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Encyclopedia > Writing system
Writing systems of the world today.      Latin (alphabetic)      Cyrillic (alphabetic)      Hangul (featural alphabetic)      Other alphabets      Arabic (abjad)      Other abjads      Devanagari (abugida)      Other abugidas      Syllabaries      Chinese characters (logographic)
Writing systems of the world today.      Latin (alphabetic)      Cyrillic (alphabetic)      Hangul (featural alphabetic)      Other alphabets      Arabic (abjad)      Other abjads      Devanagari (abugida)      Other abugidas      Syllabaries      Chinese characters (logographic)

Writing systems
History
Grapheme
List of writing systems
Types
Alphabet
Abjad
Abugida
Syllabary
Logogram-based
Related
Pictogram
Ideogram

A writing system is a type of symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2714x1256, 199 KB) Modification of Writing Systems of the World 3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2714x1256, 199 KB) Modification of Writing Systems of the World 3. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Jamo redirects here. ... A featural alphabet is an alphabet wherein the shapes of the letters are not arbitrary, but encode phonological features of the phonemes they represent. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... Image File history File links Kielitynkäkuva. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... A list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Chinese character. ... The term symbolic system is used in the field of anthropology and sociology to refer to a system of interconnected symbolic meanings. ...

Contents

General properties

Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated language to comprehend the text. By contrast, other possible symbolic systems such as information signs, painting, maps, and mathematics often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language. Symbolic communication is exchange of messages that change a priori expectation of events. ... A stop sign informs drivers to stop. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


Every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of humankind. However, the development and adoption of writing systems has occurred only sporadically. Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts, and often preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. The great benefit of writing systems is their ability to maintain a persistent record of information expressed in a language, which can be retrieved independently of the initial act of formulation.


All writing systems require:

  • a set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed characters or graphemes, and collectively called a script;
  • a set of rules and conventions understood and shared by a community, which arbitrarily assign meaning to the base elements, their ordering, and relations to one another;
  • a language (generally a spoken language) whose constructions are represented and able to be recalled by the interpretation of these elements and rules;
  • some physical means of distinctly representing the symbols by application to a permanent or semi-permanent medium, so that they may be interpreted (usually visually, but tactile systems have also been devised).

In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ...

Basic terminology

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.
A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

The study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines in the examination of individual scripts, and as such the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2898x3807, 1794 KB) This description text was copied from the original place of the image (see below) from: http://images. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2898x3807, 1794 KB) This description text was copied from the original place of the image (see below) from: http://images. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ...


The generic term text may be used to refer to an individual product of a writing system. The act of composing a text may be referred to as writing, and the act of interpreting the text as reading. In the study of writing systems, orthography refers to the method and rules of observed writing structure (literal meaning, "correct writing"), and in particular for alphabetic systems, includes the concept of spelling. Write redirects here. ... Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ...


A grapheme is the technical term coined to refer to the specific base or atomic units of a given writing system. Graphemes are the minimally significant elements which taken together comprise the set of "building blocks" out of which texts of a given writing system may be constructed, along with rules of correspondence and use. The concept is similar to that of the phoneme used in the study of spoken languages. For example, in the Latin-based writing system of standard contemporary English, examples of graphemes include the majuscule and minuscule forms of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet (corresponding to various phonemes), marks of punctuation (mostly non-phonemic), and a few other symbols such as those for numerals (logograms for numbers). In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Arabic numerals (also called Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals) are by far the most common form of symbolism used to represent numbers. ...


Note that an individual grapheme may be represented in a wide variety of ways, where each variation is visually distinct in some regard, but all are interpreted as representing the "same" grapheme. These individual variations are known as allographs of a grapheme (compare with the term allophone used in linguistic study). For example, the minuscule letter a has different allographs when written as a cursive, block, or typed letter. The selection between different allographs may be influenced by the medium used, the writing instrument, the stylistic choice of the writer, and the largely unconscious features of an individual's handwriting. Allography, from the Greek for other writing, has several meanings which all relate to how words and sounds are written down. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ... Capital letters or majuscules (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... “Font” redirects here. ... Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... Penmanship is the art of writing clearly and quickly. ...


The terms glyph, sign and character are sometimes used to refer to a grapheme. Common usage varies from discipline to discipline; compare cuneiform sign, Maya glyph, Chinese character. The glyphs of most writing systems are made up of lines (or strokes) and are therefore called linear, but there are glyphs in non-linear writing systems made up of other types of marks, such as Cuneiform and Braille. variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... In general linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure described a sign as a combination of a concept and a sound-image. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Linear writing is writing which uses symbols made up out of lines. ... Non-linear writing is writing which made up of marks other than lines, to be distinguished from linear writing. ... Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ...


Writing systems are conceptual systems, as are the languages to which they refer. Writing systems may be regarded as complete according to the extent to which they are able to represent all that may be expressed in the spoken language. A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ...


History of writing systems

Main article: History of writing
A Table of Scripts in the Introduction to Sanskrit Dictionary by Monnier Williams.
A Table of Scripts in the Introduction to Sanskrit Dictionary by Monnier Williams.

Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic and/or early mnemonic symbols. The best known examples are: Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1650 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sanskrit English Dictionary, Monnier Williams This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1650 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sanskrit English Dictionary, Monnier Williams This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a... A Chinese character. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...

  • Vinca script (Tărtăria tablets), ca. 4500 BC

The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic of the late 4th millennium BC. The Sumerian archaic cuneiform script and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400–3200 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. Jiahu script refers the markings on prehistoric artifacts found in Jiahu, a neolithic culture found in Henan, China. ... For other uses, see Tortoise (disambiguation). ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... 9000 years old Jiahu playable Flutes. ... During the 7th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans. ... A drawing of a clay vessel unearthed in Vinča, found at depth of 8. ... One of the Tartaria tablets The three Tărtăria tablets are probably amulets or votive tablets, which bear incised symbols that are believed by some to be a very early form of writing. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ...   An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ...


The Chinese script likely developed independently of the Middle Eastern scripts, around 1600 BC. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... (Redirected from 1600 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of...


The pre-Columbian Mesoamerican writing systems (including among others Olmec and Maya scripts) are also generally believed to have had independent origins. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Mesoamerica is one of the relatively few places in the world where writing has developed independently throughout history. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ...


It is thought that the first true alphabetic writing appeared around 2000 BC, as a representation of language developed by Semitic workers in Egypt (see History of the alphabet). Most other alphabets in the world today either descended from this one innovation, many via the Phoenician alphabet, or were directly inspired by its design. (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ...


Types of writing systems

This textbook for Puyi shows the English alphabet. Although the English letters run from left to right, the Chinese explanations run from top to bottom, as traditionally written.
This textbook for Puyi shows the English alphabet. Although the English letters run from left to right, the Chinese explanations run from top to bottom, as traditionally written.

The oldest-known forms of writing were primarily logographic in nature, based on pictographic and ideographic elements. Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic (or segmental); however, all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions, often making it difficult to categorise a system uniquely. The term complex system is sometimes used to describe those where the admixture makes classification problematic. A list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 855 KB) Summary Description: This is a schoolbook that was used by the by the boy emperor Puyi (w:zh:爱新觉罗溥仪). Seen at an exhibition at the Forbidden City, Beijing, China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 855 KB) Summary Description: This is a schoolbook that was used by the by the boy emperor Puyi (w:zh:爱新觉罗溥仪). Seen at an exhibition at the Forbidden City, Beijing, China. ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Chinese character. ...

Type Each symbol represents Example
Logographic morpheme Chinese characters
Syllabic syllable Japanese kana
Alphabetic phoneme (consonant or vowel) Latin alphabet
Abugida phoneme (consonant+vowel) Indian Devanāgarī
Abjad phoneme (consonant) Arabic alphabet
Featural phonetic feature Korean hangul

Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... A featural alphabet is an alphabet wherein the shapes of the letters are not arbitrary, but encode phonological features of the phonemes they represent. ... Jamo redirects here. ...

Logographic writing systems

Main article: Logogram
Early Chinese character for sun (ri), 1200 B.C.
Early Chinese character for sun (ri), 1200 B.C.
Modern Chinese character (ri) with meaning of sun or day
Modern Chinese character (ri) with meaning of sun or day

A logogram is a single written character which represents a complete grammatical word. Most Chinese characters are classified as logograms. Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... Image File history File links Character_Ri_Oracle. ... Image File history File links Character_Ri_Oracle. ... Image File history File links Character_Ri_Trad. ... Image File history File links Character_Ri_Trad. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


As each character represents a single word (or, more precisely, a morpheme), many logograms are required to write all the words of language. The vast array of logograms and the memorization of what they mean are the major disadvantage of the logographic systems over alphabetic systems. However, since the meaning is inherent to the symbol, the same logographic system can theoretically be used to represent different languages. In practice, this is only true for closely related languages, like the Chinese languages, as syntactical constraints reduce the portability of a given logographic system. Japanese uses Chinese logograms extensively in its writing systems, with most of the symbols carrying the same or similar meanings. However, the semantics, and especially the grammar, are different enough that a long Chinese text is not readily understandable to a Japanese reader without any knowledge of basic Chinese grammar, though short and concise phrases such as those on signs and newspaper headlines are much easier to comprehend. In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... 中文語法/中文语法 Zhōngwén yÇ”fÇŽ (Chinese grammar) Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ...


While most languages do not use wholly logographic writing systems many languages use some logograms. A good example of modern western logograms are the Hindu-Arabic numerals — everyone who uses those symbols understands what 1 means whether he or she calls it one, eins, uno, yi, ichi or ehad. Other western logograms include the ampersand &, used for and, the at sign @, used in many contexts for at, the percent sign % and the many signs representing units of currency ($, ¢, , £, ¥ and so on.) Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... An ampersand (&), also commonly called an and sign is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... “@” redirects here. ... The percent sign (%) is the symbol used to indicate a percentage (that the preceding number is divided by one hundred). ... $ redirects here. ... A two cent euro coin In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals th of the basic unit of value. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... This article is about the currency symbol. ... A 1,000 yen note, featuring the portrait of Natsume Soseki. ...


Logograms are sometimes called ideograms, a word that refers to symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas, but linguists avoid this use, as Chinese characters are often semanticphonetic compounds, symbols which include an element that represents the meaning and element that represents the pronunciation. Some nonlinguists distinguish between lexigraphy and ideography, where symbols in lexigraphies represent words, and symbols in ideographies represent words or morphemes. A Chinese character. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... A lexigram is a symbol that represents a word but is not necessarily indicative of the word by itself. ...


The most important (and, to a degree, the only surviving) modern logographic writing system is the Chinese one, whose characters are or were used, with varying degrees of modification, in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and other east Asian languages. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and the Mayan writing system are also systems with certain logographic features, although they have marked phonetic features as well, and are no longer in current use. East Asian languages or the East Asian sprachbund describe two notional groupings of languages in East and Southeast Asia, either (1) languages which have been greatly influenced by Classical Chinese, or the CJKV Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese) area or (2) a larger grouping including the CJKV area as well... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River...


Syllabic writing systems

Main article: Syllabary

As logographic writing systems use a single symbol for an entire word, a syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. A symbol in a syllabary typically represents a consonant sound followed by a vowel sound, or just a vowel alone. In a true syllabary there is no systematic graphic similarity between phonetically related characters (though some do have graphic similarity for the vowels). That is, the characters for "ke", "ka", and "ko" have no similarity to indicate their common "k"-ness. Compare abugida, where each grapheme typically represents a syllable but where characters representing related sounds are similar graphically (typically, a common consonantal base is annotated in a more or less consistent manner to represent the vowel in the syllable). A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ...


Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. The English language, on the other hand, allows complex syllable structures, with a relatively large inventory of vowels and complex consonant clusters, making it cumbersome to write English words with a syllabary. To write English using a syllabary, every possible syllable in English would have to have a separate symbol, and whereas the number of possible syllables in Japanese is no more than about fifty to sixty, in English there are many thousands. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ...


Other languages that use syllabic writing include Mycenaean Greek (Linear B) and Native American languages such as Cherokee. Several languages of the Ancient Near East used forms of cuneiform, which is a syllabary with some non-syllabic elements. A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ...


Alphabetic writing systems

Main article: Alphabet

An alphabet is a small set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents or represented historically a phoneme of a spoken language. The word alphabet is derived from alpha and beta, the first two symbols of the Greek alphabet. ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel...


In a perfectly phonemic alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling. Each language has general rules that govern the association between letters and phonemes, but, depending on the language, these rules may or may not be consistently followed.


Perfectly phonemic alphabets are very easy to use and learn, and languages that have them (for example Serbocroatian or Finnish) have much lower barriers to literacy than languages such as English, which has a very complex and irregular spelling system. As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language. In modern times, when linguists invent a writing system for a language that didn't previously have one, the goal is usually to develop a phonemic alphabet. It should be noted that a truly phonetic alphabet for a natural spoken language would be very cumbersome, as it would have to have a huge variety of phonetic variation. An example of such a writing system is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Phonetic transcription (or phonetic notation) is the visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Abjads

Main article: Abjad

The first type of alphabet that was developed was the abjad. An abjad is an alphabetic writing system where there is one symbol per consonant. Abjads differ from regular alphabets in that they only have characters for consonantal sounds. Vowels are not usually marked in abjad. The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...


All known abjads (except maybe Tifinagh) belong to the Semitic family of scripts, and derive from the original Northern Linear Abjad. The reason for this is that Semitic languages and the related Berber languages have a morphemic structure which makes the denotation of vowels redundant in most cases. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Some abjads (like Arabic and Hebrew) have markings for vowels as well, but only use them in special contexts, such as for teaching. Many scripts derived from abjads have been extended with vowel symbols to become full alphabets, the most famous case being the derivation of the Greek alphabet from the Phoenician abjad. This has mostly happened when the script was adapted to a non-Semitic language. The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel...


The term abjad takes its name from the old order of the Arabic alphabet's consonants Alif, Bá, Jim, Dál, though the word may have earlier roots in Phoenician or Ugaritic. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... The Ugaritic language is known to us only in the form of writings found in the lost city of Ugarit since its discovery by French archaeologists in 1928. ...


Abjad is still the word for alphabet in Arabic, Malay, and Indonesian. Arabic redirects here. ...


Abugidas

Main article: Abugida

An abugida is an alphabetic writing system whose basic signs denote consonants with an inherent vowel and where consistent modifications of the basic sign indicate other following vowels than the inherent one. An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... An inherent vowel is part of an abugida script. ...


Thus, in an abugida there is no sign for "k", but instead one for "ka" (if "a" is the inherent vowel), and "ke" is written by modifying the "ka" sign in a way that is consistent with how one would modify "la" to get "le". In many abugidas the modification is the addition of a vowel sign, but other possibilities are imaginable (and used), such as rotation of the basic sign, addition of diacritical marks, and so on. Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...


The obvious contrast is with syllabaries, which have one distinct symbol per possible syllable, and the signs for each syllable have no systematic graphic similarity. The graphic similarity comes from the fact that most abugidas are derived from abjads, and the consonants make up the symbols with the inherent vowel, and the new vowel symbols are markings added on to the base symbol. A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ...

Balinese lontar writing on palm leaf, Southeast Asia. Artifacts can be seen in the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois

The Ethiopic script is an abugida, although the vowel modifications in Ethiopic are not entirely systematic. Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics can be considered abugidas, although they are rarely thought of in those terms. The largest single group of abugidas is the Brahmic family of scripts, however, which includes nearly all the scripts used in India and Southeast Asia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 820 KB)Balinese Palm-leaf writing, 1800s. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 820 KB)Balinese Palm-leaf writing, 1800s. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex called known as the Museum Campus which includes Soldier Field, the football stadium that is the home of the Chicago... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


The name abugida is derived from the first four characters of an order of the Ge'ez script used in some religious contexts. The term was coined by Peter T. Daniels. Peter T. Daniels is a scholar of writing systems. ...


Featural writing systems

A featural script represents finer detail than an alphabet. Here symbols do not represent whole phonemes, but rather the elements (features) that make up the phonemes, such as voicing or its place of articulation. Theoretically, each feature could be written with a separate letter; and abjads or abugidas, or indeed syllabaries, could be featural, but the only prominent system of this sort is Korean Hangul. In Hangul, the featural symbols are combined into alphabetic letters, and these letters are in turn joined into syllabic blocks, so that the system combines three levels of phonological representation. Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Jamo redirects here. ...


Directionality

See also: Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts and Bi-directional text

Different scripts are written in different directions. The early alphabet could be written in any direction: either horizontal (left-to-right or right-to-left) or vertical (up or down). It could also be written boustrophedon: starting horizontally in one direction, then turning at the end of the line and reversing direction. Egyptian hieroglyph is one such script, where the beginning of a line written horizontally was to be indicated by the direction in which animal and human ideograms are looking. An excerpt from Cold Food Observance (寒食帖) by Song Dynasty scholar Su Shi (蘇軾). The calligraphy is read in columns from right to left. ... Some writing systems of the world, such as Arabic and Hebrew, are written in a form known as right-to-left (RTL), in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. ... Boustrophedon is an ancient way of writing manuscripts and other inscriptions in which, rather than going from left to right as in modern English, or right to left as in Arabic, alternate lines must be read in opposite directions. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ...


The Greek alphabet and its successors settled on a left-to-right pattern, from the top to the bottom of the page. Other scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew, came to be written right-to-left. Scripts that incorporate Chinese characters have traditionally been written vertically (top-to-bottom), from the right to the left of the page, but nowadays are frequently written left-to-right, top-to-bottom, due to Western influences, a growing need to accommodate terms in the Roman alphabet, and technical limitations in popular electronic document formats. The Mongolian alphabet is unique in being the only script written top-to-bottom, left-to-right; this direction originated from an ancestral Semitic direction by rotating the page 90° counter-clockwise to conform to the appearance of Chinese writing. Scripts with lines written away from the writer, from bottom to top, also exist, such as several used in the Philippines and Indonesia. The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Electronic document means any computer data (other than programs or system files) that are intended to be used in their computerized form, without being printed (although printing is usually possible). ... The Mongolian language historically has four writing systems that have been used over the centuries. ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ...


Writing systems on computers

Different ISO/IEC standards are defined to deal with each individual writing systems to implement them in computers (or in electronic form). Today most of those standards are re-defined in a better collective standard, the ISO 10646, also known as Unicode. In Unicode, each character, in every language's writing system, is (simplifying slightly) given a unique identification number, known as its code point. The computer's software uses the code point to look up the appropriate character in the font file, so the characters can be displayed on the page or screen. “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... The Universal Character Set is a character encoding that is defined by the international standard ISO/IEC 10646. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... “Font” redirects here. ...


A keyboard is the device most commonly used for writing via computer. Each key is associated with a standard code which the keyboard sends to the computer when it is pressed. By using a combination of alphabetic keys with modifier keys such as Ctrl, Alt, Shift and AltGr, various character codes are generated and sent to the CPU. The operating system intercepts and converts those signals to the appropriate characters based on the keyboard layout and input method, and then delivers those converted codes and characters to the running application software, which in turn looks up the appropriate glyph in the currently used font file, and requests the operating system to draw these on the screen. A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that modifies the normal action of another key when the two are pressed in combination. ... Ctrl redirects here. ... The Alt key on a modern Windows keyboard The Alt key on an IBM PC keyboard is the key located immediately to either side of the Space bar, used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys. ... The shift key on a modern Windows keyboard The shift key is a modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate upper characters. ... AltGr is a modifier key on PC keyboards used to type many characters, primarily ones that are unusual for the locale of the keyboard layout, such as foreign currency symbols and accented letters. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and English (QWERTY) letters. ... Operation of a typical Japanese romaji based IME. An input method editor (IME) is a program or operating system component that allows computer users to enter characters and symbols not found on their keyboard. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ...


In computers and telecommunication systems, graphemes and other grapheme-like units that are required for text processing are represented by "characters" that typically manifest in encoded form. For technical aspects of computer support for various writing systems, see Universal Character Set, CJK (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) and Bi-directional text, as well as Category:Character encoding. A character encoding or character set (sometimes referred to as code page) consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ... CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which comprise the main East Asian languages. ... Some writing systems of the world, such as Arabic and Hebrew, are written in a form known as right-to-left (RTL), in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. ...


See also

An artificial or constructed script (also conscript or neography) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... Pre-history Tallies carved from wood, bone, and stone have been used since prehistoric times. ... ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). ... A list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features. ... This is a chronological list of any individuals, legendary or real, who are purported by traditions to have invented alphabets or other writing systems, whether this is proven or not. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... Nü Shu written in Nü Shu (right to left). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... Pasigraphy is a writing system where ideas or concepts are put down rather than a representation of the sound of a language. ... Penmanship is the art of writing clearly and quickly. ... Shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ...

External links

Cornell redirects here. ... Michael Everson in Isfahan Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is a linguist, script encoder, typesetter, and font designer. ...

References

  • Coulmas, Florian. 1996. The Blackwell encyclopedia of writing systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Daniels, Peter T., and William Bright, eds. 1996. The world's writing systems. Place: Name. ISBN 0-19-507993-0.
  • DeFrancis, John. 1990. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1068-6
  • Hannas, William. C. 1997. Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X (paperback); ISBN 0-8248-1842-3 (hardcover)
  • Rogers, Henry. 2005. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23463-2 (hardcover); ISBN 0-631-23464-0 (paperback)
  • Sampson, Geoffrey. 1985. Writing Systems. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1756-7 (paper), ISBN 0-8047-1254-9 (cloth).
  • Smalley, W. A. (ed.) 1964. Orthography studies: articles on new writing systems. London: United Bible Society.

Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Chữ nôm (𡦂喃 lit. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The Khitan language is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people. ... Zhuang logograms or sawndip is a logogram created as a derivative characters of Han characters and used by Zhuang in Guangxi, China. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... The Afaka script (afaka sikifi) is a syllabary of 56 letters devised in 1908 for the Ndyuka language, an English creole of Surinam. ... Sequoyah The Cherokee language is written in a syllabary invented by Sequoyah (also known as George Gist or George Guess). ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ... Kikakui is a syllabary used for writing the Mende language. ... Chief Gbili - Liberian, invented Kpelle syllabary ca. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... It has been suggested that Shakukun be merged into this article or section. ... Nü Shu written in Nü Shu (right to left). ... Old Persian cuneiform is the primary script used in Old Persian writings. ...   The Vai script was devised by of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia. ... The Yi scripts, also known as Cuan or Wei, are used to write the Yi languages. ... Yugtun is a dialect of Yupik spoken in Central Alaska. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Outline of the Japanese Writing System (0 words)
Although all the principal writing systems of the world began with pictures, these were in almost all cases simplified to abstract symbols that were eventually used for their sound values, giving rise to the major alphabet systems of the world.
This method of writing is referred to as 万葉仮名 man'yōgana because it was used extensively in the 万葉集 man'yōshū, an eighth-century anthology of Japanese poems.
Kanji are used to write the core of the Japanese vocabulary.
Writing System Declaration (6172 words)
The writing system declaration or WSD is an auxiliary document which provides information on the methods used to transcribe portions of text in a particular language and script.
We use the term writing system to mean a given method of representing a particular language, in a particular script or alphabet; the WSD specifies one method of representing a given writing system in electronic form.
A writing system declaration is a distinct auxiliary document, separate from any transcription for which it is used.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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