was settled, the danger of Indian r ons ad passed away forever, but a vaguely defined apprehension existed in the minds of not a few of the first settlers, that they were not entirely secure in their forest homes.
Wyandot - MSN Encarta (205 words)
The Wyandot and Huron are indigenous peoples of North America known in their native language as the Wendat.
The Wyandot County Clerk of Court office is one of...
In 1842 the Wyandot sold their Michigan and Ohio lands and moved to Kansas; in 1867 they were placed on a reservation in Oklahoma where they still live.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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