FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Wu Hu
Jump to: navigation, search
This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality.
This article has been tagged since April 2005.
See Wikipedia:How to edit a page and Category:Wikipedia help for help, or this article's talk page.


Wu Hu (五胡 Pinyin Wǔ Hú) (meaning the Five Hu) is a collective term for various non-Chinese steppe tribes during the period from the Han Dynasty to the Northern Dynasties. These nomadic tribes originally resided outside China proper, but gradually migrated into Chinese areas during the years of turmoil between the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms. These non-Chinese tribes, whom the Han had fought to a standstill, seized the opportunity afforded by the weakness of the central government to extend their settlement of pastoral lands into the fertile North China Plain. Jump to: navigation, search Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... The Northern Dynasties (北朝 bei3 chao2) included Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... The term China proper is usually used to refer to the historical heartlands of China, and to make a contrast between these heartlands and frontier regions of Outer China (Inner Asia). ... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ... The North China Plain (Chinese: 华北平原; Pinyin: ) also called the Middle Plain (Chinese: 中原; Pinyin: ), is made of the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ...


The Rebellion of the Eight Kings during the Western Jin Dynasty triggered a large scale Wu Hu uprising from 304, which resulted in the sacking the Chinese capitals at Luoyang (311) and Chang'an. The Xiongnu Kingdom of Han-Former Zhao captured and executed the last two Jin emperors as the Western Jin Dynasty collapsed in 317. Many Chinese fled to the south of Yangtze River as numerous tribesmen of the Wu Hu and remnants of the Jin wreaked havoc in the north. Fu Jian temporarily unified the north but his brilliant achievement was destroyed after the Battle of Feishui. The Northern Wei Dynasty unified northern China again in 439 and ushered in the period of the Northern Dynasties. The War of the Eight Princes or Rebellion of the Eight Kings or Rebellion of the Eight Princes (trad. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Events Major Wu Hu (barbarian) uprising in China; the Hun Liu Yuan establish the Han kingdom, beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms era in China. ... Numerous cities have been the capital of China during the course of history. ... Jump to: navigation, search Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For the band, see 311 (band), for the number see 311 (number) Events June 15 - Licinius issues his own Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his own part of the Roman Empire. ... Changan   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 长安; Traditional Chinese: 長安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Han Zhao (Simplified Chinese script: 汉赵, Traditional Chinese script: 漢趙, pinyin: Hànzhào) (304-329) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420). ... The Han Zhao (Simplified Chinese characters: 汉赵, Traditional Chinese characters: 漢趙, pinyin: Hànzhào) (304-329) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420). ... Events Jin Yuan Di succeeds Jin Min Di; end of the western and beginning of the eastern Jin Dynasty King Marian II of Iberia declares Christianity the official state religion Births February _ Constantine II, Roman Emperor Deaths Categories: 317 ... Jump to: navigation, search The Yangtze River (Chinese: 扬子江; pinyin: ) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Amazon in South America and the Nile in Africa. ... The Battle of Fei River or Feishui (Traditional Chinese: 淝水之戰; Hanyu Pinyin Féishŭi zhī zhàn) was a battle in 383, where Fu Jian (苻堅) of the Former Qin was decisively defeated by the numerically inferior army of Eastern Jin. ... Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, 443 AD. A Buddhist stela from the Northern Wei period, build in the early 6th century. ... Events Licinia Eudoxia, wife of the Roman Emperor Valentinian III, is granted the rank of Augusta following the birth of their daughter Eudocia. ... The Northern Dynasties (北朝 bei3 chao2) included Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty. ...

Contents


Past and Present Definitions

Wu Hu means "five nomadic groups", hence giving it another name, the Five Hu. Wu Hu were composed of five nomadic tribes: Xiōngnú (匈奴, sometimes identified with the Huns), Xiānbēi (鮮卑), (), Qiāng (), and Jié () although different groups of historians and historiographers have their own definitions. Jump to: navigation, search Hun is a term that refers to a specific group of Central Asian nomadic tribes, who appear in Europe in the 4th century. ...


The above composition of Wu Hu is the most accepted since those five tribes were the major ones. The term Wu Hu was first used in Cui Hong's Shiliuguochunqiu, which recorded the history of the five tribes' ravaging Northern China from the early 4th century to the mid 5th century. (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... // Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ...


After later historians determined that more than five nomadic tribes took part, Wu Hu has become a collective term for all non-Chinese nomads residing in North China at the time. The time at which the ravages occurred is called The Period of Wu Hu (五胡時代) or the Wu Hu Chaos in China (五胡亂華). States founded by Wu Hu were called the Sixteen Kingdoms. The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ...


Origins of the various definitions

Traditional historians interpreted "Hu" as "barbarians"; some further stretched this obsolete analogy to equate "Hu" with the "Xiongnu". Others objected to such similarities, stating that Wu Hu were substantially civilized before the turmoil of the Western Jin Dynasty.


Xiongnu was in fact the most powerful non-Chinese ethnic group neighboring the Chinese Han Dynasty therefore the Han simply referred them to as the "Hu" (the "non-Chinese" or the "barbarian"). Both terms were used concurrently. Nevertheless "Hu" later became the collective term for non-Chinese ethnic groups and was often preceded by Chinese numerals and characters such as "Wu" (five) and "Zhu" (numerous). A diplomatic message in Han Shu defined Hu as the "proud son of heaven" (天之驕子) (Chapter 94). Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: There is the ubiquitous system of Arabic digits and two ancient Chinese numeral systems. ... The Book of Han (Ch: 漢書, Hanshu) is a classic Chinese historical writing covering the history of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE-9 CE). ...


The following is dedicated to the causes, course and aftermath of the war. Refer to the Sixteen Kingdoms for history of each of the Wu Hu tribes. The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ...


Wu Hu after the fall of Northern Xiongnu

When the Eastern Han Dynasty slowly brought the Northern Xiongnu into submission in the 1st century by military and diplomatic measures, hordes of herdsmen and the Southern Xiongnu, originally subdued by the Northern Xiongnu, began trading without having heavy tribute imposed on them. Horses and animal products were traded mainly for agricultural tools, such as the harrow and the plough, and clothing of which silk was the most popular. Those herdsmen helped the Han dynasty defend against any remaining Xiongnu in return. The more they engaged in commerce with the Chinese, the more they preferred to stay near China's border, to facilitate trade, instead of residing on the steppes of Manchuria and Mongolia. Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... Alternative meanings: Harrow, London, a place in the London Borough of Harrow; Harrow School, a famous public school in the United Kingdom; The Harrow, a fantasy and horror magazine. ... A farmer works the land in the traditional way with a horse and plough The plough (American spelling: plow) is a tool used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: ) is name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ...


Some groups of non-Xiongnu herdsmen even settled permanently within the border, first of which was the Wuhuan (烏桓), who immigrated to the area of today's Province of Liaoning during the era of Jiangwu (2556). Note that the Southern Xiongnu migrated before Wuhuan but not for commercial reasons. The Wuhuan (乌桓) were a nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: ) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see number 25. ... For other uses, see number 56. ...


Liaison among the dynasty and groups of herdsmen relied on mutual economic and military benefits. As the Northern Xiongnu, the masters of the Mongolian steppes and mortal enemy of the dynasty, was still potent enough during the reigns of Emperor Ming, Emperor Zhang and Emperor He (58105) to keep the volatile alliance intact, the Eastern Han dynasty enjoyed the most prosperous years of its almost 200 years of existence. Even fragments of the Northern Xiongnu migrated well within the border to the Xi He plain (literally meaning the plain on the west of the Huang He, south of the Ordos Desert). Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... For other uses, see number 58. ... Jump to: navigation, search Events The Chinese refine papermaking. ... Jump to: navigation, search For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search Ordos Desert 1912 The Ordos Desert (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯沙漠, pinyin: Èěrduōsī (Ordos) Shā Mò (Desert)) is a desert and steppe region lying on a plateau in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The picture drastically changed in the later years of reign of Emperor He, son of Emperor Zhang. Dòu Xiàn (竇憲 50s92), brother-in-law of Emperor Zhang through his sister Empress Duo, utterly defeated the Northern Xiongnu in a series of campaigns during the Yongyuan era (89105). The remnants just escaped annihilation, conceded defeat, began migrating out of the Mongolian steppes and disappeared as a distinct group of herdsmen once and for all. Others were assimilated into other tribes by intermarriage: the Yuwen tribe being a good example. Dou Xian (竇憲 dou4 xian4 50s - 92), leader of the consort clan Dou, first of which engaged in the struggle for power against eunuchs in the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Sometimes the 50s is used as shorthand for the 1950s, the 1850s, or other such decades in various centuries Events... For other uses, see number 92. ... For other uses, see number 89. ... Jump to: navigation, search Events The Chinese refine papermaking. ... The Yuwen (Simplified Chinese character: 宇文, Traditional Chinese character: 宇文, pinyin Yǔwén) was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei and Hun ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ...


In their wake a power vacuum was left on the Mongolian steppes. The main contenders were the Southern Xiongnu, who inhabited a region to the south of the steppe and had now grown into a group of more than a hundred thousand herdsmen on the Xi He plain, the Xianbei, who lived in the east of the steppe residing on the plains of Manchuria, the Dingling, who originally dwelt on the banks of Lake Baikal and had already commenced trekking south into the steppes before Duo Xian destroyed the Northern Xiongnu, and the Wuhuan, who lived south of Xianbei and were the weakest of the four. The Xianbei (鮮卑, written Xiānbēi in pinyin or Hsien-pei in Wade-Giles) is a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, and Liaoning. ... The Dingling/Gaoche/Tiele peoples were Turkic speakers. ... Jump to: navigation, search Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal (Russian: О́зеро Байка́л (Ozero Baykal)), a lake in southern Siberia, Russia, between Irkutsk Oblast on the northwest and Buryatia on the southeast, near Irkutsk. ...


Instead of constantly trading for provisions, tools and luxuries, these four powerful groups of herdsmen, though still allies of the Han Dynasty, often cooperated to plunder areas of the northern border. The dynasty could not muster an all-out campaign to wipe them out, but often attempted, through diplomatic and monetary measures to split one or more groups from the alliance of herdsmen.


On the other hand the dynasty was constantly declining as clans of consorts and eunuchs engaged in a continuous struggle for power. Wealthy merchants and aristocrats were acquiring lands from peasants who had been cultivating their own land for years. "Landless" peasants had to come under the protection of the rich and so pay rent to these new landowners rather than pay taxes to the government. Coupled with bureaucratic corruption, tax revenues dropped dramatically. Large landholding families also took advantages of the weakness of central government and established their own armies. Increasingly governors of regions (the highest level) administered their territories as independent rulers. The recruitment of troops and tax collection could be carried out at the discretion of the regional governors, contributing to the disunity that led to the inevitable crumbling of China into Three Kingdoms. Jump to: navigation, search The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ...


The dynasty also had to deal with Qiang and Di on the western border, who had constantly been involved in skirmishes against the dynasty since the middle of Western Han Dynasty (around mid-1st century BC). As the Eastern Han Dynasty declined, the Qiang, nominal ancestors of modern Tibetans, began planning major invasions. Through spies and collaborators, the Han court knew about the situation and had to deploy soldiers near the border to fend off Qiang skirmishes and small-scale invasions. Jump to: navigation, search The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... DI has several meanings: Destination Imagination, an international childrens problem-solving competition Diabetes insipidus, a disease Digitally Imported, the Internet radio station Direct Injection, see fuel injection Drill instructor the IATA code for dba See also the word/name Di. ... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Events The Roman Republic... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: Xīzàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ...


Although few major Qiang invasions were carried out, never successfully, such a military deployment constantly drained the treasury and was a cradle for ambitious militarists, the most famous of whom was Dong Zhuo (董卓 Dong3 Zhuo2, 130s192), the pretender to the Han court from 189-192. The more the Han court weakened through domestic problems, the more the herdsmen craved the dynasty's wealth. The Wuhuan were a frequent ally with the Han court against Xianbei and the Southern Xiongnu (hereafter abbreviated as Xiongnu), although they also sometimes allied with the Xiongnu to fend off joint attacks by the Han and Xianbei. Dong Zhuo (? – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 Events and trends Significant people Hadrian, Roman Emperor Categories: 130s ... Events The kingdom of Champa begins to control south and central Vietnam (approximate date). ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Events The kingdom of Champa begins to control south and central Vietnam (approximate date). ...


The Han court also deployed mercenaries from the Xianbei and Wuhuan for campaigns against the Wu Hu and to quell peasant insurgents. These mercenaries were often sympathetic to the peasant uprising and hence not trusted by the Han military authorities. However they were the best available option for suppressing the insurgents and consequently these solders were poorly treated by being deployed far away from their homeland, or in the most dangerous positions on the battlefield or by starving them of provisions and weapons. Thus militarists who could earn the trust of the Xianbei or Wuhuan would collaborate with the tribes for the sake of their own careers. An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ...


For instance a unit of about 5,000 Wuhuan cavalry that usually resided in Youzhou (part of modern northeastern Hebei and western Liaoning Province) was deployed in Southern Jingzhou (in Hunan Province) for three consecutive years. The rebellions (187-189) of Zhāng Chún (張純, died 189) and Zhāng Jǔ (張舉, died 189) in Youzhou in alliance with this Wuhuan cavalry unit marked the first of many such collaborations. Yuán Shào (袁紹, 140s202) and Gōngsūn Zàn (公孫瓚, 140s199), two of the celebrated "warlords" in the Three Kingdoms era, also exploited Wuhuan and Xianbei respectively in their own quests for predominance. Ironically Gongsun Zan was the commander tasked with suppressing the rebellion of Zhang Chun and Zhang Ju. Jump to: navigation, search Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jump to: navigation, search Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: ) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jingzhou (Simplified Chinese: 荆州; Traditional Chinese: 荊州; pinyin: ) is a city in the Hubei province of the Peoples Republic of China, on the banks of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). ... Jump to: navigation, search Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs... Events Rebellion of Zhang Chun and Zhang Ju. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Zhang Chun (???-188) He revolted at Yu Yang and fought the troops of Liu Yu, governor of Yu. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Zhang Ju (???-188) A Member of a local tribe in Yu Yang. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Jump to: navigation, search Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 Events and trends Significant people Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor (138-161) Categories: 140s ... Events Roman law bans female gladiators Deaths Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon (martyred) Perpetua (martyred) Felicitas (martyred) Yuan Shao, Chinese warlord Categories: 202 ... Gongsun Zan (公孫瓚 gong1 sun1 zan4), courtesy name Bogui, was a warlord of northern China active toward the end of the second century AD. He was commander of a cavalry force and served on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Han Dynasty empire fighting against various non-Chinese peoples. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 Events and trends Significant people Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor (138-161) Categories: 140s ... Events Pope Zephyrinus succeeds Pope Victor I Geodeung succeeds Suro as king of the Korean kingdom of Gaya. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ... Gongsun Zan (公孫瓚 gong1 sun1 zan4), courtesy name Bogui, was a warlord of northern China active toward the end of the second century AD. He was commander of a cavalry force and served on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Han Dynasty empire fighting against various non-Chinese peoples. ... Zhang Chun (???-188) He revolted at Yu Yang and fought the troops of Liu Yu, governor of Yu. ... Zhang Ju (???-188) A Member of a local tribe in Yu Yang. ...


Xianbei confederacy of Tan Shi Huai

The bitter and unstable relationship between the Han court and various nomadic groups lasted from the start of 2nd century to early 160s until the appearance of Tán Shí Huái (檀石槐 b. 120s - d. 181), an illegitimate son of a low ranked military officer of Xianbei mercenaries deployed against the Southern Xiongnu. Despite his low social status among Xianbei herdsmen, he managed to unify all the Xianbei tribes under his rule in a confederacy against the Han court. // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s - 210s 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 Events and trends Execution of Justin Martyr, Rome Significant people Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor Lucius Verus, Roman Emperor Categories: 160s ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 Events and trends Significant people Hadrian, Roman Emperor Categories: 120s ... Events Antonine Wall is overrun. ...


Each Xianbei tribe was led by a chieftain and were grouped under the confederacy into three smaller federations, the Western, the Central and the Eastern. Notable chieftains under Tan Shi Huai were Mu Rong (see Sixteen Kingdoms), Haui Tou (see Sixteen Kingdoms) and Tui Yin (see Tuoba). The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... Tuoba (拓拔 pinyin Tuòbá) or To-pa in Wade-Giles was a clan of the Xianbei people. ...


The confederacy was a rudimentary centralized government. All tribes had to share all trade profits, military duties and a unified stance against the Han court. Slavery was also important as captives were forced to work to provide provisions and weapons.


Supported by this confederacy, Tan Shi Huai brought the Southern Xiongnu into a close alliance. The Wuhuan, Dingling, Qiang and Di were at times aiding the confederacy which now included all the major tribes on the steppes stretching from today Jilin province to central Xinjiang. Jump to: navigation, search Jilin (Chinese: 吉林; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Jump to: navigation, search Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: (Shinjang)), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Uneasiness at the Han court about this development of a new power on the steppes finally ushered in the only all-out campaign on the northern border to annihilate the confederacy once and for all. In 177 A.D., 30000 Han cavalry commanded by Xi&aagrave; Yù (夏育), Tiān Yàn (田晏) and Zāng Mín (臧旻), each of whom was the commander of units sent against the Wuhuan, the Qiang, and the Southern Xiongnu respectively before the campaign, attacked the confederacy. Events A systematic persecution of Christians begins in Rome under Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. ...


Each military officer commanded 10,000 cavalrymen and advanced north on three different routes, aiming at each of the three federations. Cavalry units commanded by chieftains of each of the three federations almost annihilated the invading forces. Eighty percent of the troops were killed and the three officers, who only brought tens of men safely back, were relieved from their posts.


This victory marked the zenith of confederacy as the Han court was completely helpless in the face of any invasion that the confederacy could have launched. However the confederacy had its own problems to solve, the most important of which was the shortage of provisions. The Xianbei tribe now increased into a group of more than one million herdsmen after two decades of prosperity, without counting other adherents such as the Southern Xiongnu, and thus could not rely on simply looting provisions from China's northern border.


Tan Shi Huai found a temporary solution when he sacked the area of modern Jilin province, inhabited by the Wō people (倭). These proficient fishermen provided a source of provisions, though it was never enough. To make the matters worse, the successors of Tan Shi Huai (his sons and nephews) after his death in 181 never earned the respect from chieftains of the three federations. They were also less ambitious and constantly fought among themselves for the increasingly powerless lord of confederacy. Jump to: navigation, search Jilin (Chinese: 吉林; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Events Antonine Wall is overrun. ...


On the other hand, tribes began to emigrate from the steppe, mainly to the southwest and southeast for better pasture. The weakness of the Han court also encouraged tribes to move further into China. For example the Tūfǎ (禿髮) tribe, an offshoot of the Tui Yin (Northern Wei Dynasty), settled in the eastern mountainous area of today Qinghai province. Thus the effective border of dynasty was pushed further south and east. The confederacy was virtually dissolved in early 3rd century therefore the warlords of the Han dynasty could play their own game of fighting for supremacy without much interference from tribes outside China. Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, 443 AD. A Buddhist stela from the Northern Wei period, build in the early 6th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... // Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ...


Tan Shi Huai territory
Map Explanations:

  • Han Xiongnu = Southern Xiongnu
  • Dinglins = Dingling
  • the Northern Xiongnu north of Xian Bei were not purely Xiongnu; many intermarriaged with Xianbei.

Jump to: navigation, search A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... The Dingling/Gaoche/Tiele peoples were Turkic speakers. ...

Wu Hu in the period of Three Kingdoms

As the Eastern Han Dynasty slowly disintegrated into an era of "warlords", battles for predominance eventually ushered in the Three Kingdoms. However years of war had generated a severe shortage of labor, a solution to which was the encouragement of immigration of Wu Hu herdsmen. Thus the Wei court, controlling Northern China at the time, reluctantly yielded areas already occupied to the Wu Hu and sometimes colonized war-uninhabited areas with some weaker tribes of herdsmen. Several large-scale forced relocations of Di to area of southwestern Shǎnxī and northern Sìchuān (四川) took place in the 220s. Jump to: navigation, search The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Warlords may refer to: The plural of Warlord, a name for a figure who has military authority but not legal authority over a subnational region. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Jump to: navigation, search Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; obsolete romanizations include Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Decades: 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s - 210s - 220s - 230s - 240s - 250s - 260s - 270s Years: 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 Significant people Alexander Severus, Roman Emperor Zhuge Liang, Shu Han strategist of impressive intellect Categories: 220s ...


Surprising to some historians, the immigration went smoothly since no powerful confederacy of any tribes was established. Wuhuan, partisans of Yuan Shao and his sons, had already been squashed when Cao Cao sent an expedition into Youzhou. Its herdsmen were dispersed all over Northern China and were no longer a major threat. Some of them even assimilated into Chinese, Xianbei and Xiongnu by marriage, thus the Wuhuan were not counted as one of the five tribes of Wu Hu. The Wuhuan (乌桓) were a nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cao Cao (155 – 220), whose name is also often transliterated and should be correctly pronounced as Tsao Tsao, was a regional warlord and the last Chancellor of Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty...


Later years of the period saw only skirmishes on borders as the three governments concentrated on reclaiming the loss of productivity. Thus an era of prosperity began after the unification under the Western Jin Dynasty as the relocated tribes adopted agriculture and contributed to the revival of the economy. Other tribes, still residing in the areas that they had occupied since the Eastern Han Dynasty, frequently served as mercenaries against minor rebellious chieftains such as Kē Bǐ Néng (軻比能) and Tūfǎ Shù Jī Néng (禿髮樹機能 ). The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ...


However the Jin bureaucracy forgot an underlying threat: Wu Hu herdsmen now composed more than half of the national population. Living in areas well south of the Great Wall and closer than ever before to the capital of China at Luoyang, any widespread uprising would be impossible to halt. Jump to: navigation, search The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: 長城; Simplified Chinese: 长城; pinyin: ), also known in China as the Great Wall of 10,000 Li¹ (Traditional Chinese: 萬里長城; Simplified Chinese: 万里长城; pinyin: ), is an ancient Chinese fortification built from the end of the 14th century until the beginning of the 17th... Jump to: navigation, search Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Crisis of the Jin Dynasty

A era of relative prosperity had existed since Jin Wudi unified China in 280: Wu hu tribes residing inside and in the vicinity of China regularly paid taxes to the Jin's court. They traded horses and animal products for agricultural goods and silk. Mecenaries could always be called upon request. Powerful chieftains cannot match the diplomatic measures of the Chinese bureaucracy. The scenario resembled that of Eastern Han Dynasty with one exception: the underlying internal weakness of the dynasty provided the Wu Hu with the invaluable chance to became rulers of China themselves. The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese) and Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese)/monarchical titles. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ...


An important reason for this weakness was the influence of the principal landholding families. These families were so powerful that the founders of the Three Kingdoms had to rely on them to establish their domains. The Nine grade controller system, by which prominent individuals in each administrative area were given the authority to rank local families and individuals in nine grades according to their potential for government service, further consolidated their authority. Because the ranking was arbitrarily decided by a few prominent persons, it frequently reflected the wishes of the leading families in the area rather than the merit of those being ranked. Jump to: navigation, search The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ... The Nine rank system (ch. ...


Since individuals from the elites were almost guaranteed bureaucratic posts without ever working hard, many found other ways of killing time. They engaged either in extravagantly showing off their wealth or time-consuming and often useless discussions on Daoism. Such passtimes were so popular that the minority of hard working individuals were often despised. Local officials and nobles often exploited both peasants and Wu Hu herdsmen for personal gain and in order to bribe officials for higher posts. For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...


Although the Jin Dynasty was slowly deteriorating socially and politically, some officials did foresee the crisis. Discussion of the God of Money (錢神論 Qián Shén Lùn) and Discussion on Tribe Relocation (徒戎論 Tú Róng Lùn) acutely reflected the extravagant livelihood and the possibility of an uprising of the Wu Hu. The latter work provides accurate locations of the region where the Wu Hu resided. Southern Xiongnu now dominated Bingzhou (in modern Shanxi province) and their horsemen could arrive at Jinyang (Taiyuan) in half-a-day's ride and Luoyang, the capital, in a few days. Jump to: navigation, search A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Jump to: navigation, search Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location within China Taiyuan (Chinese: 太原; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai-yüan) is a prefecture-level city in China, capital of the Shanxi province. ... Jump to: navigation, search Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Outbreak: Rebellion of the Eight Kings

The accession of Emperor Hui in 290 marked the begining of the crumbling of the Jin Dynasty. Possilby retarded at birth, he was merely a puppet of powerful parties which sought to control the Jin court. During the Rebellion of the Eight Kings, all parties in power attempted to wiped out the former rulers by murder, disloyalty, mass executions or battles. Each struggle grew more violent and bloodier than the one before. Not surprisingly, Wu Hu mecenaries were often called upon. Wu Hu chieftains and herdsmen clearly comprehended the selfishness of nobility and destruction of the country through their struggle for power and wealth. Coupled with famine, epidemic and floods, cannibalism was observed in some parts of the country only few years after Emperor Hui's accession. Wu Hu herdsmen saw no reason to obey orders from the Jin court and widespread uprisings soon followed. The War of the Eight Princes or Rebellion of the Eight Kings or Rebellion of the Eight Princes (trad. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese) and Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese)/monarchical titles. ... Events Jin Hui Di succeeds Jin Wu Di as emperor of China Births Pachomius, Christian monk (approximate date) Deaths Categories: 290 ... Jump to: navigation, search Cannibalism in Brazil in 1557 as described by Hans Staden. ...


The revolt by Qí Wànnián (齊萬年), a Di chieftain residing in the border region of today's Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces, marked the first such uprising. His group of insurgents, which was mainly made up of Di and Qiang tribesmen, numbered around fifty thousand. Although his revolt was suppressed after six years of destructive battles, waves of refugees and remnants wreaked havoc in neighboring territories. The first of the Sixteen Kingdoms was founded by a group of Di refugees who fled into Sichuan. Jump to: navigation, search Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as... Jump to: navigation, search Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; obsolete romanizations include Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; obsolete romanizations include Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


....


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wu Hu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3060 words)
Wu Hu (Chinese: 五胡; pinyin: Wǔ Hú; literally "Five Hu") is a collective term for various non-Chinese steppe tribes during the period from the Han Dynasty to the Northern Dynasties.
The term Wu Hu was first used in Cui Hong's Shiliuguochunqiu, which recorded the history of the five tribes' ravaging Northern China from the early 4th century to the mid 5th century.
Wu Hu means "five nomadic groups", hence the alternative "Five Hu." The most accepted composition of Wu Hu included five nomadic tribes: Xiōngnú (匈奴, sometimes identified with the Huns), Xiānbēi (鮮卑), Dī (氐), Qiāng (羌), and Jié (羯) although different groups of historians and historiographers have their own definitions.
Wu Hu (3059 words)
Wu Hu (五胡 Pinyin Wu3 Hu2) is a collective term of non-chinese tribes during the period from Han Dynasty to Northern Dynasties.
Wu Hu were composed of five nomadic tribes: Xiongnu (匈奴; xiong1 nu2, sometimes identified with the Huns), Xianbei (鮮卑; xian1 bei1), Di (氐; di1), Qiang (羌; qiang1), and Jie (羯 jie2) although different groups of historians and historiographers have their own definitions.
First of the Wu Hu sovereignities was found by the group of Di refugees fled into Sichuan or Yizhou.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m