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Encyclopedia > Writing
Illustration of a scribe writing
Illustration of a scribe writing

Writing, is the representation of language in a textual medium; that is with the use of signs or symbols. It is distinguished from illustration such as cave drawings and paintings, and recording language via a non-textual medium such as magnetic tape audio. Write can refer to Writing, but also may refer to: Authoring documents. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 601 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1105 × 1102 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Writing Desk Dimensions: 46 x 45mm (1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 601 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1105 × 1102 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Writing Desk Dimensions: 46 x 45mm (1. ... This is about scribe, the profession. ... For other meanings of the word, see Media. ... Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith. ...


Writing was started due to accountancy. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory. Writing became more dependable for recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form (Robinson, 2003, p. 36).

Contents

Writing as a Category

Writing, more particularly, refers to two things: writing as a noun, the thing that is written; and writing as the verb, designates the activity of writing. It refers to the inscription of characters on a medium, thereby forming words, and larger units of language, known as texts. It also refers to the creation of meaning and the information thereby. In that regard, linguistics (and related sciences) distinguishes between the written language and the spoken language. The significance of the medium by which meaning and information is conveyed is indicated by the distinction that is made in the arts and sciences; for example, in speech, or speaking: public speaking is a distinctly different activity, as is poetry reading; the former is governed by the rules of rhetoric, while the latter by poetics. In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ... A poetry reading is a performance of poetry, normally given on a small stage in a cafe or bookstore, although poetry readings given by notable poets frequently are booked into larger venues (amphitheaters, college auditoriums, etc. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ...


The person who composes text is generally styled a writer, or an author. However, more specific designations exist, which are dictated by the particular nature of the text; for example, poet, essayist, novelist, and the list goes on. A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ...


Writing is also a distinctly human activity. It has been said that a monkey, randomly typing away on a typewriter (in the days when typewriters replaced the pen or plume as the preferred instrument of writing) could re-create Shakespeare-- but only if it lived long enough (this is known as the infinite monkey theorem). Such writing has been speculatively designated as coincidental. It is also speculated that extra-terrestrial beings exist who may possess writing. The fact is, however, that the only known writing is human writing. This article is about modern humans. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Given enough time, a chimpanzee typing at random will allegedly type out a copy of one of Shakespeares plays. ... Coincident is a geometric term that pertains to the relationship between two vectors. ... Green people redirects here. ...


Means for recording information

Wells argues that writing has the ability to "put agreements, laws, commandments on record. It made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible. The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death" (Wells in Robinson, 2003, p. 35).


Writing systems

The major writing systems – methods of inscription – broadly fall into four categories: logographic, syllabic, alphabetic, and featural. Another category, ideographic (symbols for ideas), has never been developed sufficiently to represent language. A 6th, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but often forms the core of logographies. Writing systems of the world today. ... A Chinese character. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ...


Logographies

A logogram is a written character which represents a word or morpheme. The vast number of logograms needed to write language, and the many years required to learn them, are the major disadvantage of the logographic systems over alphabetic systems. However, the efficiency of reading logographic writing once it is learned is a major advantage. No writing system is wholly logographic: all have phonetic components as well as logograms ("logosyllabic" components in the case of Chinese characters, cuneiform, and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, a syllable, or both; "logoconsonantal" in the case of hieroglyphs), and many have an ideographic component (Chinese "radicals", hieroglyphic "determiners"). For example, in Mayan, the glyph for "fin", pronounced "ka'", was also used to represent the syllable "ka" whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated, or when there was no logogram. In Chinese, about 90% of characters are compounds of a semantic (meaning) element called a radical with an existing character to indicate the pronunciation, called a phonetic. However, such phonetic elements complement the logographic elements, rather than vice versa. Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...   Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ...


The main logographic system in use today is Chinese characters, used with some modification for various languages of China, Japanese, and, to a lesser extent, Korean in South Korea. Another is the classical Yi script. The Yi scripts, also known as Cuan or Wei, are used to write the Yi languages. ...


Syllabaries

A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables. A glyph in a syllabary typically represents a consonant followed by a vowel, or just a vowel alone, though in some scripts more complex syllables (such as consonant-vowel-consonant, or consonant-consonant-vowel) may have dedicated glyphs. Phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. For instance, the syllable "ka" may look nothing like the syllable "ki", nor will syllables with the same vowels be similar. A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...


Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. Other languages that use syllabic writing include the Linear B script for Mycenaean Greek; Cherokee; Ndjuka, an English-based creole language of Surinam; and the Vai script of Liberia. Most logographic systems have a strong syllabic component. Ethiopic, though technically an alphabet, has fused consonants and vowels together to the point that it's learned as if it were a syllabary. This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Map of Bronze Age Greece as described in Homers Iliad Mycenaean is the most ancient known form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Ndyuka (or Ndjuka, officially Ndyukátongo) is a language of Suriname. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ... Vai language is a language of Liberia. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Alphabets

See also: History of the alphabet

An alphabet is a small set of symbols, each of which roughly represents or historically represented a phoneme of the language. In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling. As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language. The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


In most of the alphabets of the Mid-East, only consonants are indicated, or vowels may be indicated with optional diacritics. Such systems are called abjads. In most of the alphabets of India and Southeast Asia, vowels are indicated through diacritics or modification of the shape of the consonant. These are called abugidas. Some abugidas, such as Ethiopic and Cree, are learned by children as syllabaries, and so are often called "syllabics". However, unlike true syllabaries, there is not an independent glyph for each syllable. The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... The Geez language (or Giiz language) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Sometimes the term "alphabet" is restricted to systems with separate letters for consonants and vowels, such as the Latin alphabet. Because of this use, Greek is often considered to be the first alphabet. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Featural scripts

A featural script notates the building blocks of the phonemes that make up a language. For instance, all sounds pronounced with the lips ("labial" sounds) may have some element in common. In the Latin alphabet, this is accidentally the case with the letters "b" and "p"; however, labial "m" is completely dissimilar, and the similar-looking "q" is not labial. In Korean Hangul, however, all four labial consonants are based on the same basic element. However, in practice, Korean is learned by children as an ordinary alphabet, and the featural elements tend to pass unnoticed. Jamo redirects here. ...


Another featural script is SignWriting, the most popular writing system for many sign languages, where the shapes and movements of the hands and face are represented iconically. Featural scripts are also common in fictional or invented systems, such as Tolkien's Tengwar. A sign for photo model using SignWriting in the dictionary of the Flemish Sign Language Sign Writing is a system of writing the movements and handshapes of sign languages. ... A sign language (also signed language) is a language which uses gestures instead of sound to convey meaning - combining handshapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, facial expressions and lip-patterns. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) Tengwar is an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Historical significance of writing systems

Historians draw a distinction between prehistory and history, with history defined by the advent of writing. The cave paintings and petroglyphs of prehistoric peoples can be considered precursors of writing, but are not considered writing because they did not represent language directly.


Writing systems always develop and change based on the needs of the people who use them. Sometimes the shape, orientation and meaning of individual signs also changes over time. By tracing the development of a script it is possible to learn about the needs of the people who used the script as well as how it changed over time.


Tools and materials

The many tools and writing materials used throughout history include stone tablets, clay tablets, wax tablets, vellum, parchment, paper, copperplate, styluses, quills, ink brushes, pencils, pens, and many styles of lithography. It is speculated that the Incas might have employed knotted threads known as quipu (or khipu) as a writing system. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Tablets of Stone or Stone Tablets, also known as the Tablets of Law, (in Hebrew: Luchot HaBrit - the tablets [of] the covenant) refers to the two pieces of special stone inscripted with the Ten Commandments when Moses ascended Mount Sinai as recorded in the Book of Exodus. ... Small tablets made out of clay were used from late 4th millennium BC onwards as a writing medium in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Minoan/Mycenaean civilizations. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Copperplate refers to the use of inscribed sheets of copper in printing. ... Modern stylus, used for touch-screen enabled devices such as the Nintendo DS and personal digital assistants Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... Quills is a 2000 period drama directed by Philip Kaufman and adapted from the Obie award-winning play by Doug Wright, who also wrote the original screenplay. ... Ink brushes (筆, in Japanese fude) are speciality brushes used in East Asian calligraphy. ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Inca Quipu. ...


For more information see writing implement. Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ...


Writing in historical cultures

Mesopotamia

The original Mesopotamian writing system was initially derived from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the 4th millennium BC (about 3000 BC[1]), this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus pressed into soft clay for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform), at first only for logograms, but evolved to include phonetic elements by the 29th century BC. Around the 26th century BC, cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian. Also in that period, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers, and this script was adapted to another Mesopotamian language, Akkadian, and from there to others such as Hurrian, and Hittite. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian. This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern Boğazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... The Ugaritic language is only known in the form of writings found in the lost city of Ugarit in Syria since its discovery by French archaeologists in 1928. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ...


China

In China historians have found out a lot about the early Chinese dynasties from the written documents left behind. From the Shang Dynasty most of this writing has survived on bones or bronze implements. Markings on turtle shells have been carbon-dated to around 1500 BC. Historians have found that the type of media used had an effect on what the writing was documenting and how it was used. Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ...


There have recently been discoveries of tortoise-shell carvings dating back to c. 6000 BC, but whether or not the carvings are of sufficient complexity to qualify as writing is under debate[2]. If it is deemed to be a written language, writing in China will predate Mesopotamian cuneiform, long acknowledged as the first appearance of writing, by some 2000 years.


Egypt

The earliest known hieroglyphic inscriptions are the Narmer Palette, dating to c.3200 BC, and several recent discoveries that may be slightly older, though the glyphs were based on a much older artistic tradition. The hieroglyphic script was logographic with phonetic adjuncts that included an effective alphabet. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Reverse and Obverse Sides of Narmer Palette, this facsimile on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, in Toronto, Canada The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ...


Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes. Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train to become scribes, in the service of temple, pharaonic, and military authorities. The hieroglyph system was always difficult to learn, but in later centuries was purposely made even more so, as this preserved the scribes' status. This is about scribe, the profession. ...


The world's oldest known alphabet was developed in central Egypt around 2000 BC from a hieroglyphic prototype, and over the next 500 years spread to Canaan and eventually to the rest of the world. The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to... Hieroglyphics redirects here. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Indus Valley

Main article: Indus script
Ten Indus scripts discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira (perhaps 5000 years old)
Ten Indus scripts discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira (perhaps 5000 years old)

The Indus Valley script is a mysterious aspect of ancient Indian culture as it has not yet been deciphered. Although there are many examples of the Indus script, without true understanding of how the script works and what the inscriptions say, it is impossible to understand the importance of writing in the Indus Civilization.   An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...


Phoenician writing system and descendants

The Phoenician writing system was adapted from the Proto-Caananite script in around the 11th century BC, which in turn borrowed ideas from Egyptian hieroglyphics. This writing system was an abjad — that is, a writing system in which only consonants are represented. This script was adapted by the Greeks, who adapted certain consonantal signs to represent their vowels. The Cumae alphabet, a variant of the early Greek alphabet gave rise to the Etruscan alphabet, and its own descendants, such as the Latin alphabet and Runes. Other descendants from the Greek alphabet include the Cyrillic alphabet, used to write Russian, among others. The Phoenician system was also adapted into the Aramaic script, from which the Hebrew script and also that of Arabic are descended. The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from an ancient Egyptian alphabet dating to circa 1800 BC. (See Alphabet: History and diffusion. ... Hieroglyphs are a system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. ... The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The inscription of Nestors Cup, found in Ischia; Cumae alphabet, 8th century BC A Western (also Chalcidean) variant of the early Greek alphabet was in use in ca. ... Variant may refer to: Look up variant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old Italic refers to a number of related historical alphabets used on the Italian peninsula which were used for some non-Indo-European languages (Etruscan and probably North Picene), various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan, Umbrian, and South... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... A rune can mean a single character in the Runic alphabet as well as an inscription of several runic charcters or symbols. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Aramaic was for a long time (between the later Assyrian empire and the Abbasid Caliphate) a lingua franca in the Middle East; its alphabet, though itself derived from the Phoenician alphabet, therefore superseded the Old Hebrew alphabet that had been independently descended from the Phoenician alphabet. ... The subject of Hebrew script is dealt with in the following articles: Hebrew alphabet Hebrew language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...


The Tifinagh script (Berber languages) is descended from the Libyco-Berber script which is assumed to be of Phoenician origin. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Mesoamerica

Of several pre-Colombian scripts in Mesoamerica, the one that appears to have been best developed, and the only one to be deciphered, is the Maya script. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BCE, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century CE. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing. The term Pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the New World in the era before significant European influence. ... This article is about the culture area. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ...


Creation of text or information

Creativity

Main articles: Creativity and Creative Writing

For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... Creative writing is a term used to distinguish certain imaginative or different types of writing from technical writing. ...

Author

Main article: Author

For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ...

Writer

Main article: Writer

A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ...

Critiques

Writers sometimes search out others to evaluate or criticize their work. To this end, many writers join writing circles, often found at local libraries or bookstores. With the evolution of the internet, writing circles have started to go online. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A writing circle is a group of like-minded people needing support for their work, either through writing critiques, workshops or classes, or just encouragement. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... A bookstore. ...

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Fiction technique

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ...

See also

For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Boustrophedon is an ancient way of writing manuscripts and other inscriptions in which, rather than going from left to right as in modern English, or right to left as in Arabic, alternate lines must be read in opposite directions. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... Composition Studies (also referred to as Composition and Rhetoric, College Composition, or simply Composition) is the professional field of writing instruction, especially at the college level in the United States. ... Creative writing is a term used to distinguish certain imaginative or different types of writing from technical writing. ... Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... Fiction writing consists of fashioning works of prose based on the imagination that could possibly be published in literary form. ... The interdisciplinary field of graphonomics is directed towards the scientific analysis of the handwriting process and the handwritten product. ... Zork I is one of the first interactive fiction games, as well as being one of the first commercially sold. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Kishotenketsu (起承転結) describes the structure and development of Chinese and Japanese narratives. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... This is a list of worldwide conferences for writers of all genres. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... A literary award is an award presented to an author who has written a particularly lauded piece or body of work. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... A literary festival, also known as a book festival or writers festival, is a regular gathering of writers and readers, typically on an annual basis in a particular city, A literary festival usually features a variety of presentations and readings by authors, as well as other events, delivered over a... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ... For other uses, see Print. ... “Publisher” redirects here. ... A bible in writing, sometimes more prosaically referred to as the writers guide or story bible, is the standard reference used by writers for information on that storys characters, settings and other elements. ... A writing slate is a piece of flat material used as a medium for writing. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... A white paper is a government report outlining policy or authoritative report on a major issue. ... Word processing, in its now-usual meaning, is the use of a word processor to create documents using computers. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For other uses, see Writers block (disambiguation). ... A writing circle is a group of like-minded people needing support for their work, either through writing critiques, workshops or classes, or just encouragement. ... This article is about writing prose. ... A writing system, also called a script, is used to visually record a language with symbols. ... Writers voice is a literary term used to describe the individual writing style of an author. ...

References

  1. ^ The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History pp 381-383
  2. ^ China Daily, 12 June 2003, Template:Archaeologists Rewrite History, http://www.china.org.cn/english/2003/Jun/66806.htm

Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Writing
Look up Writing in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

External links

  • Why write? - a history of writing and the alphabet from the British Library

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Most writing guides are written from the perspective of English and literature courses, but today students are increasingly likely to encounter writing-intensive courses in a wide range of fields, from history to physics to business to art.
Youthful incompetence, which is what this guide takes aim at (as well as writing incompetence in general) is usually a lot less interesting than its practitioners think.
A commitment to writing takes a good deal of work on the part of teacher, but it's an integral part of helping students develop their potential—not just as writers, but as thinkers, communicators, and whole human beings.
Writing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1767 words)
Writing may refer to two activities: the inscribing of characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other constructs that represent language or record information, and the creation of material to be conveyed through written language.
No writing system is wholly logographic: all have phonetic components as well as logograms ("logosyllabic" components in the case of Chinese, cuneiform, and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, a syllable, or both; "logoconsonantal" in the case of hieroglyphs), and many have an ideographic component (Chinese "radicals", hieroglyphic "determiners").
As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.
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