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Encyclopedia > Wulfred

Wulfred was Archbishop of Canterbury from 805 to 832. Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...

Wulfred is believed to have come from Middlesex and was a member of a wealthy and important family with considerable landholdings in Middlesex and neighbouring regions. He was archdeacon of the community at Christ Church, Canterbury before the death of his predecessor Æthelhard. Under Wulfred's long archiepiscopacy considerable changes and reforms took place at Christ Church, which can be traced in the plentiful documentation that survives from this time. Wulfred used his very considerable personal wealth to fund the construction of new buildings, and reformed the community, possibly along the lines of Chrodegang's Regula canonicorum or perhaps on the rule of Benedict. The Christ Church scriptorium was also particularly active under Wulfred. In addition, Wulfred was the first archbishop to place his portrait on the pennies struck in his name which, unlike those of previous archbishops, never made reference to the ruling Mercian king. Image File history File links Wulfredobv. ... Image File history File links Wulfredrev. ... Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest (after Rutland). ... An archdeacon is a senior position in some Christian churches, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. ... Canterbury Cathedral from the southwest. ... Saint Æthelhard (also Aethelheard or Ethelhard) was archbishop of Canterbury from 793 to 12 May 805. ... Saint Chrodegang, bishop of Metz, was born in the early eighth century at Hasbania (now Belgian Limburg) of a noble Frankish family, and died at Metz, March 6, 766. ... Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ... A variety of low value coins, including an Irish 2p piece and many U.S. pennies. ...

One of the most important features of Wulfred's time as archbishop was the debate with Cenwulf, king of the Mercians, over lay control of monasteries. Such lordship had been customary for centuries, though in the half-century or so before Wulfred became archbishop the church had begun to assert episcopal control over monasteries. In England, this resistance was manifested in decrees made by synods at Clofesho in 803 and more especially at Chelsea in 816. Tensions over the Kentish houses of Reculver and Minster-in-Thanet reached such a point that Wulfred was deprived of authority by the king for a period of some years; six according to the document drawn up in 825 recording the - then victorious - Canterbury view of the debate, though four is perhaps more likely. Wulfred and the Canterbury community fought Cenwulf vigorously, sending embassies to the Pope and concocting forgeries in their favour which purported to have been issued by earlier kings. But around 820 Cenwulf forced Wulfred into an unfavourable settlement by which Wulfred gained control over the debated monasteries in exchange for a large payment of gold and the loss of a very large estate to the king. Neither were Cenwulf and his followers quick to cede control of Minster and Reculver to the archbishop. After the death of Cenwulf's successor Ceolwulf in 823 Wulfred's situation improved. The new Mercian king, Beornwulf presided over another council at Clofesho in 825 where the conflict was finally settled in Wulfred's favour and an account of the whole conflict up to that point was written down. Cenwulf's daughter Cwoenthryth, abbess of Winchcombe and Minster, paid compensation to Wulfred and lost control over the houses in Kent. Later in 825 (or possibly the following year), however, Kent was lost to Mercia after Egbert of Wessex defeated Beornwulf at Ellendun. Relations between Wulfred and the new West Saxon rulers were cold, and coinage in Wulfred's name appears to have ceased for a time, though it had been restored before Wulfred's death in 832. Final settlement of the debate over lordship of monasteries came in 838 at Kingston, shortly before Egbert's death. Coenwulf (or Cenwulf) (died 821) was King of Mercia from 796 to 821. ... The general location of Mercia, along with the other peoples of Britain around the year 600. ... Monastery of St. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Events Nicephorus I and Charlemagne settle their imperial boundaries. ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ... Events Frankish king Louis the Pious crowned emperor. ... Reculver is a small seaside farmstead and summer resort situated about 3 miles east of Herne Bay along the North Kent coast and is popular with visitors. ... Map sources for Minster-in-Thanet at grid reference TR308648 Minster-in-Thanet is a village on the Isle of Thanet in Kent, England, to the west of Ramsgate and to the north east of Canterbury. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Ceolwulf I was the seventeenth King of Mercia, from 821 to 823. ... Beornwulf (died 826) was the King of Mercia from 823 to 826. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... Cwenthryth was an early 9th century Mercian princess, the daughter of Coenwulf of Mercia and sister of Saint Kenelm. ... Location within the British Isles The busy main street Winchcombe is a Cotswold town in the Local Authority District of Tewkesbury, in Gloucestershire, England. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert) (c. ... Ellandun was the site of a battle between Egbert of Wessex and Beornwulf of Mercia in 825. ... Events Theophilus forbids the usage of icons, establishing strict punishments. ... Events At Hingston Down, Egbert of Wessex beats the Danish and the West Welsh. ... Kingston upon Thames, part of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, is an ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, and is now a lively suburb of London. ...

Despite his relative obscurity, Wulfred was arguably one of the greatest archbishops of Canterbury, presiding with strength over a potentially dangerous period and defending ecclesiastical rights in the face of considerable opposition.

Religious Posts
Preceded by
Archbishop of Canterbury
Succeeded by
Saxon: Augustine | Laurentius | Mellitus | Justus | Honorius | Deusdedit | Wighard | Adrian | Theodore | Bertwald | Tatwin | Nothelm | Cuthbert | Bregwin | Jaenbert | Æthelhard | Wulfred | Syred | Feologild | Ceolnoth | Ethelred | Plegmund | Athelm | Wulfhelm | Oda | Aelfsige | Birthelm | Dunstan | Æthelgar | Sigeric | Ælfric | Alphege | Lyfing | Aethelnoth | Edsige | Robert of Jumièges | Stigand
Medieval to Reformation: Lanfranc | Anselm | Ralph d'Escures | William de Corbeil | Theobald | Thomas Becket | Richard | Baldwin | Reginald Fitz-Jocelin | Hubert Walter | John de Gray | Stephen Langton | Walter d'Eynsham | Richard le Grant | Ralph Neville | John of Sittingbourne | John Blund | Edmund Rich | Boniface | William Chillenden | Robert Kilwardby | Robert Burnell | John Peckham | Robert Winchelsey | Thomas Cobham | Walter Reynolds | Simon Mepeham | John de Stratford | John de Ufford | Thomas Bradwardine | Simon Islip | William Edington | Simon Langham | William Whittlesey | Simon Sudbury | William Courtenay | Thomas Arundel | Roger Walden | Thomas Arundel | Henry Chichele | John Stafford | John Kemp | Thomas Bourchier | John Morton | Thomas Langton | Henry Deane | William Warham
Reformation to present: Thomas Cranmer | Reginald Pole | Matthew Parker | Edmund Grindal | John Whitgift | Richard Bancroft | George Abbot | William Laud | William Juxon | Gilbert Sheldon | William Sancroft | John Tillotson | Thomas Tenison | William Wake | John Potter | Thomas Herring | Matthew Hutton | Thomas Secker | Frederick Cornwallis | John Moore | Charles Manners-Sutton | William Howley | John Bird Sumner | Charles Thomas Longley | Archibald Campbell Tait | Edward White Benson | Frederick Temple | Randall Thomas Davidson | Cosmo Lang | William Temple | Geoffrey Fisher | Michael Ramsey | Donald Coggan | Robert Runcie | George Carey | Rowan Williams

  Results from FactBites:
THE ROMANCE READER reviews: To Burn by Claudia Dain (690 words)
Having captured a Roman villa in Britannia, Wulfred and his Saxon cohorts are systematically destroying it - partly for the pleasure of smashing everything Roman and partly to find the Roman woman Wulfred is convinced has escaped their axes.
The only way Wulfred can continue to torment Melania is to keep her alive so she can watch him take over her home, but the only way he can keep her alive is to watch her almost every moment.
And, because Wulfred and Melania come to know each other so well, when their trust and feelings for each other are tested, their reactions are extremely satisfying both for them and the reader.
  More results at FactBites »



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