FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Wright Brothers
Orville Wright

"We came down here for wind and sand, and we have got them." (photo: 1905)
Born 19 August 1871(1871-08-19)
Dayton, Ohio
Died 30 January 1948 (aged 76)
Dayton, Ohio
Occupation printer/publisher, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainer
Spouse none
Wilbur Wright

"For some years I have been afflicted with the belief that flight is possible to man." "It is possible to fly without motors, but not without knowledge and skill." (photo: 1905)
Born 16 April 1867(1867-04-16)
Millville, Indiana
Died 30 May 1912 (aged 45)
Dayton, Ohio
Occupation printer/editor, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainer
Spouse none

The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 187130 January 1948) and Wilbur (16 April 186730 May 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight on 17 December 1903. In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed wing flight possible. Download high resolution version (457x640, 26 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Wright brothers Categories: U.S. history images ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Download high resolution version (465x640, 33 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Wright brothers Categories: U.S. history images ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... was on trial to be sued for stealing John forksons idea for the airplane but it turned out that he was mentally ill. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of "three axis-control", which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.[4] This method became standard on fixed wing aircraft of all kinds.[5][6] From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on unlocking the secrets of control to conquer "the flying problem", rather than developing more powerful engines as some other experimenters did. Their careful wind tunnel tests produced better aeronautical data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers more effective than any before.[7][8] Their U.S. patent 821,393 claims the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulates a flying machine's surfaces.[9] Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. ...


They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.[10]


The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. There are conflicting views as to what was the first flying machine. ...

Contents

Childhood

Young Orville Wright four years old in April 1876.
Young Orville Wright four years old in April 1876.

The Wright brothers were two of seven children born to Milton Wright (1828–1917) and Susan Catherine Koerner (1831–1889). Wilbur Wright was born near Millville, Indiana in 1867; Orville in Dayton, Ohio in 1871. The brothers never married. The other Wright siblings were named Reuchlin (1861–1920), Lorin (1862–1939), Katharine (1874–1929), and twins Otis and Ida (born 1870, died in infancy). In elementary school, Orville was given to mischief and was once expelled.[11] In 1878 their father, who traveled often as a bishop in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, brought home a toy "helicopter" for his two younger sons. The device was based on an invention of French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Penaud. Made of paper, bamboo and cork with a rubber band to twirl its rotor, it was about a foot long. Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke, then built their own. In later years, they pointed to their experience with the toy as the initial spark of their interest in flying.[12] Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bishop Milton Wright was the father of aviation pioneers Wilbur and Orville Wright. ... was on trial to be sued for stealing John forksons idea for the airplane but it turned out that he was mentally ill. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Church of the United Brethren in Christ is an evangelical Christian denomination based in Huntington, Indiana. ... Alphonse Pénaud (1850–1880) was a major 19th century pioneer of aviation, inventor of the rubber powered model airplane and founder of the aviation industry. ...


In the winter of 1885-86 Wilbur was accidentally struck in the face by a hockey stick while playing an ice-skating game with friends. This injury caused him the loss of his two front teeth. From there, Wilbur had sunk to a life of depression. He had been vigorous and athletic until then, and although his injuries did not appear especially severe, he became withdrawn, and did not attend Yale as planned. Had he enrolled, his career might have taken a very different path than the extraordinary one he eventually followed with Orville. Instead, he spent the next few years largely housebound, caring for his mother who was terminally ill with tuberculosis and reading extensively in his father's library. He ably assisted his father during times of controversy within the Brethren Church.[13] However, he also expressed unease over his own lack of ambition.[14] It was his Brother Orville , which had lifted him to a life of promise as an aviation engineer.


Early career and research

Wright brothers' home at 7 Hawthorn Street, Dayton about 1900. Wilbur and Orville built the covered wrap-around porch in the 1890s.
Wright brothers' home at 7 Hawthorn Street, Dayton about 1900. Wilbur and Orville built the covered wrap-around porch in the 1890s.

Both brothers received high school educations, but did not receive diplomas. The family's move in 1884 from Richmond, Indiana to Dayton (where the family had lived during the 1870s) prevented Wilbur from receiving his diploma after finishing four years of high school. Orville dropped out after his junior year to start a printing business in 1889, having designed and built his own printing press with Wilbur's help. Quietly starting a partnership with far-reaching consequences, Wilbur joined the print shop, serving as editor while Orville was publisher of the weekly newspaper the West Side News, followed, for only a few months, by the daily Evening Item. Capitalizing on the national bicycle craze, they opened a repair and sales shop in 1892 (the Wright Cycle Exchange, later the Wright Cycle Company) and began manufacturing their own brand in 1896. They used this endeavor to fund their growing interest in flight. In the early or mid-1890s they saw newspaper or magazine articles and probably photographs of the dramatic glides by Otto Lilienthal in Germany. The year 1896 brought three important aeronautical events. In May, Smithsonian Institution Secretary Samuel Langley successfully flew an unmanned steam-powered model aircraft. In the summer, Chicago engineer and aviation authority Octave Chanute brought together several men who tested various types of gliders over the sand dunes along the shore of Lake Michigan. In August, Lilienthal was killed in the plunge of his glider.[15] These events lodged in the consciousness of the brothers. In May 1899 Wilbur wrote a letter to the Smithsonian Institution requesting information and publications about aeronautics.[16] Drawing on the work of Sir George Cayley, Chanute, Lilienthal, Leonardo da Vinci, and Langley, they began their mechanical aeronautical experimentation that year. he pooped on a hole Richmond (IPA: ) is a city in east central Indiana, which borders Ohio. ... Wright Cycle Shop at Greenfield Village The Wright Cycle Company (formerly Wright Cycle Exchange) owned and operated five bicycle shops where Orville and Wilbur Wright designed and built Van Cleve and bicycles from 1892 to 1909. ... Otto Lilienthal Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896), the German Glider King, was a pioneer of human aviation. ... Samuel Pierpont Langley (August 22, 1834 in Roxbury, Massachusetts near Boston, – February 27, 1906, Aiken, South Carolina) was an American astronomer, physicist, inventor, aeronautics pioneer and aircraft engineer. ... Octave Chanute Octave Chanute (18 February 1832 - November 23, 1910) was a French-born American railroad engineer and aviation pioneer. ... Sir George Cayley (27 December 1773 - 15 December 1857) was an exuberant polymath from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... Octave Chanute Octave Chanute (18 February 1832 - November 23, 1910) was a French-born American railroad engineer and aviation pioneer. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...


The Wright brothers always presented a unified image to the public, sharing equally in the credit for their invention. Biographers note, however, that Wilbur took the initiative in 1899–1900, writing of "my" machine and "my" plans before Orville became deeply involved when the first person singular became the plural "we" and "our". Author James Tobin asserts, "it is impossible to imagine Orville, bright as he was, supplying the driving force that started their work and kept it going from the back room of a store in Ohio to conferences with capitalists, presidents, and kings. Will did that. He was the leader, from the beginning to the end."[17]


The Wrights did all the theoretical work and most of the hands-on construction. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first aircraft engine in close collaboration with the brothers. Charles Edward Charlie Taylor (May 24, 1868 - January 30, 1956) built the engine used by the Wright brothers in their early aircraft, the Flyer. ...


Ideas about control

Despite Lilienthal's fate, the brothers favored his strategy: to practice gliding in order to master the art of control before attempting motor-driven flight. The death of British aeronaut Percy Pilcher in another hang gliding crash in 1899 only reinforced their opinion that a reliable method of pilot control was the key to successful—and safe—flight. At the outset of their experiments they regarded control as the unsolved third part of "the flying problem". They believed sufficiently promising knowledge of the other two issues—wings and engines—already existed.[18] The Wright brothers thus differed sharply from more experienced practitioners of the day, notably Ader, Maxim and Langley who built powerful engines, attached them to airframes equipped with unproven control devices, and expected to take to the air with no previous flying experience. Though agreeing with Lilienthal's idea of practice, the Wrights saw that his method of balance and control—shifting his body weight—was fatally inadequate.[19] They were determined to find something better. Percy Sinclair Pilcher (January 1866 — 2 October 1899) was a British inventor and pioneer aviator who, in one of the big what if events of history, could well have become the first person to achieve controlled, powered, heavier-than-air flight well before the Wright brothers had he not been... Photograph of Ader Cl ment Ader (February 4, 1841 - March 5, 1926) was a French engineer born in Muret, Haute Garonne remembered primarily for his pioneering work in aviation. ... Hiram S. Maxim Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (February 4, 1840 - November 24, 1916) was the inventor of the Maxim Gun in 1884, the first portable, fully automatic machine gun. ... Samuel Pierpont Langley (August 22, 1834 in Roxbury, Massachusetts near Boston, – February 27, 1906, Aiken, South Carolina) was an American astronomer, physicist, inventor, aeronautics pioneer and aircraft engineer. ...

Wright 1899 kite: front and side views, with control sticks. Wing-warping is shown in lower view. (Wright Brothers drawing in Library of Congress)

Based on observation, Wilbur concluded that birds changed the angle of the ends of their wings to make their bodies roll right or left.[20] The brothers decided this would also be a good way for a flying machine to turn—to "bank" or "lean" into the turn just like a bird—and just like a person riding a bicycle, an experience with which they were thoroughly familiar. Equally important, they hoped this method would enable recovery when the wind tilted the machine to one side (lateral balance). They puzzled over how to achieve the same effect with man-made wings and eventually discovered wing-warping when Wilbur idly twisted a long inner tube box at the bicycle shop.[21] Image File history File links WrightWingWarpinging. ... Image File history File links WrightWingWarpinging. ... Wing warping was an early system for controlling the roll of an aeroplane while flying. ...


Other aeronautical investigators regarded flight as if it were not so different from surface locomotion, except the surface would be elevated. They thought in terms of a ship's rudder for steering, while the flying machine remained essentially level in the air, as did a train or an automobile or a ship at the surface. The idea of deliberately leaning, or rolling, to one side either seemed undesirable or did not enter their thinking.[22] Some of these other investigators, including Langley and Chanute, sought the elusive ideal of "inherent stability", believing the pilot of a flying machine would not be able to react quickly enough to wind disturbances to use mechanical controls effectively. The Wright brothers, on the other hand, wanted the pilot to have absolute control.[23] For that reason, their early designs made no concessions toward built-in stability (such as dihedral wings). They deliberately designed their 1903 first powered flyer with anhedral (drooping) wings, which are inherently unstable, but less susceptible to upset by gusty sidewinds. In geometry, the dihedral is the angle between two planes. ... In geometry, the dihedral is the angle between two planes. ...


Flights

Toward flight

In July 1899 Wilbur put wing-warping to the test by building and flying a five-foot box kite in the approximate shape of a biplane. When the wings were warped, or twisted, one end would receive more lift and rise, starting a turn in the direction of the lower end. Warping was controlled by four lines attached to the kite. The lines led to two sticks held by the kite flyer, who tilted them in opposite directions to twist the wings and make the kite bank left or right. It worked.


In 1900 the brothers journeyed to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to begin their manned gliding experiments. They chose the location based on advice from Octave Chanute (answering Wilbur's letter), who suggested a sandy coastal area for regular breezes and a soft landing surface. They selected Kitty Hawk after scrutinizing Weather Bureau data and writing to the government meteorologist stationed there. The location, although remote, was closer to Dayton than other places Chanute had suggested, including California and Florida. The spot also gave them privacy from reporters, who had turned the 1896 Chanute experiments at Lake Michigan into something of a circus. The trip required a train ride from Dayton to Cincinnati; change trains for an overnight ride to Old Point Comfort, Virginia (near Newport News); ferryboat to Norfolk; train to Elizabeth City, North Carolina; and boat ride to Kitty Hawk on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Kitty Hawk is a town located in Dare County, North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Octave Chanute Octave Chanute (18 February 1832 - November 23, 1910) was a French-born American railroad engineer and aviation pioneer. ...


The gliders

Main article: Wright Glider

They based the design of their first full-size glider on the work of their recent predecessors: the Chanute-Herring "double-decker", a biplane hang glider which flew well in the 1896 experiments near Chicago; and aeronautical data on lift that Lilienthal had published. The uprights between the wings of their glider were braced by wires in their own adaptation of Chanute's modified "Pratt truss", a bridge-building design he applied to his 1896 glider. The Wrights mounted the horizontal elevator in front of the wings rather than behind, apparently believing this feature would help avoid a nosedive and crash like the one that killed Lilienthal.[24] (Later, when Santos-Dumont flew his 14-bis in Paris in 1906, the French dubbed the tail-first arrangement a "canard", due to the supposed resemblance to a duck in flight.) According to some Wright biographers, Wilbur probably did all the gliding until 1902, perhaps to exercise his authority as older brother and to protect Orville from harm.[25][26] The Wright Brothers developed a series of four gliders as they worked towards achieving flight. ... The force lift, or simply lift, is a mechanical force generated by solid objects as they move through a fluid. ... For other meanings of elevator see Elevator (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Glider Vital Statistics[27]
Wingspan Wing area Chord Camber Aspect ratio Length Weight
1900 17 ft 6 in 165 sq ft (15 m²) 5 ft (2 m) 1/20 3.5 11 ft 6 in 52 lb
1901 22 ft (7 m) 290 sq ft (27 m²) 7 ft 1/12,*1/19 3 14 ft 98 lb
1902 32 ft 1 in 305 sq ft (28 m²) 5 ft 1/20-1/24 6.5 17 ft 112 lb

* (This airfoil caused severe pitch problems; the Wrights modified the camber on-site.)


1900 Glider

The brothers flew the glider only a few days in the early autumn of 1900 at Kitty Hawk. In the first tests, probably Oct. 3, Wilbur was aboard while the glider flew as a kite not far above the ground with men below holding tether ropes.[28] Most of the kite tests were unpiloted with sandbags or chains (and even a local boy) as onboard ballast. They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground. The glider was also tested unmanned while suspended from a small homemade tower. Wilbur (but not Orville) made about a dozen free glides on only a single day. For those tests, the brothers trekked four miles (6 km) south to the Kill Devil Hills, a group of sand dunes up to 100 feet (30 m) high (where they made camp in each of the next three years). Although the glider's lift was less than expected (causing most tests to be unmanned), the brothers were encouraged because the craft's front elevator worked well and they had no accidents. However, the small number of free glides meant they were not able to give wing-warping a true test. Kill Devil Hills is a town located in Dare County, North Carolina. ...


The pilot lay flat on the lower wing, as planned, to reduce aerodynamic drag. As a glide ended, the pilot was supposed to lower himself to a vertical position through an opening in the wing and land on his feet with his arms wrapped over the framework. Within a few glides, however, they discovered the pilot could remain prone on the wing, headfirst, without undue danger when landing. They made all their flights in that position for the next five years.


1901 Glider

Orville at Kitty Hawk with the 1901 glider, its nose pointed skyward; it had no tail.
Orville at Kitty Hawk with the 1901 glider, its nose pointed skyward; it had no tail.

Hoping to improve lift, they built the 1901 glider with a much larger wing area and made 50 to 100 flights in July and August for distances of 20 to 400 feet (120 m).[29] The glider stalled a few times, but the parachute effect of the forward elevator allowed Wilbur to make a safe flat or "pancake" landing, instead of a nose-dive. These incidents wedded the Wrights even more strongly to the canard design, which they did not give up until 1910. The glider, however, delivered two major disappointments. It produced only about one-third the lift calculated and sometimes failed to respond properly to wing-warping, turning opposite the direction intended—a problem later known as adverse yaw. On the trip home after their second season, Wilbur, stung with disappointment, remarked to Orville that man would fly, but not in their lifetimes. Image File history File links Wright1901GliderBottom. ... Image File history File links Wright1901GliderBottom. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Adverse yaw (or aileron drag) is a secondary effect of the application of the ailerons in aircraft. ...


The poor lift of the gliders led the Wrights to question the accuracy of Lilienthal's data, as well as the "Smeaton coefficient" of air pressure, which had been used for over 100 years and was part of the accepted equation for lift. Portrait of John Smeaton, with the Eddystone Lighthouse in the background John Smeaton, FRS, (June 8, 1724 – October 28, 1792) was a civil engineer – often regarded as the father of civil engineering – responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. ...

The Lift Equation
L = k;S;V^2;C_L

L = lift in pounds
k = coefficient of air pressure (Smeaton coefficient)
S = total area of lifting surface in square feet
V = velocity (headwind plus ground speed) in miles per hour
CL = coefficient of lift (varies with wing shape)

Replica of the Wright brothers' wind tunnel at the Virginia Air and Space Center.
Replica of the Wright brothers' wind tunnel at the Virginia Air and Space Center.

The Wrights—and Lilienthal—used the equation to calculate the amount of lift that wings of various sizes would produce. Based on measurements of lift and wind during the 1901 glider's kite and free flights, Wilbur believed (correctly, as tests later showed) that the Smeaton number was very close to 0.0033, not the traditionally used 60% larger 0.0054, which would exaggerate predicted lift. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2304, 1357 KB) Summary Description: Replica of the Wright Brothers wind tunnel at the Virginia Air and Space Center. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2304, 1357 KB) Summary Description: Replica of the Wright Brothers wind tunnel at the Virginia Air and Space Center. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ...


Back home, furiously pedaling a strange-looking bicycle on neighborhood streets, they conducted makeshift open-air tests with a miniature Lilienthal airfoil and a counter-acting flat plate, which were both attached to a freely rotating third bicycle wheel mounted horizontally in front of the handlebars. The results, based on which way the third wheel turned, confirmed their suspicion that published data on lift were unreliable and encouraged them to expand their investigation. They also realized that trial-and-error with different wings on full-size gliders was too costly and time-consuming. Putting aside the three-wheel bicycle, they built a six-foot wind tunnel in their shop and conducted systematic tests on miniature wings from October to December 1901. The "balances" they devised and mounted inside the tunnel to hold the wings looked crude, made of bicycle spokes and scrap metal, but were "as critical to the ultimate success of the Wright brothers as were the gliders."[30] The devices allowed the brothers to balance lift against drag and accurately calculate the performance of each wing.[31] They could also see which wings worked well as they looked through the viewing window in the top of the tunnel. NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ...


1902 Glider

A Big Improvement At left, 1901 glider flown by Wilbur (left) and Orville. At right, 1902 glider flown by Wilbur (right) and Dan Tate, their helper. Dramatic improvement in performance is apparent. The 1901 glider flies at a steep angle of attack due to poor lift and high drag. In contrast, the 1902 glider flies at a much flatter angle and holds up its tether lines almost vertically, clearly demonstrating a much better lift-to-drag ratio.
A Big Improvement
At left, 1901 glider flown by Wilbur (left) and Orville. At right, 1902 glider flown by Wilbur (right) and Dan Tate, their helper. Dramatic improvement in performance is apparent. The 1901 glider flies at a steep angle of attack due to poor lift and high drag. In contrast, the 1902 glider flies at a much flatter angle and holds up its tether lines almost vertically, clearly demonstrating a much better lift-to-drag ratio.

Lilienthal had made "whirling arm" tests on only a few wing shapes, and the Wrights mistakenly assumed the data would apply to their wings, which had a different shape. The Wrights took a huge step forward and made basic wind tunnel tests on 200 wings of many shapes and airfoil curves, followed by detailed tests on 38 of them. The tests, according to biographer Howard, "were the most crucial and fruitful aeronautical experiments ever conducted in so short a time with so few materials and at so little expense".[32] A key discovery was the benefit of longer narrower wings: in aeronautical terms, wings with a larger aspect ratio (wingspan divided by chord—the wing's front-to-back dimension). Such shapes offered much better lift-to-drag ratio than the broader wings the brothers had tried so far. In this diagram, the black arrow represents the direction of the wind. ... For the kite, see foil kite. ... The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. ... Cross section of an airfoil showing chord In reference to aircraft, chord refers to the distance between the front and back of a wing, measured in the direction of the normal airflow. ... In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio (ell-over-dee in the US, ell-dee in the UK), is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, compared to the drag it creates by moving through the air. ...


With this knowledge, and a more accurate Smeaton number, the Wrights designed their 1902 glider. Using another crucial discovery from the wind tunnel, they made the airfoil flatter, reducing the camber (the depth of the wing's curvature divided by its chord). The 1901 wings had significantly greater curvature, a highly inefficient feature the Wrights copied directly from Lilienthal. Fully confident in their new wind tunnel results, the Wrights discarded Lilienthal's data, now basing their designs on their own calculations. Camber may refer to: Camber, East Sussex, a seaside resort in England, near to Camber Sands. ...

Wilbur Wright pilots the 1902 glider over the Kill Devil Hills, 10 October 1902. The single rear rudder is steerable; it replaced the original fixed double rudder. photo taken by Lorin Wright.
Wilbur Wright pilots the 1902 glider over the Kill Devil Hills, 10 October 1902. The single rear rudder is steerable; it replaced the original fixed double rudder. photo taken by Lorin Wright.

With characteristic caution, the brothers first flew the 1902 glider as an unmanned kite, as they had done with their two previous versions. Rewarding their wind tunnel work, the glider produced the expected lift. It also had a new structural feature: a fixed, rear vertical rudder, which the brothers hoped would eliminate turning problems. Image File history File links 1902_WrightBrosGlider. ... Image File history File links 1902_WrightBrosGlider. ... The 1902 Wright Glider on one of its earlier test flights (before the addition of a single moveable vertical tail). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


By 1902 they realized that wing-warping created "differential drag" at the wingtips. Greater lift at one end of the wing also increased drag, which slowed that end of the wing, making the aircraft swivel — or "yaw" — so the nose pointed away from the turn. That was how the tailless 1901 glider behaved.


The improved wing design enabled consistently longer glides, and the rear rudder prevented adverse yaw—so effectively that it introduced a new problem. Sometimes when the pilot attempted to level off from a turn, the glider failed to respond to corrective wing-warping and persisted into a tighter turn. The glider would slide toward the lower wing, which hit the ground, spinning the aircraft around. The Wrights called this "well digging"; modern aviators refer to a "ground loop".


Orville apparently visualized that the fixed rudder resisted the effect of corrective wing-warping when attempting to level off from a turn. He wrote in his diary that on the night of 2 October, "I studied out a new vertical rudder". The brothers then decided to make the rear rudder movable to solve the problem.[33] They hinged the rudder and connected it to the pilot's warping "cradle", so a single movement by the pilot simultaneously controlled wing-warping and rudder deflection. Tests while gliding proved that the trailing edge of the rudder should be turned away from whichever end of the wings had more drag (and lift) due to warping. The opposing pressure produced by turning the rudder enabled corrective wing-warping to reliably restore level flight after a turn or a wind disturbance. Furthermore, when the glider banked into a turn, rudder pressure overcame the effect of differential drag and pointed the nose of the aircraft in the direction of the turn, eliminating adverse yaw. is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In short, the Wrights discovered the true purpose of the movable vertical rudder. Its role was not to change the direction of flight, but rather, to aim or align the aircraft correctly during banking turns and when leveling off from turns and wind disturbances. The actual turn — the change in direction — was done with roll control using wing-warping. The principles remained the same when ailerons superseded wing-warping.

Wilbur making a turn 24 October 1902 with the movable rudder.
Wilbur making a turn 24 October 1902 with the movable rudder.

With their new method the Wrights achieved true control in turns for the first time on 8 October 1902, a major milestone. During September and October they made between 700 and 1,000 glides, the longest lasting 26 seconds and covering 622.5 feet (189.7 m). Hundreds of well-controlled glides after they made the rudder steerable convinced them they were ready to build a powered flying machine. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Thus did three axis-control evolve: wing-warping for roll (lateral motion), forward elevator for pitch (up and down) and rear rudder for yaw (side to side). On 23 March 1903 the Wrights applied for their famous patent for a "Flying Machine", based on their successful 1902 glider. Some aviation historians believe that applying the system of three-axis flight control on the 1902 glider was equal to, or even more significant, than the addition of power to the 1903 Flyer. Peter Jakab of the Smithsonian asserts that perfection of the 1902 glider essentially represents invention of the airplane.[34][35] Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Adding power

First flight of the Wright Flyer I, 17 December 1903, Orville piloting, Wilbur running at wingtip. Photo by John T. Daniels of the Kill Devil Hills Life Saving Station, using Orville's tripod-mounted camera
First flight of the Wright Flyer I, 17 December 1903, Orville piloting, Wilbur running at wingtip. Photo by John T. Daniels of the Kill Devil Hills Life Saving Station, using Orville's tripod-mounted camera

In 1903, the brothers built the powered Wright Flyer I, using their preferred material for construction, spruce, a strong and lightweight wood. They also designed and carved their own wooden propellers, and had a purpose-built gasoline engine fabricated in their bicycle shop. They thought propeller design would be a simple matter and intended to adapt data from shipbuilding. However, their library research disclosed no established formulas for either marine or air propellers, and they found themselves with no sure starting point. They discussed and argued the question, sometimes heatedly, until they concluded that an aeronautical propeller is essentially a wing rotating in the vertical plane.[36] On that basis, they used data from more wind tunnel tests to design their propellers. The finished blades were just over eight feet long, made of three laminations of glued spruce. The Wrights decided on twin "pusher" propellers (counter-rotating to cancel torque), which would act on a greater quantity of air than a single relatively slow propeller and not disturb airflow over the leading edge of the wings. Download high resolution version (899x576, 106 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (899x576, 106 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... Species About 35; see text. ...


Wilbur made a March 1903 entry in his notebook indicating the prototype propeller was 66% efficient. Modern wind tunnel tests on reproduction 1903 propellers show they were more than 75% efficient under the conditions of the first flights, and actually had a peak efficiency of 82%. This is a remarkable achievement, considering that modern wooden propellers have a maximum efficiency of 85%.[37]

While the early engines used by the Wright brothers are thought to no longer exist, a later example, serial number 17 from circa 1910, is on display at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut.
While the early engines used by the Wright brothers are thought to no longer exist, a later example, serial number 17 from circa 1910, is on display at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut.

The Wrights wrote to several engine manufacturers, but none met their need for a sufficiently lightweight powerplant. They turned to their shop mechanic, Charlie Taylor, who built an engine in just six weeks in close consultation with the brothers. To keep the weight low enough, the engine block was cast from aluminum, a rare practice for the time. The Wright/Taylor engine was a primitive version of modern fuel-injection systems, having no carburetor or fuel pump. Gasoline was gravity-fed into the crankcase through a rubber tube from the fuel tank mounted on a wing strut. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (852x1136, 497 KB) Summary Wright brothers engine, serial number 17, on display at the New England Air Museum, Connecticut, USA Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (852x1136, 497 KB) Summary Wright brothers engine, serial number 17, on display at the New England Air Museum, Connecticut, USA Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Museum is situated in two large display buildings consisting of more than 75,000 square feet of exhibit space. ... Windsor Locks is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. ... Charles Edward Charlie Taylor (May 24, 1868 - January 30, 1956) built the engine used by the Wright brothers in their early aircraft, the Flyer. ... // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... mechanical fuel pump, fitted to cylinder head Electric fuel pump Petro-Canada Fuel Pump used to transfer fuel at a gas station. ... Gravity redirects here. ...


The propeller drive chains, resembling those of bicycles, were actually supplied by a manufacturer of heavy-duty automobile chain-drives.[38] The Flyer cost less than a thousand dollars to construct, this in contrast to the 50,000 plus dollars given to Samuel Langley for his man-carrying Great Aerodrome. The Flyer had a wingspan of 40 feet (12 m), weighed 625 pounds (283 kg), and sported a 12 hp (9 kW), 170 pound (77 kg) engine. Samuel Pierpont Langley. ...


After weeks of delays at Kitty Hawk caused by broken propeller shafts during engine tests, Wilbur won a coin toss and made a three-second flight attempt on December 14, 1903, stalling after takeoff and causing minor damage to the Flyer. In a message to their family, Wilbur referred to the trial as having "only partial success", stating "the power is ample, and but for a trifling error due to lack of experience with this machine and this method of starting, the machine would undoubtedly have flown beautifully."[39] Following repairs, the Wrights finally took to the air on 17 December 1903, making two flights each from level ground into a freezing headwind gusting to 27 miles (43 km) an hour. The first flight, by Orville, of 120 feet (36.5 m) in 12 seconds, at a speed of only 6.8 mph over the ground, was recorded in a famous photograph. The next two flights covered approximately 175 and 200 feet (60 m), by Wilbur and Orville respectively. Their altitude was about 10 ft above the ground.[40] Here is Orville Wright's account of the final flight of the day: Coin flipping or coin tossing is the practice of throwing a coin in the air to resolve a dispute between two parties. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

Wilbur started the fourth and last flight at just about 12 o'clock. The first few hundred feet were up and down, as before, but by the time three hundred feet had been covered, the machine was under much better control. The course for the next four or five hundred feet had but little undulation. However, when out about eight hundred feet the machine began pitching again, and, in one of its darts downward, struck the ground. The distance over the ground was measured to be 852 feet (260 m); the time of the flight was 59 seconds. The frame supporting the front rudder was badly broken, but the main part of the machine was not injured at all. We estimated that the machine could be put in condition for flight again in about a day or two. [41]


The flights were witnessed by five people: Adam Etheridge, John Daniels and Will Dough of the coastal lifesaving crew; area businessman W.C. Brinkley; and Johnny Moore, a boy from the village, making these arguably the first public flights. A telegraph operator relaying a message to their father leaked the news against the brothers' wishes, and highly inaccurate reports ran in several newspapers the next day.[42]


After the men hauled the Flyer back from its fourth flight, a powerful gust of wind flipped it over several times, despite the crew's attempt to hold it down. Severely damaged, the airplane never flew again. The brothers shipped it home, and years later Orville restored it, lending it to several U.S. locations for display, then to a British museum (see Smithsonian dispute below), before it was finally installed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. in 1948.


Trouble establishing legitimacy

In 1904 the brothers built the Flyer II and set up an airfield at Huffman Prairie, a cow pasture eight miles (13 km) northeast of Dayton which bank president Torrance Huffman let them use rent-free. They invited reporters to their first flight attempt of the year on 23 May on the condition that no photographs be taken. Engine troubles and slack winds prevented any flying, and they could manage only a very short hop a few days later with fewer reporters present. Some scholars of the Wrights speculate the brothers may have intentionally failed to fly in order to disinterest reporters in their experiments.[43] Whether that is true is not known, but after their poor showing local newspapers virtually ignored them for the next year and a half. The Wright Flyer II at Huffman Prairie. ... Visitors Center at Huffman Prairie Reproduction of the Wright brothers 1905 hangar and catapult Huffman Prairie, JANES OLD HOMEGUESS WHO WAS HERE??, part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, is an 84 acre (.34 km²) patch of rough pasture outside Dayton, Ohio now known as Huffman Prairie Flying... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Orville in flight over Huffman Prairie, in Wright Flyer II. Flight #85, approximately 1,760 feet (536 m) in 40 1/5 seconds, 16 November 1904.
Orville in flight over Huffman Prairie, in Wright Flyer II. Flight #85, approximately 1,760 feet (536 m) in 40 1/5 seconds, 16 November 1904.

The Wrights were glad to be free from the distraction of reporters. The absence of newsmen also reduced the chance of competitors learning their methods. After the Kitty Hawk powered flights, the Wrights made a decision to begin withdrawing from the bicycle business so they could devote themselves to creating and marketing a practical airplane.[44] The decision was financially risky, since they were neither wealthy nor government-funded (unlike other experimenters such as Ader, Maxim, Langley and Santos-Dumont). They did not have the luxury of giving away their invention; it was to be their livelihood. Thus, their secrecy intensified, encouraged by advice from their patent attorney not to reveal details of their machine. Image File history File links 1904WrightFlyer. ... Image File history File links 1904WrightFlyer. ... The Wright Flyer II at Huffman Prairie. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


At Huffman Prairie, lighter winds and lower air density than in Kitty Hawk (due to Ohio's higher altitude and higher temperatures) made takeoffs very difficult, and they had to use a much longer starting rail, stretching to hundreds of feet, compared to the 60-foot (18 m) rail at Kitty Hawk. During the spring and summer they suffered many hard landings, real crackups, repeated Flyer damage, and bodily bumps and bruises. On 13 August, making an unassisted takeoff, Wilbur finally exceeded their best Kitty Hawk effort with a flight of 1,300 feet (400 m). Then they decided to use a weight-powered catapult to make takeoffs easier and tried it for the first time on 7 September. On 20 September 1904, Wilbur flew the first complete circle in history by a manned heavier-than-air powered machine, covering 4,080 feet (1,244 m) in about a minute and a half. Their two best flights were 9 November by Wilbur and 1 December by Orville, each exceeding five minutes and covering about three miles in almost four circles. By the end of the year the brothers had accumulated about 50 minutes in the air in 105 flights over the rather soggy 85 acre pasture, which, remarkably, is virtually unchanged today from its original condition and is now part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, adjacent to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... liam hewison is a mother fuckin wanker parently he sucked on offhis own father liam is a young boy aged 13 - 14 has no friends and likes kissing gemma cassin a fat girl for more updates go to www. ... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Riverside, Fairborn, Beavercreek, and Dayton, Ohio. ...


Despite progress in 1904, the Flyer was still frequently out of control.[45] In 1905 the Wrights scrapped the battered and much-repaired airplane, but saved the engine and built a new Flyer III, which included an important design change. The brothers installed a separate control for the rear rudder instead of linking the rudder to the wing-warping "cradle" as before. Each of the three axes—pitch, roll and yaw—now had its own independent control. Nevertheless, this Flyer offered the same marginal performance as the first two. Its maiden flight was June 23 and the first several flights were no longer than 10 seconds.[46] After Orville suffered a bone-jarring crackup on July 14, they rebuilt the Flyer with the forward elevator and rear rudder both enlarged and placed several feet farther away from the wings. The Wright Flyer III in flight over Huffman Prairie. ...

Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville over Huffman Prairie, 4 October 1905. Flight #46, covering 20¾ miles in 33 minutes 17 seconds, last photographed flight of the year.

These modifications greatly improved stability and control, setting the stage for a series of six dramatic "long flights" ranging from 17 to 38 minutes and 11 to 24 miles (39 km) around the three-quarter mile course over Huffman Prairie between 26 September and 5 October. Wilbur made the last and longest flight, 24.5 miles (39.4 km) in 38 minutes and 3 seconds, ending with a safe landing when the fuel ran out. The flight was seen by a number of people, including several invited friends, their father Milton, and neighboring farmers.[47] Reporters showed up the next day (only their second appearance at the field since May the previous year), but the brothers declined to fly. The long flights convinced the Wrights they had achieved their goal of creating a flying machine of "practical utility" which they could offer to sell. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x601, 15 KB) The Wright Flyer III in flight over Huffman Prairie, 1905. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x601, 15 KB) The Wright Flyer III in flight over Huffman Prairie, 1905. ... The Wright Flyer III in flight over Huffman Prairie. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ...


The only photos of the flights of 1904-1905 were taken by the brothers. (A few photos were damaged in the Great Dayton Flood of 1913, but most survived intact.) In 1904 Ohio beekeeping businessman Amos Root, a technology enthusiast, saw a few flights including the first circle. Articles he wrote for his beekeeping magazine were the only published eyewitness reports of the Huffman Prairie flights, except for the unimpressive early hop local newsmen saw. Root offered a report to Scientific American magazine, but the editor turned it down. As a result, the news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism. The Paris edition of the Herald Tribune headlined a 1906 article on the Wrights "FLYERS OR LIARS?" The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 flooded Dayton, Ohio and the surrounding area with water from the Great Miami River, causing the greatest natural disaster[1] in Ohio history. ... Amos Ives Root (1839–1923) founder of the A. I. Root Company and developed innovative beekeeping techniques in the United States during the mid 1800s; at the time, these played an important role in the local economies of many communities. ...


In years to come Dayton newspapers would proudly celebrate the hometown Wright brothers as national heroes, but the local reporters somehow missed one of the most important stories in history as it was happening a few miles from their doorstep. James M. Cox, publisher at that time of the Dayton Daily News (later governor of Ohio and Democratic presidential nominee in 1920), expressed the attitude of newspapermen in those days when he admitted years later, "Frankly, none of us believed it."[48] James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ...


The Wright brothers were certainly complicit in the lack of attention they received. Wary of the competition stealing their plans, after 1905 they refused to make public flights or take part in air shows unless they had a firm contract to sell their airplane. They attempted to interest the military in the U.S., France, Britain, and Germany, but were rebuffed because they insisted on a signed contract before giving a demonstration. American bureaucrats, having recently spent $50,000 on the Langley Aerodrome—a product of the nation's foremost scientist—only to see it plunge twice into the Potomac River "like a handful of mortar", were particularly unreceptive to the claims of two unknown bicycle makers from Ohio.[49] Thus, doubted or scorned, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other aviation pioneers like Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and American Glenn Curtiss entered the limelight. The Langley Aerodrome was one of the many tested and failed attempts to produce a powered aerodyne (heavier-than-air aircraft). ... This article is about the aviator. ... Glenn H. Curtiss at the Grande Semaine dAviation in France in 1909 Glenn Hammond Curtiss (May 21, 1878 – July 23, 1930) was an aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. ...


The Wright brothers made no flights at all in 1906 and 1907 while they pursued fitful negotiations with the U.S. and European governments. After finally signing contracts with a French company and the U.S. Army, they went back to Kitty Hawk in May 1908 with the 1905 Flyer, modified with seats for pilot and passenger, and began practicing for their all-important demonstration flights. Their contracts required them to be able to carry a passenger. After tests with sandbags in the passenger seat, Charlie Furnas, a helper from Dayton, became the first fixed-wing aircraft passenger on a few short flights May 14. For safety, and as a promise to their father, Wilbur and Orville did not fly together.


The patent

Their 1903 patent application, which they wrote themselves, was rejected. In early 1904 they hired Ohio patent attorney Henry Toulmin, and on 22 May 1906 they were granted U.S. Patent 821393[50] for a "Flying Machine". Harry Aubrey Toulmin, Sr. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office archive
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office archive

The patent illustrated a non-powered flying machine—namely, the 1902 glider. The patent's importance lies in its claim of a new and useful method of controlling a flying machine, powered or not. The technique of wing-warping is described, but the patent explicitly states that wing-warping need not be the only method that could be employed to vary the outer portions of a machine's wings to different angles on the right and left sides. The concept of varying the angle near the wingtips, by whatever means, is central to the patent. The broad protection intended by this language succeeded when the Wrights won patent infringement lawsuits against Glenn Curtiss and other early aviators who adopted ailerons while the Wrights continued to use wing-warping. U.S. courts decided that ailerons were also covered by the patent (European court decisions were less definitive — see Patent War section below). The patent also describes the steerable rear vertical rudder and its innovative use in combination with wing-warping, enabling the airplane to make a coordinated turn, a technique that prevents hazardous adverse yaw, the problem Wilbur had when trying to turn the 1901 glider. Finally, the patent describes the forward elevator, used for ascending and descending. Image File history File links WrightPatentIntro. ... Image File history File links WrightPatentIntro. ... Glenn H. Curtiss at the Grande Semaine dAviation in France in 1909 Glenn Hammond Curtiss (May 21, 1878 – July 23, 1930) was an aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. ... Aileron location on a Piper PA-28. ... Adverse yaw (or aileron drag) is a secondary effect of the application of the ailerons in aircraft. ...

Public showing

Orville demonstrating the flyer to the U.S. Army, Fort Myer, Virginia September 1908. Photo: by C.H. Claudy.
Orville demonstrating the flyer to the U.S. Army, Fort Myer, Virginia September 1908. Photo: by C.H. Claudy.

The brothers' contracts with the U.S. Army and a French syndicate depended on successful public flight demonstrations that met certain conditions. The brothers had to divide their efforts. Wilbur sailed for Europe; Orville would fly near Washington, D.C. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2139, 522 KB) By an unknown photographer, September 1908. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2139, 522 KB) By an unknown photographer, September 1908. ...


Facing deep skepticism in the French aeronautical community and outright scorn by some newspapers that called him a "bluffeur", Wilbur began official public demonstrations on 8 August 1908 at the Hunaudières horse racing track near the town of Le Mans, France. His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot. In the following days Wilbur made a series of technically challenging flights including figure-eights, demonstrating his skills as a pilot and the capability of his flying machine, which far surpassed those of all other pilot pioneers. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Le Mans is a city in France, located at the Sarthe River. ... Louis Blériot Louis Blériot (July 1, 1872 in Cambrai - August 2, 1936 in Paris) was a French inventor and engineer, who performed the first flight over a large body of water in a heavier-than-air craft. ...


The French public was thrilled by Wilbur's feats and flocked to the field by the thousands. The Wright brothers catapulted to world fame overnight. Former doubters issued apologies and effusive praise. "L'Aérophile" editor Georges Besançon wrote that the flights "have completely dissipated all doubts. Not one of the former detractors of the Wrights dare question, today, the previous experiments of the men who were truly the first to fly..."[51] Leading French aviation promoter Ernest Archdeacon wrote, "For a long time, the Wright brothers have been accused in Europe of bluff...They are today hallowed in France, and I feel an intense pleasure...to make amends."[52]


On 7 October 1908, Edith Berg, the wife of the brothers' European business agent, became the first American woman airplane passenger when she flew with Wilbur—one of many passengers who rode with him that autumn.[53] is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Orville followed his brother's success by demonstrating another nearly identical flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer, Virginia, starting on 3 September 1908. On 9 September he made the first hour-long flight, enduring 62 minutes and 15 seconds. The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Orville Wright flying at Fort Myer, September 17, 1908. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Fort Myer crash. photo by C.H. Claudy
Fort Myer crash. photo by C.H. Claudy

On 17 September Army lieutenant Thomas Selfridge rode along as his passenger, serving as an official observer. A few minutes into the flight at an altitude of about 100 feet (30 m), a propeller split, sending the aircraft out of control. Selfridge was killed in the crash, the first person to die in powered fixed-wing aircraft. Orville was badly injured, suffering a broken left leg and four broken ribs. Twelve years later, after Orville suffered increasingly severe pains, X-rays revealed the Ft. Myer accident had also caused three hip bone fractures and a dislocated hip.[54] The brothers' sister Katharine, a school teacher, rushed from Dayton to Washington and stayed by Orville's side for the many weeks of his hospitalization. She helped negotiate a one-year extension of the Army contract. A friend visiting Orville in the hospital asked, "Has it got your nerve?" "Nerve?" repeated Orville, slightly puzzled. "Oh, do you mean will I be afraid to fly again? The only thing I'm afraid of is that I can't get well soon enough to finish those tests next year."[55] Image File history File links First_powered_aviation_crash. ... Image File history File links First_powered_aviation_crash. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... First Lieutenant Thomas Etholen Selfridge (February 8, 1882 – September 17, 1908) was the first person to die in a powered aircraft crash. ...


Deeply shocked by the accident, Wilbur determined to make even more impressive flight demonstrations; in the ensuing days and weeks he set new records for altitude and duration. In January 1909 Orville and Katharine joined him in France, and for a time they were the three most famous people in the world, sought after by royalty, the rich, reporters and the public. The kings of England, Spain and Italy came to see Wilbur fly.

Wright Model A Flyer flown by Wilbur 1908-09 and launching derrick, France, 1909

The Wrights traveled to Pau, in the south of France, where Wilbur made many more public flights, giving rides to a procession of officers, journalists and statesmen—and his sister Katharine on 15 February. He trained two French pilots, then transferred the airplane to the French company. In April the Wrights went to Italy where Wilbur assembled another Flyer, giving demonstrations and training more pilots. A cameraman climbed aboard and made the first motion picture from an airplane. Image File history File links 1909_Flyer_and_Derrick. ... Image File history File links 1909_Flyer_and_Derrick. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After their return to the U.S., the brothers and Katharine were invited to the White House where President Taft bestowed awards upon them. Dayton followed up with a lavish two-day homecoming celebration. In July 1909 Orville, with Wilbur assisting, completed the proving flights for the U.S. Army, meeting the requirements of a two-seater able to fly with a passenger for an hour at an average of speed of 40 miles an hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged. They sold the aircraft to the Army's Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps for $30,000 (which included a $5,000 bonus for exceeding the speed specification). Wilbur climaxed an extraordinary year in early October when he flew at New York City's Hudson-Fulton celebrations, circling the Statue of Liberty and making a 33-minute flight up and down the Hudson River alongside Manhattan in view of up to one million New Yorkers. These flights solidly established the fame of the Wright brothers in America. The Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps (1907-1914) was the first progenitor of the United States Air Force, and as such is the first military air organization. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ...


Family flights

On 25 May 1910 back at Huffman Prairie, Orville piloted two unique flights. First, he took off on a six-minute flight with Wilbur as his passenger, the only time the Wright brothers ever flew together. They received permission from their father to make the flight. They had always promised Milton they would never fly together to avoid the chance of a double tragedy and to ensure one brother would remain to continue their experiments. Next, Orville took his 82-year old father on a nearly seven-minute flight, the first and only one of Milton Wright's life. The airplane rose to about 350 feet (107 m) while the elderly Wright called to his son, "Higher, Orville, higher!"[56] is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The patent war

In 1908, the brothers warned Glenn Curtiss not to infringe their patent by profiting from flying or selling aircraft that used ailerons. Curtiss refused to pay license fees to the Wrights and sold a plane to the Aeronautic Society of New York in 1909. The Wrights filed a lawsuit, beginning a years-long legal conflict. They also sued foreign aviators who flew at U.S. exhibitions, including the leading French aviator Louis Paulhan. The brothers' licensed European companies, which owned foreign patents the Wrights had received, sued manufacturers in their countries. The European lawsuits were only partly successful. Despite a pro-Wright ruling in France, legal maneuvering dragged on until the patent expired in 1917. A German court ruled the patent invalid due to prior disclosure in speeches by Wilbur Wright in 1901 and Octave Chanute in 1903. In the U.S. the Wrights made an agreement with the Aero Club of America to license airshows which the Club approved, freeing participating pilots from a legal threat. Promoters of approved shows paid fees to the Wrights.[57] The Wright brothers won their initial case against Curtiss in February 1913, but the decision was appealed. Aileron location on a Piper PA-28. ... Louis Paulhan (born 1883 Pézenas, died 1963 Saint-Jean-de-Luz), French pilot who in 1910 flew the Le Canard, the worlds first seaplane designed by Henri Fabre. ... Octave Chanute Octave Chanute (18 February 1832 - November 23, 1910) was a French-born American railroad engineer and aviation pioneer. ... The Aero Club of America issued the first pilots licenses in the US. It was founded in 1905, and had many sister organizations. ...


From 1910 until his death from typhoid fever in 1912, Wilbur took the leading role in the patent struggle, traveling incessantly to consult with lawyers and testify in what he felt was a moral cause, particularly against Curtiss, who was creating a large company to manufacture aircraft. The Wrights' preoccupation with the legal issue hindered their development of new aircraft designs, and by 1911 Wright aircraft were considered inferior to those made by other firms in Europe. Indeed, aviation development in the US was suppressed to such an extent that when the U.S. entered World War I no acceptable American-designed aircraft were available, and the US forces were compelled to use French machines. Orville and Katharine Wright believed Curtiss was partly responsible for Wilbur's premature death, which occurred in the wake of his exhausting travels and the stress of the legal battle. For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ...


In January 1914, a U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the verdict in favor of the Wrights against Curtiss, whose company continued to avoid penalties through legal tactics. Since Orville was planning to sell the Wright company, no follow ups were made after the legal victory. In 1917, with World War I underway, the U.S. government stepped in to supervise a cross-licensing organization in which member companies paid a blanket fee for the use of aviation patents, including the original and subsequent Wright patents. The Wright-Martin company (successor to the Wright company) and the Curtiss company (which held a number of its own patents) each received a $2 million payment. The "patent war" ended, although side issues lingered in the courts until the 1920s. In a twist of irony, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation (another successor) and the Curtiss Aeroplane company merged in 1929 to form the Curtiss-Wright corporation, which remains in business today producing high-tech components for the aerospace industry. Wright Aeronautical was an aviation venture of the Wright Brothers. ... The Curtiss-Wright Corporation was once a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States, but has since become a component manufacturer, specializing in actuators, controls, valves, and metal treatment. ...


The lawsuits damaged the public image of the Wright brothers, who were generally regarded before this as heroes. Critics said the brothers were greedy and unfair, and compared their actions unfavourably to European inventors, who refused to enforce restrictive patents on this new technology. Supporters said the brothers were protecting their interests and were justified in expecting fair compensation for the years of work leading to their successful inventions. Their long friendship with Octave Chanute collapsed after he publicly criticized their actions.


In business

The Wright Company was incorporated on 22 November 1909. The brothers sold their patents to the company for $100,000 and also received one-third of the shares in a million dollar stock issue and a 10 percent royalty on every airplane sold.[58] With Wilbur as president and Orville as vice president, the company set up an airplane factory in Dayton and a flying school/test flight field at Huffman Prairie; the headquarters office was in New York City. The Wright Company or Wright & Co. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In mid-1910 the Wrights changed the design of their airplane, moving the horizontal elevator from the front to the back and adding wheels. It had become apparent by then that a rear elevator would make the airplane easier to control, especially as higher speeds grew more common. This aircraft was designated the "Model B", although the original canard design was never referred to as the "Model A" by the Wrights.


There were not many customers for airplanes, so in the spring of 1910 the Wrights hired and trained a team of salaried exhibition pilots to show off their aircraft and win prize money for the company—despite Wilbur's disdain for what he called "the mountebank business". The team debuted at the Indianapolis Speedway on June 13. Before the year was over, pilots Ralph Johnstone and Arch Hoxsey died in airshow crashes, and in November 1911 the brothers disbanded the team on which nine men had served (four other former team members died in crashes afterward).[59] From left to right are: Frank T. Coffyn; A. Roy Knabenshue; and Walter Brookins in Atlantic City in 1910 The Wright Exhibition Team was a group of early aviators trained by the Wright brothers at Wright Flying School. ... Indianapolis Motor Speedway, located in Speedway, Indiana (a separate city completely surrounded by Indianapolis), is the oldest surviving auto racing track in the world, having existed since 1908. ... Ralph Johnstone (1886-1910) Ralph Johnstone (1886 – November 17, 1910) was a pioneering early aviator who died in a crash. ... Archibald Hoxsey (1884-1910) Archibald Hoxsey (October 15, 1884 – December 31, 1910) was an early aviator for the Wright brothers. ...


The Wright Company transported the first known commercial air cargo on 7 November 1910 by flying two bolts of dress silk 65 miles (105 km) from Dayton to Columbus, Ohio for the Moorehouse-Marten Department Store, which paid a $5,000 fee. Company pilot Phil Parmelee made the flight—which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery—in an hour and six minutes with the cargo strapped in the passenger's seat. The silk was cut into small pieces and sold as souvenirs. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Philip Orin Parmelee (1887-1912) in 1910 Philip Orin Parmelee (1887 – June 1, 1912) was a pioneering aviator trained by the Wright brothers. ...


Between 1910 and 1916 the Wright Company flying school at Huffman Prairie trained 115 pilots who were instructed by Orville and his assistants. Several trainees became famous, including Henry "Hap" Arnold, who rose to Five-Star General, commanded U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, and became first head of the U.S. Air Force; Calbraith Perry Rodgers, who made the first coast-to-coast flight in 1911 (with many stops and crashes) in a Wright Model EX named the "Vin Fiz" after the sponsor's soft drink; and Eddie Stinson, founder of the Stinson Aircraft Company. Henry Harley Arnold (June 25, 1886 - January 15, 1950), often referred to by the nickname Hap, was an American pilot, commander of the US Army Air Corps from 1938, commander of the US Army Air Forces from 1941 until 1945 and the first General of the Air Force in 1949. ... Calbraith Perry Rodgers (1879-1912) Calbraith Perry Rodgers (1879 - April 3, 1912) was a pioneer American aviator who died in a crash Family Rodgers was related to Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. ... The Vin Fiz Flyer was an early airplane that in 1911 became the first to cross the North American continent by air. ... The Stinson Aircraft Company was an aircraft manufacturing company in the United States predominantly in the first half of the 20th century. ...


The Smithsonian feud

Samuel P. Langley, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 1887 until his death in 1906, experimented for years with model flying machines and successfully flew unmanned powered model aircraft in 1896 and 1903. Two tests of his manned full-size motor-driven Aerodrome in October and December 1903, however, were complete failures. Nevertheless, the Smithsonian later proudly displayed the Aerodrome in its museum as the first heavier-than-air craft "capable" of manned powered flight, relegating the Wright brothers' invention to secondary status and ironically triggering a decades-long feud with Orville Wright, whose brother had received help from the Smithsonian when beginning his own quest for flight. Samuel Pierpont Langley (August 22, 1834 in Roxbury, Massachusetts near Boston, – February 27, 1906, Aiken, South Carolina) was an American astronomer, physicist, inventor, aeronautics pioneer and aircraft engineer. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

Glenn Curtiss or an assistant coaxes the structurally modified Langley Aerodrome into the air above the surface of Keuka Lake near Hammondsport, N.Y., September 17, 1914.
Glenn Curtiss or an assistant coaxes the structurally modified Langley Aerodrome into the air above the surface of Keuka Lake near Hammondsport, N.Y., September 17, 1914.

The Smithsonian based its claim for the Aerodrome on short test flights Glenn Curtiss and his team made with it in 1914. The Smithsonian allowed Curtiss, in an unsavory alliance, to make major modifications to the craft before attempting to fly it.[60] The Smithsonian hoped to salvage Langley's aeronautical reputation by proving the Aerodrome could fly; Curtiss wanted to prove the same thing to defeat the Wrights' patent lawsuits against him. The tests had no effect on the patent battle, but the Smithsonian made the most of them, honoring the Aerodrome in its museum and publications. The Institution did not reveal the extensive Curtiss modifications, but Orville Wright learned of them from his brother Lorin and a close friend, Griffith Brewer, who both witnessed and photographed some of the tests.[61] Glenn H. Curtiss at the Grande Semaine dAviation in France in 1909 Glenn Hammond Curtiss (May 21, 1878 – July 23, 1930) was an aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. ...


Orville repeatedly objected to misrepresentation of the Aerodrome, but the Smithsonian was unyielding. Orville responded by loaning the restored 1903 Kitty Hawk Flyer to the London Science Museum in 1928, refusing to donate it to the Smithsonian while the Institution "perverted" the history of the flying machine.[62] Charles Lindbergh attempted to mediate the dispute, to no avail. In 1942, after years of bad publicity, and encouraged by Wright biographer Fred Kelly, the Smithsonian finally relented by publishing, for the first time, a list of the Aerodrome modifications and recanting misleading statements it had made about the 1914 tests. Orville then privately requested the British museum to return the Flyer, but the airplane remained in protective storage for the duration of World War II and finally came home after Orville's death. Science Museum The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, Kensington, London, is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... Charles Augustus Lindbergh (4 February 1902 – 26 August 1974), known as Lucky Lindy and The Lone Eagle, was an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. ...


On 23 November 1948 the executors of Orville's estate signed an agreement for the Smithsonian to purchase the Flyer for one dollar. At the insistence of the executors, the agreement also included strict conditions for display of the airplane. The agreement reads, in part, "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the 1903 Wright Aeroplane, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight."[63] If this agreement is not fulfilled, the Flyer can be reclaimed by the heir of the Wright brothers. Some aviation buffs, particularly those who promote the legacy of Gustave Whitehead, now accuse the Smithsonian of refusing to investigate claims of earlier flights.[64]After a ceremony in the Smithsonian museum, the Flyer went on public display on 17 December 1948, the 45th anniversary of the only day it was flown successfully. The Wright brothers' nephew Milton (Lorin's son), who had seen gliders and the Flyer under construction in the bicycle shop when he was a boy, gave a brief speech and formally transferred the airplane to the Smithsonian, which displayed it with the accompanying label: is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gustave Albin Whitehead, born Gustav Albin Weißkopf (January 1, 1874 – October 10 1927 Gustave Whitehead with an early engine. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The original Wright brothers aeroplane

The world's first power-driven heavier-than-air machine in which man made free, controlled, and sustained flight
Invented and built by Wilbur and Orville Wright
Flown by them at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina December 17, 1903
By original scientific research the Wright brothers discovered the principles of human flight

As inventors, builders, and flyers they further developed the aeroplane, taught man to fly, and opened the era of aviation

Last years

Wilbur Wright

Neither brother married. Wilbur once quipped that he, "could not support a wife and a flying machine".[65] He became ill on a trip to Boston in April 1912. After returning to Dayton, he was diagnosed with typhoid fever. He died, age 45, in the Wright family home on 30 May.[66] His father Milton wrote about Wilbur in his diary: "A short life, full of consequences. An unfailing intellect, imperturbable temper, great self-reliance and as great modesty, seeing the right clearly, pursuing it steadfastly, he lived and died."[67] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Orville Wright

Orville succeeded to the presidency of the Wright company upon Wilbur's death. Sharing Wilbur's distaste for business but not his brother's executive skills, Orville sold the company in 1915. He, Katharine and their father Milton moved to a mansion, Hawthorn Hill, Oakwood, Ohio, which the newly wealthy family built. Milton died in his sleep in 1917. Orville made his last flight as a pilot in 1918. He retired from business and became an elder statesman of aviation, serving on various official boards and committees, including the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), predecessor agency to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Katharine married a former Oberlin classmate in 1926, which greatly upset Orville. He refused to attend the wedding or even communicate with her. He finally agreed to see her, apparently at Lorin's insistence, just before she died of pneumonia in 1929. Hawthorn Hill in Oakwood, Ohio, USA was the family home of the Wright family. ... Location within Montgomery County, Ohio Oakwood is a city in Montgomery County, Ohio, United States. ... NACA may mean: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics National Association for Campus Activities [1] Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific, an industry association of shrimp farmers and other aquaculture industries. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


On April 19, 1944, the second production Lockheed Constellation, piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye flew from Burbank, California to Washington D.C. in 6 hours and 57 minutes. On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than forty years after his historic first flight. He may even have briefly handled the controls. He commented that the wingspan of the Constellation was longer than the distance of his first flight.[68] Orville died in 1948 after his second heart attack, having lived from the horse-and-buggy age to the dawn of supersonic flight. Both brothers are buried at the family plot at Woodland Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio.[69] is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Fairborn and Dayton, Ohio. ... Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948), the younger of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Woodland Cemetery and Arboretum in Dayton, Ohio, is one of the nations oldest garden cemeteries. ...


Legacy

The Flyer I is now on display in the National Air and Space Museum, a division of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. (See The Smithsonian Issue). The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright Brothers. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... ...


The Flyer III, the only fixed-wing aircraft designated a National Historic Landmark, was dismantled after the 1905 flights. It was reassembled with a two-man upright configuration & new control arrangement and flown at Kitty Hawk in May 1908. The aircraft was restored back to it's 1905 prone single pilot design in the late 1940s with the help of Orville. It is on display at Dayton, Ohio in the John W. Berry Sr., Wright Brothers Aviation Center at Carillon Historical Park. The display space for the aircraft was designed by Orville Wright. The Wright Flyer III in flight over Huffman Prairie. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Carillon Historical Park is an open-air museum in Dayton, Ohio, consisting of 25 buildings and structures, that follows the role and impact people from the Miami Valley have had on the world, especially in transportation and technology. ...


Orville instructed that, upon his death, The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia should receive his collection of airfoils and devices. The Franklin Institute was the first scientific organization to give the Wright brothers credit and ranking for achieving sustained powered flight. Today, The Franklin Institute Science Museum holds the largest collection of artifacts from the Wright brothers' workshop. LeftBudd BB-1 in front of museum The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ...


Competing claims

Numerous claims before the Wrights aspire to the title of first powered, manned, controlled, and self-sustaining heavier than air flight, or variations of this classification—see First flying machine for details. Several claims actually were made after the Wrights' first successful flights, and attempt to discount the achievement due to one or more of the following technical reasons: the takeoff rail, the lack of wheels, ground effect, the need for a headwind, and, beginning in 1904, the use of a catapult. Such criticisms are based on the fact that the Wright Flyer did not operate exactly the way people, then and now, expect of fixed-wing aircraft. There are conflicting views as to what was the first flying machine. ... Aircraft may be affected by a number of Ground effects, aerodynamic effects due to a flying bodys proximity to the ground. ...


The Flyer certainly did not incorporate all the elements and conveniences of a modern airplane, such as wheels. Criticism, however, while faulting the Flyer on the points listed above, often pays less attention to an additional but essential fact: the Flyer, especially by 1905, was the first heavier-than-air, manned, powered, winged machine to fly successfully under full control, using aerodynamic principles developed by the Wright brothers and applied since then on all practical airplanes. That achievement defines the Wright brothers, in the view of many people, as the inventors of the airplane.


The Wright brothers' 17 December 1903 flight is recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight".[70] December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Fédération Aéronautique Internationale The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) is a standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. ... Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building. ... Astronautics is the branch of engineering that deals with machines designed to work outside of Earths atmosphere, whether manned or unmanned. ...


Individual Control Arrangements

Wilbur and Orville devised slightly different flight controls in the airplanes they built separately in France and the U.S. for their 1908 public demonstrations. The Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum refers to "The Wilbur Method" and "The Orville Method". In Wilbur's method, the roll and yaw controls were combined on the same lever at the pilot's right hand. A forward-backward movement controlled the rudder, while a sideways or left-and-right motion controlled wing-warping. In the Orville Method, moving the stick controlled wing-warping, while a knob atop the stick controlled the rudder. In both methods the left-hand lever operated the forward elevator to control pitch. Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method. Aircraft flight controls allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircrafts flight attitude. ...


Ohio/North Carolina rivalry

North Carolina 50 State Quarter features the famous first flight photo of the 1903 Wright Flyer I at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Ohio 50 State Quarter features the 1905 Wright Flyer III built and flown in Ohio, in another famous photo from Huffman Prairie

The U.S. states of Ohio and North Carolina both take credit for the Wright brothers and their world-changing inventions — Ohio because the brothers developed and built their design in Dayton, and North Carolina because Kitty Hawk was the site of the first flight. With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio adopted the slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", recognizing not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong, both Ohio natives), while North Carolina has adopted the slogan "First In Flight". Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... Kitty Hawk is a town located in Dare County, North Carolina. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ... The Wright Flyer III in flight over Huffman Prairie. ... Visitors Center at Huffman Prairie Reproduction of the Wright brothers 1905 hangar and catapult Huffman Prairie, JANES OLD HOMEGUESS WHO WAS HERE??, part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, is an 84 acre (.34 km²) patch of rough pasture outside Dayton, Ohio now known as Huffman Prairie Flying... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ...


Each state features these phrases on their standard-issue state automobile license plates, and both states also included an image of a Wright Flyer on their respective 50 state quarters designs.[71][72] This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ...


The site of the first flights in North Carolina is preserved as Wright Brothers National Memorial, while their Ohio facilities are part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park. As the positions of both states can be factually defended, and each played a significant role in the history of flight, neither state truly has an exclusive claim to the Wrights' accomplishment. While speaking at a presentation at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Neil Armstrong joked that there is enough credit for both states: North Carolina provided the right winds and soft landing material and Dayton provided the know-how, resources and engineering. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... liam hewison is a mother fuckin wanker parently he sucked on offhis own father liam is a young boy aged 13 - 14 has no friends and likes kissing gemma cassin a fat girl for more updates go to www. ... The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in Riverside, Ohio, just east of Dayton. ...


Quotes

"While up in the air there is but very little to injure or to put any great strain on any part of the machinery. If you run into a tree or a house, of course, there would be a smash-up. No drinking man should ever be allowed to undertake to run a flying-machine." — Amos I. Root[73]


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wright brothers
Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Wilbur Wright Middle School is an integrated learning school serving the middle school grades 7-8 in the Dayton Public Schools district of Dayton, Ohio, United States. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... The Wright Brothers developed a series of four gliders as they worked towards achieving flight. ... The Wright Flying School was originally at Huffman Prairie then opened on March 19, 1910 in Montgomery, Alabama. ... From left to right are: Frank T. Coffyn; A. Roy Knabenshue; and Walter Brookins in Atlantic City in 1910 The Wright Exhibition Team was a group of early aviators trained by the Wright brothers at Wright Flying School. ... Wright Cycle Shop at Greenfield Village The Wright Cycle Company (formerly Wright Cycle Exchange) owned and operated five bicycle shops where Orville and Wilbur Wright designed and built Van Cleve and bicycles from 1892 to 1909. ... Established in 1927, this award recognizes individuals who have made notable contributions in the engineering design, development, or operation of air and space vehicles. ... Bishop Milton Wright was the father of aviation pioneers Wilber and Orville Wright. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Smithsonian Institution, "The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age"
  2. ^ Johnson, Mary Ann. =On the Aviation Trail in the Wright Brothers' West Side Neighborhood in Dayton, Ohio Wright State University, 2001.
  3. ^ BBC News: Flying through the ages
  4. ^ Padfield, Gareth D. Professor of Aerospace Engineering and Lawrence, Ben, researcher. "The Birth of Flight Control: An Engineering Analysis of the Wright Brothers’ 1902 Glider." (PDF format) The Aeronautical Journal, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, UK, December 2003, p. 698. Retrieved: 23 January 2008.
  5. ^ Howard 1988, p. 89.
  6. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 183.
  7. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 156.
  8. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 228.
  9. ^ Flying Machine patent
  10. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 169.
  11. ^ Wallechinsky and Wallace 2005, p. 12.
  12. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 56–57.
  13. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 164.
  14. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 130.
  15. ^ Crouch 2003. Chapter 10, "The Year of the Flying Machine" and Chapter 11, "Octave Chanute".
  16. ^ Howard 1988, p. 30.
  17. ^ Tobin 2004, p. 92.
  18. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 166.
  19. ^ Tobin 2004, p.53.
  20. ^ Tobin 2004, p. 70.
  21. ^ Tobin 2004, pp. 53–55.
  22. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 167–168.
  23. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 168–169.
  24. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 73.
  25. ^ Howard 1988, p. 52
  26. ^ Crouch, p. 198.
  27. ^ Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company,"WBAC", accessed Nov. 17, 2006.
  28. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 188–189.
  29. ^ WBAC Retrieved: 17 November 2006.
  30. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 225.
  31. ^ WBAC, "Lift and Drift" Retrieved: 11 December 2006.
  32. ^ Howard 1988, p. 72.
  33. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 134.
  34. ^ Langewiesche 1972 p. 163.
  35. ^ Jakab 1997, pp. 183–184.
  36. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 242–243.
  37. ^   "100 Years of Flight: supplement, Prop-Wrights." Mechanical Engineering, December 2003.
  38. ^ Howard 1988, pp. 108–109.
  39. ^ Kelly 2002, pp. 112-113.
  40. ^  "1903 - Who Made the First Flight?" TheWrightBrothers.org.
  41. ^ Kelly 1943, pp. 101–102.
  42. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 266–272.
  43. ^ Howard 1988, pp. 154–155.
  44. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 273–274.
  45. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 286.
  46. ^ Winchester 2005, p. 311.
  47. ^ Dayton Metro Library Note: Dayton Metro Library has a document showing durations, distances and a list of witnesses to the long flights in late September-early October 1905.Retrieved: 23 May 2007.
  48. ^ Tobin 2004, p. 211.
  49. ^ Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum accessed Nov. 21, 2006.
  50. ^ Flying Machine patent
  51. ^ "L'Aerophile," August 11, 1908, quoted in Crouch, "The Bishop's Boys", p. 368.
  52. ^ "L'Auto", August 9, 1908, quoted in Crouch, "The Bishop's Boys", p. 368.
  53. ^ The first woman aeroplane passenger was Thérèse Peltier on 8 July 1908 when she made a flight of 656 feet (200 m) with Léon Delagrange in Milan, Italy. Smithsonian.
  54. ^ Kelly 1943, p. 230.
  55. ^ Kelly 1943, pp. 231–232.
  56. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 12.
  57. ^ Dayton History Books Online Flying Machines: Construction and Operation, Chapter 23. Retrieved: 22 May 2007.
  58. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 410.
  59. ^ Crouch 2003, Chapter 31, "The Mountebank Game".
  60. ^ "Twin Pushers"website contains details of the modifications. Retrieved: 21 May 2007.
  61. ^ Howard 1988, Chapter 46: "The Aerodrome Affair".
  62. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 491.
  63. ^ Available upon request from the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution.
  64. ^ O'Dwyer, William J. History by Contract. Leutershausen, Germany: Fritz Majer & Sohn, 1978. ISBN 3-92217-500-7.
  65. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 118.
  66. ^ "Wilbur Wright Dies of Typhoid Fever. Ill More Than Three Weeks, the End Came at 3:15 o'clock Thursday Morning." New York Times, 30 May 1912. Quote: Dayton, Ohio, . Following a sinking spell that developed soon after midnight, Wilbur Wright, aviator and aeroplane builder, died of typhoid fever at 8:15 A.M. to-day. Wright had been lingering for many days and though his condition from time to time gave some hopes to members of his family, the attending physicians, Drs. D.B. Conkihn and Levi Spitler, maintained throughout the latter part of his sickness that he could not recover." Retrieved: 21 July 2007.
  67. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 449.
  68. ^ Yenne 1987, pp. 44–46.
  69. ^ "=Orville Wright, 76, is Dead in Dayton; Co-Inventor With His Brother, Wilbur, of the Airplane Was Pilot in First Flight." The New York Times, 31 January 1948. Quote: "Dayton, Ohio, 30 October 1948, Orville Wright, who with his brother, the late Wilbur Wright, invented the airplane, died here tonight at 10:40 in Miami Valley Hospital. He was 76 years old.. Retrieved: 21 July 2007.
  70. ^ " 100 Years Ago, the Dream of Icarus Became Reality." FAI NEWS, 17 December 2003. Retrieved: 5 January 2007.
  71. ^ "The Ohio Quarter." Retrieved: 30 January 2007.
  72. ^ "The North Carolina Quarter."Retrieved: 30 January 2007.
  73. ^ Root, Amos I. Gleanings In Bee Culture.15 January 1905 edition at Rootcandles.com. Retrieved: 17 November 2006.

is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Anderson, Johnd. Inventing Flight: The Wright Brothers and Their Predecessors. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8018-6875-0.
  • Ash, Russell, The Wright Brothers, London: Wayland, 1974. ISBN 978-0853403425.
  • Combs, Harry, with Caidin, Martin. Kill Devil Hill: Discovering the Secret of the Wright Brothers. Denver, CO: Ternstyle Press Ltd, 1979. ISBN 0-94005-301-2.
  • Crouch, Tom D. The Bishop's Boys: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2003. ISBN 0-39330-695-X.
  • Howard, Fred, Wilbur And Orville: A Biography of the Wright Brothers. New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. ISBN 0-34535-393-5.
  • Jakab, Peter L. Visions of a Flying Machine: The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention (Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series). Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1997. ISBN 1-56098-748-0.
  • Kelly, Fred C., ed. Miracle At Kitty Hawk, The Letters of Wilbur & Orville Wright. New York: Da Capo Press, 2002. ISBN 0-306-81203-7.
  • Kelly, Fred C. The Wright Brothers: A Biography Authorized by Orville Wright. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, originally published in 1943, 1989. ISBN 0-48626-056-9.
  • Langewiesche, Woflgang. Stick and Rudder: An Explanation of the Art of Flying. New York: McGraw-Hill, Copyright 1944 and 1972. ISBN 0-07-036240-8.
  • McFarland, Marvin W., ed. The Papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright: Including the Chanute-Wright Letters and the Papers of Octave Chanute. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, originally published in 1953. ISBN 0-30680-671-1.
  • Tobin, James. To Conquer The Air: The Wright Brothers and the Great Race for Flight. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-74325-536-4.
  • Wallechinsky, David and Wallace, Amy. The New Book of Lists. Edinburgh: Canongate, 2005. ISBN 1-84195-719-4.
  • Wright, Orville. How We Invented the Airplane. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1988. ISBN 0-48625-662-6.
  • Walsh, John E. One Day at Kitty Hawk: The Untold Story of the Wright Brothers. New York: Ty Crowell Co, 1975. ISBN 0-69000103-7.
  • Winchester, Jim, ed. "Wright Flyer." Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (The Aviation Factfile). Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.
  • Yenne, Bill, Lockheed. Greenwich, CT: Bison Books, 1987. ISBN 0-69000-103-7.

Russell Ash (b. ... Wolfgang Langewiesche (Born 1907) aviator, author and journalist, is one of the most quoted authors in aviation writing. ... The New Book of Lists is a 2005 book by brother and sister David Wallechinsky and Amy Wallace that aims to be a compendium of trivia and statistics. ...

External links

Patents Leonard S. (Luke) Hobbs (1896 in Carbon County, Wyoming – 1977) was an aeronautical engineer who started in 1920 with the Army Air Service at McCook Field in Dayton, Ohio and later worked for Stromberg Motor Devices Corporation. ...

  • U.S. Patent 821,393 Flying machine — O. & W. Wright
  • U.S. Patent 821,393—for those who do not have USPTO graphics plugin

IMDB

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Wright Brothers & the Invention of the Aerial Age- National Air and Space Museum Exhibition Home Page (473 words)
The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age
Compared to their previous gliders, the Wrights' 1902 glider had a much thinner airfoil and longer and narrower wings, which their wind tunnel tests had shown to be more efficient.
The Wrights combined their wing-warping control concept and the structural design of the Chanute-Herring glider in their first aircraft, a biplane kite with a 5-foot wingspan, built in July 1899.
Wright brothers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6534 words)
Wilbur Wright was born in Millville, Indiana in 1867, Orville Wright was born in Dayton, Ohio in 1871.
In years to come, Dayton newspapers would proudly celebrate the hometown Wright brothers as national heroes, but the local newsmen's ability to overlook one of the biggest stories in human history as it was happening a few miles from their doorstep stands as a unique chapter in the annals of American journalism.
The Wright brothers agreed to the proposal, adding that their pilot and aircraft would put on an exhibition once the cargo was delivered to the Driving Park landing area on the east side of Columbus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m