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Encyclopedia > Wuthering Heights
Wuthering Heights

Title page of the first edition
Author Emily Brontë
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Novel
Publisher Thomas Cautley Newby
Publication date 1847
Media type Print (Hardback)
ISBN NA

Wuthering Heights is Emily Brontë's only novel. It was first published in 1847 under the pseudonym Ellis Bell, and a posthumous second edition was edited by her sister Charlotte. The name of the novel comes from the Yorkshire manor on the moors on which the story centres (as an adjective, wuthering is a Yorkshire word referring to turbulent weather). The narrative tells the tale of the all-encompassing and passionate, yet thwarted, love between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw, and how this unresolved passion eventually destroys both themselves and many around them. Wuthering Heights is an 1847 novel by Emily Brontë. Other uses of the name include: Wuthering Heights (1939 film) — a film adaptation of the novel starring Laurence Olivier and Merle Oberon Wuthering Heights (1953 film) - a BBC film adaptation of the novel Wuthering Heights (1970 film) - a film adaptation of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 350 × 600 pixels Full resolution (534 × 915 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wuthering Heights ... Emily Jane Brontë (pronounced ); (July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, now best remembered for her only novel Wuthering Heights, a classic of English literature. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... ISBN redirects here. ... Emily Jane Brontë (pronounced ); (July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, now best remembered for her only novel Wuthering Heights, a classic of English literature. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alias. ... Charlotte Brontë (IPA: ) (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist and the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... Moorland in the Pennines (England); Coarse grasses and bracken tend to dominate especially in high rainfall areas. ... Heathcliff is the central male character of the novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë. Owing to the novels enduring fame and popularity, Heathcliff is often regarded as an archetype of the tortured Romantic Byronic hero whose all-consuming passions are powerful enough to destroy both himself and those around...


Now considered a classic of English literature, Wuthering Heights' innovative structure, which has been likened to a series of Matryoshka dolls,[citation needed] met with mixed reviews by critics when it first appeared.[1][2] Though Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre was originally considered the best of the Brontë sisters' works, many subsequent critics of Wuthering Heights argued that its originality and achievement made it superior.[3] Wuthering Heights has also given rise to many adaptations and inspired works, including films, radio, television dramatisations, a musical by Bernard J. Taylor and songs (notably the hit Wuthering Heights by Kate Bush), ballet and opera. The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... This article is about the Russian doll. ... This article is about the Victorian novel. ... Brontë - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Radio broadcasts have been a popular entertainment since the 1910s, though popularity has declined a little in some countries since television became widespread. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Bernard J. Taylor Bernard J. Taylor is the writer and composer of six stage musicals that have been produced around the world and translated into German, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian, Spanish and Italian. ... This article is about the 1978 song. ... Kate Bush (born 30 July 1958) is an English singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Plot summary

The narrative is non-linear, involving several flashbacks, and involves two narrators - Mr. Lockwood and Nelly Dean. The novel opens in 1801, with Lockwood arriving at Thrushcross Grange, a grand house on the Yorkshire moors he is renting from the surly Heathcliff, who lives at nearby Wuthering Heights. Lockwood spends the night at Wuthering Heights and has a terrifying dream: the ghost of Catherine Earnshaw, pleading to be admitted to the house from outside. Intrigued, Lockwood asks the housekeeper Nelly Dean to tell the story of Heathcliff and Wuthering Heights while he is staying at the Grange recovering from a cold. In literature, film, television and other media, a flashback (also called analepsis) is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached. ...


Nelly takes over the narration and begins her story thirty years earlier, when Heathcliff, a foundling living on the streets of Liverpool, is brought to Wuthering Heights by the then-owner, Mr. Earnshaw, and raised as his own. Ellen comments casually that Heathcliff might have been descended from Indian or Chinese origins[4]. He is often described as "dark" or "gypsy". Earnshaw's daughter Catherine becomes Heathcliff's inseparable friend. Her brother Hindley, however, resents Heathcliff, seeing him as an interloper and rival. Mr. Earnshaw dies three years later, and Hindley (who has married a woman named Frances) takes over the estate. He brutalises Heathcliff, forcing him to work as a hired hand. Catherine becomes friends with a neighbor family, the Lintons of Thrushcross Grange, who mellow her initially wild personality. She is especially attached to the refined and mild young Edgar Linton, whom Heathcliff instantaneously dislikes. Child abandonment or the practice of abandoning ones offspring outside of legal adoption is a long standing social ill. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


A year later, Hindley's wife dies, apparently of consumption, shortly after giving birth to a son, Hareton; Hindley takes to drink. Some two years after that, Catherine agrees to marry Edgar. Nelly knows that this will crush Heathcliff, and Heathcliff overhears Catherine's explanation that it would be "degrading" to marry him. Heathcliff storms out and leaves Wuthering Heights, not hearing Catherine's continuing declarations that Heathcliff is as much a part of her as the rocks are to the earth beneath. Catherine marries Edgar, and is initially very happy. Some time later, Heathcliff returns, intent on destroying those who prevent him from being with Catherine. He has, mysteriously, become very wealthy, and has through loans to the drunken and dissipated Hindley which he cannot repay, into making him the owner to Wuthering Heights. Intent on ruining Edgar, Heathcliff elopes with Edgar's sister Isabella, which places him in a position to inherit Thrushcross Grange upon Edgar's death. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Catherine becomes very ill after Heathcliff's return and dies a few hours after giving birth to a daughter also named Catherine, or Cathy. Heathcliff becomes only more bitter and vengeful. Isabella flees her abusive marriage a month later, and subsequently gives birth to a boy, Linton. At around the same time, Hindley dies. Heathcliff takes ownership of Wuthering Heights, and vows to raise Hindley's son Hareton with as much neglect as he had suffered at Hindley's hands years earlier.


Twelve years later, the dying Isabella asks Edgar to raise her and Heathcliff's son, Linton. However, Heathcliff finds out about this and takes the sickly, spoiled child to Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff has nothing but contempt for his son, but delights in the idea of him ruling the property of his enemies. To that end, a few years later, Heathcliff attempts to persuade young Cathy to marry Linton. Cathy refuses, so Heathcliff kidnaps her and forces the two to marry. Soon after, Edgar Linton dies, followed shortly by Linton Heathcliff. This leaves Cathy a widow and a virtual prisoner at Wuthering Heights, as Heathcliff has gained complete control of both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. It is at this point in the narrative that Lockwood arrives, taking possession of Thrushcross Grange, and hearing Nelly Dean's story. Shocked, Lockwood leaves for London. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


During his absence from the area, however, events reach a climax that Nelly describes when he returns a year later. Cathy gradually softens toward her rough, uneducated cousin Hareton, just as her mother was tender towards Heathcliff. When Heathcliff realizes that Cathy and Hareton are in love, he abandons his life-long vendetta. He dies broken and tormented, but glad to be rejoining Catherine, whose ghost had haunted him since she died. Cathy and Hareton marry. Heathcliff is buried next to Catherine (the elder), and the story concludes with Lockwood visiting the grave, unsure of what to feel. A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ...


Characters

Heathcliff is the central male character of the novel. An orphaned foundling raised by the Earnshaw family, he forms an early bond with his foster sister Catherine Earnshaw, and they both fall passionately in love with each other as they grow. Meanwhile he nurses a bitter rivalry with his cruel foster brother Hindley, who resents the attention their father shows Heathcliff. A brooding, vindictive man, his anger and bitterness at Catherine's later marriage to their neighbour Edgar Linton sees him engage in a ruthless vendetta to destroy not only his enemies but their heirs, a crusade that only intensifies upon Catherine's death. Heathcliff is the central male character of the novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë. Owing to the novels enduring fame and popularity, Heathcliff is often regarded as an archetype of the tortured Romantic Byronic hero whose all-consuming passions are powerful enough to destroy both himself and those around...


Catherine (Cathy) Earnshaw is Heathcliff's adopted sister. A free-spirited and somewhat spoiled young woman, she returns Heathcliff's love utterly, but considers him too far beneath her for marriage into poverty from both not having any money; instead choosing another childhood friend, Edgar Linton, through which marriage she hopes to advance Heathcliff. Later, after Heathcliff's return, she acknowledges to both men that Heathcliff is her true love. However her physical and mental health is destroyed by the stress of regretting her marriage to Edgar and the feud between them, and she descends into prophetic madness before dying during childbirth.


Edgar Linton is a childhood friend of Catherine Earnshaw's, who later marries her. A mild and gentle man, if slightly cold, cowardly and distant, he loves Catherine deeply but is unable to reconcile his love for her with her feelings for her childhood friend. This leads to a bitter antagonism with Heathcliff, and it is partly this which leads to Catherine's mental breakdown and death. Linton is incapable of competing with Heathcliff's guile and ruthless determination across the decades, and his health fails him while still a relatively young man.


Isabella Linton is the younger sister of Edgar who becomes infatuated with Heathcliff. She fundamentally mistakes his true nature and elopes with him despite his apparent dislike of her. Her love for him turns to hatred almost immediately, as she is ill treated both physically and emotionally and held captive against her will. Eventually she escapes, leaves for London and gives birth to their son Linton Heathcliff, whom she attempts to raise away from Heathcliff's corrupting influence.


Hindley Earnshaw is Catherine's brother and Heathcliff's other rival. Having loathed Heathcliff since childhood, Hindley delights in turning him into a downtrodden servant upon inheriting Wuthering Heights. However, his wife's death in childbirth destroys him; he becomes a self-destructive alcoholic and gambler and it is this that allows Heathcliff, upon returning to Wuthering Heights, to turn the tables and to manoeuvre the family property away from him.

Northern Yorkshire. In the foreground heaths.

Ellen (Nelly) Dean is, at various points, the housekeeper of both Thrushcross Grange and Wuthering Heights, and is one of the two narrators of the novel. She recognizes early on that Heathcliff is Catherine's true love and tries to dissuade her from the disastrous marriage to Edgar. Having been a disapproving witness and unwilling participant to many of the events between Heathcliff and both the Earnshaw and Linton families for much of her life, she narrates the story to Lockwood during his illness. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ...


Linton Heathcliff is the son of Isabella and Heathcliff. He bears no resemblance to Heathcliff and takes after his mother. He is a sickly child who grows up ignorant of his father until his mother's death, when he is thirteen years old. He is forced to live at Wuthering Heights and grows into a bullied, trembling shadow of his father. Heathcliff arranges for him to marry his cousin Catherine Linton so that he may inherit both the estates of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. He dies shortly after entering into the forced marriage.


Catherine Linton is the daughter of Catherine Earnshaw and Edgar Linton. She inherits both her mother's free-spiritedness and dark eyes and her father's gentle nature, facial features and fair hair. Heathcliff takes advantage of her fundamentally pure nature and manipulates her into marrying his own son, Linton. Once she has become another captive of Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff resorts to the same torture he applies to everyone against whom he bears a grudge. As a result, she regards him with contempt and disgust and becomes silent and morose. She later falls in love with her cousin, Hareton Earnshaw.


Hareton Earnshaw is the son of Hindley Earnshaw, who is adopted by Heathcliff upon Hindley's death. Even before this, he has waged a campaign of torment against the young man while living together at Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff spitefully turns Hareton into a downtrodden, illiterate servant, much as Hindley once did to him, but does not further mistreat him as Hindley had done. Despite this, Hareton remains strangely loyal to him, even adopting a superficially similar personality. Quick tempered and easily embarrassed, he falls in love with Catherine at an early point, and despite her contempt for him is thus inspired to improve himself. He bears a strong likeness to his aunt and is the only person who mourns Heathcliff upon his death.


Joseph is a servant of the Earnshaws and later Heathcliff. A bullying, lazy and snide man, he hates Heathcliff but is somehow bound to be his servant. Intensely religious, he is sanctimonious, self-righteous and largely held in contempt by those around him. He speaks in the traditional West Yorkshire dialect. This dialect was still used in the Haworth area up until the late 1970s, but there are now only portions of it still in common use.[5]


Lockwood is the narrator of the novel. A recently-arrived tenant at Thrushcross Grange at the beginning of the novel, he is intrigued by the curious goings-on at Wuthering Heights, and persuades Nelly Dean to tell him the story of what happened during a bout of sickness. Lockwood is apparently a wealthy, relatively young man who comes to regret not approaching the younger Catherine Linton himself. Despite displaying many self-centred attributes, he is also a sensitive and romantic soul who is deeply affected by the saga of Heathcliff and Catherine.


Frances Earnshaw is the wife that Hindley married while away at college. The fact that he did not tell his father suggests that Frances is not of high social standing. From her introduction she proves to be a kind woman to Nelly and Cathy but dislikes Heathcliff. She dies after childbirth, a death brought about by consumption, or tuberculosis, a fate shared by most of the Brontë sisters. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Mr. Kenneth, the local doctor and drinking partner of Hindley. Kenneth often sees to the ill or dead characters: Cathy in her madnesses, Frances during childbirth and TB, Heathcliff and his early illness, Edgar's final hours, and Hindley's death. Nelly tells Heathcliff that he should send for Kenneth to tend to his ill son, but does not tell him that Heathcliff's death is suicide by starvation. He also reports to Nelly that he saw Isabella leaving with Heathcliff.


Timeline

1757 Hindley born (Summer); Nelly born
1762 Edgar Linton born
1764 Heathcliff born
1765 Catherine Earnshaw born (Summer); Isabella Linton born (late 1765)
1771 Heathcliff is brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr Earnshaw (late summer)
1773 Mrs Earnshaw dies (Spring)
1774 Hindley is sent off to college
1777 Hindley marries Frances; Mr Earnshaw dies (October); Hindley comes back (October); Heathcliff and Catherine visit Thrushcross Grange, Catherine remains behind (November), then returns to Wuthering Heights (Christmas Eve).
1778 Hareton is born (June); Frances dies
1780 Heathcliff runs away from Wuthering Heights; Mr and Mrs Linton both die
1783 Catherine marries Edgar (March); Heathcliff comes back (September)
1784 Heathcliff marries Isabella (February); Catherine dies and Cathy is born (20 March); Hindley dies; Linton is born (September)
1797 Isabella dies; Cathy visits Wuthering Heights and meets Hareton; Linton is brought to Thrushcross Grange and is then taken to Wuthering Heights
1800 Cathy meets Heathcliff and sees Linton again (20 March)
1801 Cathy and Linton are married (August); Edgar dies (August); Linton dies (September); Mr Lockwood goes to Thrushcross Grange and visits Wuthering Heights, beginning his narrative
1802 Mr Lockwood goes back to London (January); Heathcliff dies (April); Mr Lockwood comes back to Thrushcross Grange (September)
1803 Cathy plans to marry Hareton (1 January)

is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Local background

Though tourists are often told that Top Withens, a ruined farmhouse, near the Haworth Parsonage,(Bronte Parsonage Museum) is the model for Wuthering Heights, it seems more likely that the now demolished High Sunderland Hall, near Halifax was the partial model for the building. This Gothic edifice, near Law Hill, where Emily worked briefly as a schoolmistress in 1838, had grotesque embellishments of griffins and misshapen nude men similar to those described by Lockwood of Wuthering Heights in chapter one of the novel: Top Withens (SD981353) is a ruined farmhouse near Haworth, West Yorkshire which is said to have been the inspiration for the Earnshaw family house Wuthering Heights in the novel of the same name by Emily Brontë. A plaque affixed to a wall reads: The ruin lies on the Pennine Way... High Sunderland Hall was a manor house, built circa 1600 just outside Halifax, West Yorkshire and demolished in 1951 after falling into dereliction [1]. The house is perhaps most notable for being said to have provided Emily Brontë with her description for Wuthering Heights[2], although this is a matter... For other uses, see Halifax. ...

"Before passing the threshold, I paused to admire a quantity of grotesque carving lavished over the front, and especially about the principal door, above which, among a wilderness of crumbling griffins and shameless little boys, I detected the date "1500"".

The originals of Thrushcross Grange have been traditionally connected to Ponden Hall near Haworth (although it is far too small) and, more likely, Shibden Hall, near Halifax.[6][7] A feud centred around Walterclough Hall is also said to have been one inspiration for the story along with the story of Emily's grandfather, Hugh Brunty. Shibden Hall is a historic hall in Halifax, West Yorkshire dating back to around 1420, when it was recorded as being inhabited by one William Oates. ... Walterclough Hall, sometimes known as Water Clough Hall or Upper Walterclough, lies in the Walterclough Valley southeast of Halifax and northeast of the village of Southowram in the West Riding of Yorkshire, along side the Red Beck. ...


Literary allusions

Traditionally, this novel has been seen as a unique piece of work conceived in solitude by a genius confined to the lonesome heath, detached from the literary movements of the time. However, Emily Brontë received literary training at the Pensionnat Héger in Brussels by imitating and analysing the styles of classic writers. She also learned German, and was able to read the German Romantics in the original. The work of Lord Byron was also admired by all three Brontë sisters. The brother-sister relationship between Heathcliff and Cathy is reminiscent of the brother-sister couples in Byron's epics. The character of Heathcliff is reminiscent of the Byronic hero. For the general context, see Romanticism. ... Byron redirects here. ... The Byronic hero is an idealized, but flawed, character exemplified in the life and writings of Lord Byron, characterized by his ex-lover Lady Caroline Lamb as being mad, bad and dangerous to know.[1] The Byronic hero first appears in Byrons semi-autobiographical epic narrative poem Childe Harold...


Gothic and supernatural elements

The novel contains many Gothic and supernatural elements, although the true nature of the latter is always ambiguous. The mystery of Heathcliff's parentage is never solved. He is described by Hindley as an 'imp of Satan' in chapter four, and by the end of the novel Nelly Dean is entertaining notions that Heathcliff may be some hideous ghoul or vampire. The awesome but unseen presence of Satan is also alluded to at several points in the novel, and it is noted in chapter three that 'no clergyman will undertake the duties of pastor' at the local chapel, which has fallen into dereliction. Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole Gothic fiction is an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. ... IMP or imp may mean: Imp, a fantasy creature. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... A ghoul is a monster from ancient Arabian folklore that dwells in burial grounds and other uninhabited places. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... see also Holy Orders The following terms have traditional meanings for the Anglican Church, and possibly beyond: A churchman is in principle a member of a church congregation, in practice someone in holy orders. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...


Ghosts also play a role in the novel. Lockwood has a horrible vision of Catherine (the elder) as a child, appearing at the window of her old chamber at Wuthering Heights and begging to be allowed in. Heathcliff believes this story of Catherine's ghostly return, and late in the novel behaves as though he has seen her ghost himself. When Heathcliff dies, he is found in the bedroom with the window open, raising the possibility that Catherine's ghost entered Wuthering Heights just as Lockwood saw in his dream. At the end of the novel, Nelly Dean reports that various superstitious locals have claimed to see Catherine and Heathcliff's ghosts roaming the moors. Lockwood, however, discounts the idea of "unquiet slumbers for those sleepers in that quiet earth."


Allusions/references in literature

  • In Albert Camus' essay "The Rebel", Heathcliff is compared to a leader of the rebel forces. Both are driven by a sort of madness: one by misguided love, the other by oppression. Camus juxtaposes the concept of Heathcliff's reaction to Cathy with the reaction of a disenchanted rebel to the ideal he once held.
  • Maryse Condé's novel Windward Heights adapted Wuthering Heights to be set in Guadaloupe and Cuba.
  • In the Twilight Series books by Stephenie Meyer, Wuthering Heights was mentioned several times, especially in the third book Eclipse, which included several direct quotes from the book. The main character Bella's relationship with Edward Cullen (Twilight) and Jacob Black is often compared to Cathy's situation with Heathcliff and Edgar.
  • Ann Carson wrote a poem titled "The Glass Essay" in which are woven multiple references to Wuthering Heights and the life of Emily Brontë.
  • James Stoddard's novel The False House contains numerous references to Wuthering Heights.
  • Jasper Fforde's Thursday Next novels often mention Heathcliff as the most tragic romantic hero. In Fforde's book The Well of Lost Plots, it is revealed that all the characters of Wuthering Heights are required to attend group anger management sessions.
  • In the preface of his novel Le bleu du ciel, the French writer Georges Bataille states that, in his view, Wuthering Heights belongs to those rare works in literature written from an inner necessity.
  • Alice Hoffman's "Here On Earth" is a modern version of Wuthering Heights.[citation needed]
  • The novel Glennkill by German writer Leonie Swann, published in 2005, is in some way centred around Emily Brontë's novel, and is perhaps the main reason why said novel is set in Ireland.[citation needed] The book, as is revealed in the last pages, is being read to the sheep by the shepherd's daughter, and in a strange and dreamy way helps the main character of the novel, a sheep-detective called Miss Maple, to guess the identity of the murderer.
  • In Diane Setterfield's novel, The Thirteenth Tale (novel), Wuthering Heights is also frequently mentioned. The relationship between Charlie and Isabelle Angelfield parallels that of Heathcliff and Catherine in many ways.
  • Michel Houellebecq's debut novel Extension du domaine de la lutte briefly mentions Wuthering Heights - "We're a long way from Wuthering Heights." -, arguing that as human relations are progressively fading away, then such tales of stormy passion are no longer possible.[8]
  • Cara Lockwood's Wuthering High, is centered around a boarding school that is haunted by dead classic writers, Emily Brontë being one of them. Her novel is mentioned several times, and even her characters make some special appearances.
  • Nomura Miduki's second book in the Bungakushoujo series, "Bungakushoujo" to Uekawaku Ghost (published in 2006) refers to and draws from Wuthering Heights heavily.
  • The Japanese novelist Minae Mizumura's third and most recent work, A Real Novel, 2002, is a retelling of Wuthering Heights in post war Japan, featuring a half-Chinese, half-Japanese Heathcliff and an even more problematic Nelly. It re-enacts the history of modern Japanese literature by absorbing and transforming the Western classic into the Japanese literary context.

For other uses, see Camus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Maryse Condé (born 1937) is a Guadeloupean, French language author of historical fiction, best known for her novel Segu (1984-1985). ... Guadeloupe, in the Caribbean Sea, is an archipelago with a total area of 1,704 km² located in the Eastern Caribbean. ... Stephenie Meyer (born December 24, 1973 in Connecticut) is an American author. ... Edward Cullen (born Edward Anthony Masen) is a character in the Twilight series by Stephenie Meyer. ... Jacob Black is a fictional character in the books Twilight, New Moon and Eclipse by Stephenie Meyer. ... Heathcliff may refer to any of these : Heathcliff is a character from the book Wuthering Heights Heathcliff (musical) is a musical based on Wuthering Heights Heathcliff is a comic strip about a cat of the same name Dr. Heathcliff Cliff Huxtable, the lead character on The Cosby Show This is... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. ... 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ... James Stoddard is an American fantasy author. ... Jasper Fforde (born in London on 11 January 1961) is an English novelist. ... Thursday Next is the protagonist in the series of novels by Jasper Fforde. ... The Well of Lost Plots is the third book by Jasper Fforde and the continuation of the adventures of literary detective Thursday Next from The Eyre Affair and Lost In A Good Book. ... Le Bleu du Ciel (Blue of Noon- English) is a transgressive novella of erotic fiction written in 1935, and its French author, Georges Bataille was a committed anti-fascist, as can be seen from the content of this particular work. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alice Hoffman (born March 16, 1952) is an American novelist and young-adult and childrens writer, best known for her 1995 novel Practical Magic, which was adapted for a 1998 film of the same name. ... Here on Earth is the 1997 novel by Alice Hoffman, and was chosen as an Oprahs Book Club selection. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Diane Setterfield (b. ... The Thirteenth Tale is a gothic suspense novel that was published in 2006. ... Michel Houellebecq (pronounced ) (real name Michel Thomas), born 26 February 1958, on the French island of Réunion is a controversial, award-winning French novelist. ... DVD cover Extension du domaine de la lutte, in English broadening of the struggle , is the debut novel of French writer, Michel Houellebecq, which was published in 1994, and later made into a 1999 film directed by and starring Philippe Harel. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Emily Jane Brontë (pronounced ); (July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, now best remembered for her only novel Wuthering Heights, a classic of English literature. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Heathcliff may refer to any of these : Heathcliff is a character from the book Wuthering Heights Heathcliff (musical) is a musical based on Wuthering Heights Heathcliff is a comic strip about a cat of the same name Dr. Heathcliff Cliff Huxtable, the lead character on The Cosby Show This is... For other uses, see Nelly (disambiguation). ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ...

Film, TV or theatrical adaptations

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Merle Oberon (February 19, 1911 – November 23, 1979), born Estelle Merle OBrien Thompson, was an Academy Award-nominated Anglo-Indian film actress. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Heathcliff may refer to any of these : Heathcliff is a character from the book Wuthering Heights Heathcliff (musical) is a musical based on Wuthering Heights Heathcliff is a comic strip about a cat of the same name Dr. Heathcliff Cliff Huxtable, the lead character on The Cosby Show This is... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Flora Robson (March 28, 1902 - July 7, 1984) was a British actress renowned as one of the great character players and one of Britains theatrical grandes dames. ... Donald Crisp (July 27, 1882 – May 25, 1974) was an Academy Award winning English film actor. ... Geraldine Fitzgerald Geraldine Fitzgerald (24 November 1913 - 17 July 2005) was an Irish-American actress. ... Leo G. Carroll (October 25, 1892–October 16, 1972) was an British character actor, best known for his roles in several Hitchcock films and The Man from U.N.C.L.E.. He was born in Weedon, Buckinghamshire to a wealthy Catholic family, who named him after the reigning pope... Charles MacArthur (November 5, 1895 _ April 21, 1956) was an American playwright and screenwriter, born in Scranton, Pennsylvania. ... Ben Hecht (February 28, 1894 – April 18, 1964) was a prolific Hollywood screenwriter, even though he professed disdain for the motion picture industry. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ... William Wyler (July 1, 1902 – July 27, 1981) was a prolific, Oscar-winning motion picture director. ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which began in 1932. ... Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which began in 1932. ... Nigel Kneale (born Thomas Nigel Kneale on April 18, 1922 in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, England, UK) is a Manx television and film scriptwriter, who has worked mostly in the UK. He is best known for his creation of the character of Professor Bernard Quatermass, who has appeared in three... Rudolph Cartier (born Rudolph Katscher on April 17, 1904 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary; died June 8, 1994 in London, England, UK) was an Austrian television director, who worked almost exclusively in British television for the BBC. Cartier initially trained as an architect, but an enthusiasm for drama and the theatre... For Richard Todd the football player, see Richard Todd (football player) Richard Todd (born June 11, 1919) is a British actor. ... Yvonne Mitchell (born July 7, 1925 in London, England, UK; died March 24, 1979 in London, England, UK) was a British stage, television and film actress, probably best remembered for her role as Julia in the 1954 BBC Television adaptation of George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Claire Bloom (born Patricia Claire Blume on February 15, 1931) is a British film and stage actress. ... Keith Michell (born 1 December 1928) is an Australian actor. ... Timothy Peter Dalton (born March 21, 1946[1]) is an English actor of stage and screen, best known for portraying James Bond in The Living Daylights (1987) and Licence to Kill (1989) and in his roles in Shakespearean related films and plays. ... Heathcliff may refer to any of these : Heathcliff is a character from the book Wuthering Heights Heathcliff (musical) is a musical based on Wuthering Heights Heathcliff is a comic strip about a cat of the same name Dr. Heathcliff Cliff Huxtable, the lead character on The Cosby Show This is... This article is about the television series. ... Peter J. Hammond (sometimes credited as P. J. Hammond) is a British television writer. ... Jonathan Powell (born 1947) is a British television producer and executive. ... Hugh Leonard (real name John Keyes Byrne) (born 1926) is an Irish dramatist and journalist. ... Ken Hutchison is a British actor who played the most cunning and danegrous villain of a group of Cockney bad guys in the controversial Sam Peckinpah film Straw Dogs. He also appeared as the lead villains henchmen in the eighties fantasy film Ladyhawke directed by Richard Donner. ... Kay Adshead ( b. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Jacques Rivette (born March 1, 1928) is a French film director. ... Krankheit oder Moderne Frauen (Illness or Modern Women) is a play by the Austrian author Elfriede Jelinek written in 1984 and published by Prometh Verlag in 1987 with an afterword by Regine Friedrich. ... Elfriede Jelinek (born 20 October 1946) is an Austrian feminist playwright and novelist. ... The Promise is a Philippine movie. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Angel Locsín dressed as Darna Angélica Colmenares (born April 23, 1985), stage name Angel Locsín, is a actress from the Philippines who portrayed Darna in the GMA Networks television series with the same name. ... Emily Brontës Wuthering Heights was a 1992 feature film adaptation of Emily Brontës novel Wuthering Heights. ... Juliette Binoche (French IPA: ) (born March 9, 1964 in Paris) is an Oscar-winning and Golden Globe nominated French film actress. ... Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes, (IPA: ), born 22 December 1962) is a Tony Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated and Genie Award-nominated British actor. ... Gillian Hiscott (born 1955 in Plymouth, Devon) is an author and playwright. ... LWT redirects here. ... Sarah Smart (born on 3 March 1977 in Birmingham, West Midlands, England) is an English actress. ... Orla Brady (b. ... Robert Cavanah is a Scottish actor who was born 20 December 1964 in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... PBS redirects here. ... Masterpiece Theatre is a long-running anthology television series produced by WGBH which premiered on PBS on January 10, 1971. ... Wuthering Heights was a modern-day adaption of the classic novel. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... Erika Jane Christensen (born August 19, 1982) is an American actress whose film appearances include Traffic (2000) and The Perfect Score (2004), among others. ... Michael James Vogel[1] (born 17 July 1979) is an American actor and former fashion model. ... Christopher Kennedy Masterson (born January 22, 1980) is an American actor perhaps best known for his role as oldest brother Francis in the sitcom Malcolm in the Middle. ...

New versions

In 2006 it was reported that a new film adaptation was in development, with Angelina Jolie and Johnny Depp presently attached to star, however, no further developments appear to have been forthcoming. M. Night Shyamalan was once offered the project to direct, but he turned it down to work on The Village, which he later revealed to be inspired partly by the novel.[12] Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4, 1975) is an American film actor, a former fashion model, and a Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... Manoj Nelliattu Shyamalan (born August 6, 1970), known professionally as M. Night Shyamalan, //, is an Academy Award nominated screenwriter and director, who also performs smaller roles in his own movies. ... This article is about the 2004 film. ...


ITV has commissioned a new remake, to be adapted by Blackpool writer Peter Bowker. The three-hour Brontë is expected to be broadcast in early 2008.[13] Blackpool is a British television musical drama serial, produced in-house by the BBC. It was screened on BBC One as six one-hour episodes on Thursday nights at 9pm from November 11 to December 16, 2004. ...


In early 2008, a highly publicized fight for the role of Catherine made headlines across the UK with both Keira Knightley and Lindsay Lohan vying for the role. John Maybury is slated to direct the latest adaptation. [1] It now seems that Natalie Portman has been cast as Catherine Earnshaw [2] Keira Christina Knightley (pronounced ;[1] born 26 March 1985) is a Golden Globe-, BAFTA- and Academy Award-nominated English[2] film and television actress. ... Lindsay Dee Lohan[1] (born July 2, 1986) is an American actress and pop music singer. ... British director of Love is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon (1998) with Derek Jacobi and Daniel Craig and The Jacket (2005) with Adrien Brody and Keira Knightley. ...


Musical allusions and adaptations

Opera

  • Bernard Herrmann wrote an Opera based on the novel in 1951. The libretto was by his former wife, radio play writer Lucille Fletcher. The opera was first performed in a concert version in London in 1966, with the composer conducting the Pro Arte Orchestra. It featured the soprano Morag Beaton in the role of Cathy, and baritone Donald Bell as Heathcliff. The opera was later recorded on a Unicorn-Kanchana records. However, a fully staged version of the opera was not done until 1982 when Portland Opera premiered the production.[14]
  • Carlisle Floyd also wrote an opera based on the novel in 1958.
  • Bernard J. Taylor wrote a musical Wuthering Heights, recorded in 1992 as a concept album starring Lesley Garrett, Dave Willetts, Bonnie Langford and Clive Carter, and first performed in 1994. It has been translated into German, Romanian and Polish.[15]
  • The all-female Japanese opera company, Takarazuka Revue, has their own interpretation of the story, the musical drama is first performed in the 1970s and the most recently production is in 1998, starring Yōka Wao.
  • Sir Cliff Richard starred in the self commissioned "Heathcliff in the 1990's. Not well received by many older fans of the singer it portrayed the very brutal side of the character. The album of the libretto was recorded by Cliff Richard and Olivia Newton-John.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Lucille Fletcher (March 28, 1912 — August 31, 2000) was a film and television screenwriter. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... Unicorn-Kanchana[1] was an independent record label. ... Carlisle Floyd (born 1926 in Latta, South Carolina) is an American opera composer. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Bernard J. Taylor Bernard J. Taylor is the writer and composer of six stage musicals that have been produced around the world and translated into German, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian, Spanish and Italian. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... In popular music, a concept album is an album which is unified by a theme, which can be instrumental, compositional, narrative, or lyrical (Shuker 2002, p. ... Lesley Garrett, CBE (April 10, 1955 in Doncaster, South Yorkshire) is an internationally renowned English soprano singer. ... Dave Willetts (born June 24th 1952 is a British singer and actor known for having leading roles in West End musicals. ... Bonita Melody Lysette Bonnie Langford (July 22, 1964) is an English actress and entertainer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yōka Wao Yōka Wao , born 15 February 1968) is a Japanese performing artist and a former member of the Takarazuka Revue, where she specialized in playing male characters (Otokoyaku). ... Sir Cliff Richard OBE (born Harry Rodger Webb on 14 October 1940) is an English singer, actor and businessman. ... Heathcliff may refer to any of these : Heathcliff is a character from the book Wuthering Heights Heathcliff (musical) is a musical based on Wuthering Heights Heathcliff is a comic strip about a cat of the same name Dr. Heathcliff Cliff Huxtable, the lead character on The Cosby Show This is... Sir Cliff Richard OBE (born Harry Rodger Webb on 14 October 1940) is an English singer, actor and businessman. ... Olivia Newton-John AO OBE (born 26 September 1948) is a Grammy Award-winning and Golden Globe-nominated English-born Australian pop singer, songwriter and actress. ...

Other

  • "Wuthering Heights" is a song by Kate Bush, which appears on her 1978 debut album, The Kick Inside, and was also released as her debut single. It has been repeatedly covered by other artists, including Pat Benatar, on her 1980 album Crimes of Passion, the Brazilian power metal band Angra, on their 1993 album Angels Cry, and Hayley Westenra, on her 2003 album Pure. Josh Pyke has also done a cover for No Man's Woman. The Puppini Sisters have released a swing version of the Kate Bush song, as have the Ukulele Orchestra Of Great Britain.
  • The title and cover art of the second 1976 album Wind & Wuthering by the British progressive rock group Genesis were inspired by the novel. It also includes two instrumental pieces titled "Unquiet Slumbers For The Sleepers..." and "...In That Quiet Earth", respectively, which are the last words in the novel.
  • Wuthering Heights is a Danish heavy metal band.
  • Song writer Michael Penn makes reference to Heathcliff in his song "No Myth".
  • Song Cycle version of the novel using Emily Brontë poems as libretto.
  • Wuthering Heights is produced as a play in the Japanese manga "Garasu no Kamen" by Suzue Miuchi, in which the young Cathy is played by fictional actress Maya Kitajima.
  • In 2003, Japanese singer-songwriter Chihiro Onitsuka penned and released a b-side track on her maxi-single "Beautiful Fighter", which was entitled "Arashigaoka" (嵐ヶ丘), the Japanese translation of the title Wuthering Heights.
  • In 2005, Japanese violinist Kawai Ikuko composed an instrumental piece of the same name. Its slightly more elaborate variation includes the subtitle, "Dear Heathcliff."
  • Korean pop artist Eugene has a song entitled "Wuthering Heights" released in 2004.
  • Songwriter Jim Steinman has stated that the ballad It's All Coming Back To Me Now is influenced by Wuthering Heights, he compared the song to "Heathcliffe digging up Cathy's corpse and dancing with it in the cold moonlight."[16]
  • A theatre marquee in the 2004 film Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow advertises the 1939 film adaptation of Wuthering Heights starring Laurence Olivier.
  • A goth rock band Diva Destruction also made a reference on Heathcliff and Catherine on a song called Heathcliff on their album Exposing the Sickness (2002).
  • The fancy Victorian house a player can buy in "The Game of Life," a board game, is from "Blithering Heights Realty."
  • In the indie rock band The Hush Sound's song "A Dark Congregation", the final words of the novel are referenced in the line, "we are surrounded by all of the quiet sleepers inside the quiet earth".
  • Artist Jer Ber Jones covered Kate Bush's "Wuthering Heights".

This article is about the 1978 song. ... Kate Bush (born 30 July 1958) is an English singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. ... The Kick Inside is Kate Bushs first album, released on February 17, 1978. ... Pat Benatar (born Patricia Mae Andrzejewski on 10 January 1953) is an influential, four-time Grammy Award-winning US rock singer who has recorded several million- and multimillion-selling albums and singles. ... Crimes of Passion is the second album by Pat Benatar, released in 1980. ... This article is about the heavy metal band Angra. ... Angels Cry is an Angras album. ... Hayley Dee Westenra (born 10 April 1987 in Christchurch)[1] is a New Zealand soprano of Irish heritage. ... Pure is the first internationally published album by Hayley Westenra. ... Josh Pyke is an Australian singer-songwriting musician, best known for his songs Middle of the Hill which was voted number 19 in the Triple J Hottest 100 of 2005, Memories and Dust and Private Education which were voted number 38 and 57 respectively in the Triple J Hottest 100... No Mans Woman is a compilation tribute to female musicians, created by Australian male musicians performing various covers, to recognise the contributions female artists and musicians have made to the international music industry. ... ... Wind & Wuthering is a studio album by British progressive rock band Genesis, originally released in 1977. ... Genesis are an English rock band formed in 1967. ... Promotional photograph of Wuthering Heights Wuthering Heights are a Danish heavy metal band with a somewhat eclectic musical style. ... Michael Penn (born August 1, 1958, in Greenwich Village, New York City) is an American singer and songwriter. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... Original run April 09, 1984 – September 27, 1984 No. ... Suzue Miuchis self portrait. ... Chihiro Onitsuka ), Onitsuka Chihiro, (born October 30, 1980 in Nango, Miyazaki) is a female Japanese popular music singer-songwriter and pianist. ... Jim Steinman (born November 1, 1947 in New York City, New York)[1] is a record producer, composer, and lyricist responsible for several hit songs. ... Its All Coming Back To Me Now is a power ballad, written by Jim Steinman in 1983. ... Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow is a 2004 American pulp adventure, science fiction film written and directed by Kerry Conran in his directorial debut. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... The Hush Sound is an indie quartet originating in Chicago, Illinois. ...

References

  1. ^ Excerpts from Contemporary Reviews
  2. ^ Wuthering Heights: Publication & Contemporary Critical Reception
  3. ^ Later Critical Response to Wutheirng Heights
  4. ^ "Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week's income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together?" (Chapter 7)
  5. ^ E.M. Petyt, Emily Bronte and the Haworth Dialect, Hudson History, Settle, 2001
  6. ^ Robert Barnard (2000) Emily Brontë
  7. ^ Ian Jack (1995) Explanatory Notes in Oxford World's Classics edition of Wuthering Heights
  8. ^ Romney, Jonathan (15 June 2000). The passion killer. The Guardian. Retrieved on December 21, 2007.
  9. ^ Wuthering Heights (1920) at the Internet Movie Database
  10. ^ Murray, Andy (2006). Into the Unknown: The Fantastic Life of Nigel Kneale (paperback), London: Headpress, p. 34. ISBN 1-900486-50-4. 
  11. ^ Wake, Oliver. Wuthering Heights (1962). Screenonline. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  12. ^ Bellamy, Alison (20 January 2006). Depp and Jolie to play Heathcliff and Cathy in Yorkshire. Leedstoday. Retrieved on January 27, 2006.
  13. ^ Oatts, Joanne (November 13, 2006). Mammoth brings Cathy home to ITV. DigitalSpy. Retrieved on November 24, 2006.
  14. ^ http://www.wkms.org/programming/roulston.htm
  15. ^ Wuthering Heights by Bernard J. Taylor
  16. ^ The Artist's Mind

is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Headpress is a small, independent publishing house mainly devoted to works of non-fiction: cult movies, music, the history of pulp literature, comic books, true crime, sin & sleaze and forteana. ... screenonline is a website devoted to the history of British film and television, and to social history as revealed by film and television. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Bronte Society Website Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte. Search, Read, Study, Discuss. (1937 words)
Wuthering Heights (1847) - the story is narrated by Lockwood, a gentleman visiting the Yorkshire moors where the novel is set, and of Mrs Dean, housekeeper to the Earnshaw family, who had been witness of the interlocked destinies of the original owners of the Heights.
Wuthering Heights is one novel whose literary worth has always escaped me. I have read it perhaps three times in my life, most recently about five years ago.
Whilst I thought she was still the most self centred character in the book for calling him "cruel Heathcliff" for abandoning her, I felt she said it because she discovered that her heart truly belonged to him during her confession to Nelly, and that she couldn't have married Edgar after all.
Wuthering Heights (1939) (2067 words)
Wuthering Heights (1939) is director William Wyler's somber tale of doomed and tragic love, conflicting passions, and revenge.
During a raging blizzard, a bitterly cold, snowy night on the moors, a solitary traveler staggers for refuge toward Wuthering Heights.
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