FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > World War I
World War I

Clockwise from top: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and a Sopwith Camel biplane
Date 28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918
Location Europe, Africa and the Middle East (briefly in China and the Pacific Islands)
Result Allied victory. End of the German Empire, the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Creation of many new countries in Eastern and Central Europe.
Casus
belli
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (28 June) followed by Austrian declaration of war on Serbia (28 July) and Russian mobilisation against Austria-Hungary (29 July). Also nationalism, militarism and imperialism.
Combatants
Entente Powers:
Flag of Russia Russia
Flag of France France
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of United States United States
et al.
Central Powers:
Austria-Hungary
Flag of German Empire Germany
Flag of Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
Commanders
Flag of Russia Nicholas II
Flag of Russia Aleksei Brusilov
Flag of France Georges Clemenceau
Flag of France Joseph Joffre
Flag of France Ferdinand Foch
Flag of France Robert Nivelle
Flag of United Kingdom Herbert H. Asquith
Flag of United Kingdom D. Lloyd George
Flag of United Kingdom Douglas Haig
Flag of United Kingdom John Jellicoe
Flag of Italy Victor Emmanuel III
Flag of Italy Luigi Cadorna
Flag of Italy Armando Diaz
Flag of United States Woodrow Wilson
Flag of United States John Pershing
Franz Josef I
Conrad von Hötzendorf
Flag of German Empire Wilhelm II
Flag of German Empire Erich von Falkenhayn
Flag of German Empire Paul von Hindenburg
Flag of German Empire Reinhard Scheer
Flag of German Empire Erich Ludendorff
Flag of Ottoman Empire Mehmed V
Flag of Ottoman Empire İsmail Enver
Flag of Ottoman Empire Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Ferdinand I
Casualties
Military dead:
5,525,000
Military wounded: 12,831,500
Military missing: 4,121,000[1]
Military dead:
4,386,000
Military wounded: 8,388,000
Military missing: 3,629,000[1]
Theatres of World War I
European (Balkans – Western Front – Eastern Front – Italian Front) – Middle Eastern (Caucasus – Mesopotamia – Sinai and Palestine – Gallipoli – Aden – Persia) – African (South-West Africa – West Africa – East Africa) – Asian and Pacific (German Samoa and New Guinea – Tsingtao) – Other (Atlantic Ocean – Mediterranean – Naval – Aerial)

World War I, also known as the Great War and "The War To End All Wars," was a global military conflict which took place primarily in Europe between 1914 and 1918. More than nine million soldiers and civilians died. The conflict had a decisive impact on the history of the 20th century. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Great War may refer to: World War I Great War (Harry Turtledove), an alternate history trilogy by Harry Turtledove The First World War (1934 film), a documentary film The Great War (documentary), a 1964 BBC documentary series Uruguayan Civil War The Great War (1959 film), an Italian film The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1094, 513 KB) REDIRECT File links The following pages link to this file: World War I User:Dna-webmaster ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... A Mark I tank (moving left to right). ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa. ... HMS Irresistible was a Formidable-class battleship of the British Royal Navy, built at the Chatham shipyards that served in the First World War before it was sunk in an attenpt to capture the Dardanelles, a narrow strait in the north-western Turkey at 18 March 1915. ... Polish wz. ... Combatants British Empire France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sackville Carden John de Robeck Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 31 battleships 3 battlecruisers 24 cruisers 25 destroyers 8 monitors 14 submarines 50+ transports Various mines and forts; otherwise Unknown Casualties 6 battleships sunk 3 battleships damaged 1 battlecruiser damaged 1 destroyer sunk... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask. ... The Sopwith Camel Scout was a British World War I single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its maneuverability. ... Hs123 biplane. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... A new plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... General Brusilov at 64 (1917) Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов) (August 19, 1853 - March 17, 1926) was a Russian cavalry general most noted for the development of a military offensive tactic used in the Brusilov offensive of 1916. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (January 12, 1852 - January 3, 1931) was a Catalan French general who became prominent in the battles of World War I. Joffre was born in Rivesaltes, Roussillon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Robert Georges Nivelle (October 15, 1857 - March 22, 1924) was a French military commander during World War I. Born in Tulle, France, to a French father and English mother, Nivelle graduated from the École Polytechnique in 1878 and served in Indochina, Algeria, and China as an artillery officer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander (Field Marshal) during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Admiral of the Fleet Lord Jellicoe Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe (December 5, 1859–November 20, 1935) was a British Royal Navy admiral. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... General Armando Diaz Armando Diaz (December 5, 1861–February 29, 1928) was a Marshal of Italy. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia; German: Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Reinhard Scheer Reinhard Scheer (September 30, 1863 – November 26, 1928) was a Vice-admiral in the German navy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Ismail Enver Ä°smail Enver (اسماعيل انور) , known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, dictator and the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Triple Entente, United States, Italy, Serbia, Romania, Greece The European Theater of World War I was the primary site of the fighting of this great war. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... Combatants United Kingdom ‎South Africa ‎ France ‎Belgium ‎Portugal German Empire The African Theater of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies scattered in Africa: the German colonies of Cameroon, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Combatants Great Britain, France, Belgium Germany The West Africa Campaign of World War I consisted of two small and fairly short military operations to capture the German colonies in West Africa: Togoland and Kamerun. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Campaign of World War I saw limited action by the forces of Australia, New Zealand and Japan. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and even bombers. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Template:More soruces For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The Allied Powers, led by France, Russia, the United Kingdom, Italy, and, from 1917, the United States, defeated the Central Powers, led by Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


The fighting that took place along the Western Front occurred along a system of trenches and fortifications separated by an area known as no man's land. These series of fortifications ran from the North Sea to Switzerland. On the Eastern Front, the vast eastern plains and limited rail network prevented a trench warfare stalemate. But the scale of the conflict was just as large. The Middle East and the Italian Front saw heavy fighting as well. Hostilities also occurred at sea and, for the first time, in the air. Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ...


The war caused the disintegration of four empires: the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman and Russian. Germany lost its overseas empire and states such as Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Yugoslavia gained independence. German colonial empire The German colonial empire was an overseas area formed in the late 19th century as part of the Hohenzollern dynastys German Empire. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


World War I marked the end of the old world order, which had emerged after the Napoleonic Wars. The result of the conflict was an important factor in the outbreak of World War II. Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Causes

Main article: Causes of World War I
See also: Black Hand

On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb student, killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo. Princip was a member of Young Bosnia, a group whose aims included the unification of the South Slavs and independence from Austria-Hungary. The assassination in Sarajevo set into motion a series of fast-moving events that escalated into a full-scale war. Austria-Hungary demanded action by Serbia to punish those responsible. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, when it deemed it had failed to comply. Major European powers were at war within a matter of weeks because of overlapping agreements for collective defense and the complex nature of international alliances. Though the assassination was the event that started the war, it was the last in a long succession of complex causes and events that pitted the nations of Europe against each other. The Causes of World War I were complex and included many factors, central of these being the drives and interests of competing nationalist elements in Europe. ... Members of the Black Hand Black Hand (Serbian: Црна рука / Crna Ruka), officially Unification or Death (Serbian: Уједињење или смрт / Ujedinjenje ili smrt) was a secret society founded in Serbia in May 1911[1][2] as part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing Serb populations... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Gavrilo Princip in prison cell at Theresienstadt Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, IPA: ) (July 25, 1894 – April 28, 1918) was a Bosnian Serb with links to a group known as the Black Hand (Црна Рука or Crna Ruka), who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... Nickname: Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Young Bosnia (Serbo-Croat: Млада Босна / Mlada Bosna) was a revolutionary youth organization in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early 20th century. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Collective defense is an arrangement, usually formalized by a treaty and an organization, among participant states that commit support in defense of a member state if it is attacked by another state outside the organization. ...


Arms race

The naval race between Britain and Germany was intensified by the 1906 launch of HMS Dreadnought. It was a revolutionary warship, which rendered all previous ships obsolete. Britain had also maintained a large naval lead in other areas particularly over Germany and Italy. Paul Kennedy pointed out that both nations believed in Alfred Thayer Mahan's thesis that command of the sea was vital to great nation status. The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... Paul Kennedy can refer to: Paul Kennedy a professor of history at Yale University who is known for his study of the history of international relations. ... Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840 - December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. ... Command of the sea is a technical term of naval warfare, which indicates a definite strategical condition. ...


David Stevenson described the armaments race as "a self-reinforcing cycle of heightened military preparedness." David Herrmann viewed the shipbuilding rivalry as part of a general movement in the direction of war. Niall Ferguson, however, argued that Britain's ability to maintain an overall lead signified that it was not a factor in the oncoming conflict. David Stevenson (born 1954) is a British academic and historian specialising in World War One. ... This article has significant problems in multiple areas. ...


Plans, distrust and mobilization

Closely related is the thesis adopted by many political scientists that the mobilization plans of Germany, France and Russia automatically escalated the conflict. Fritz Fischer emphasized the inherently aggressive nature of the Schlieffen Plan, which outlined a two-front strategy. Fighting on two fronts meant Germany had to eliminate one opponent quickly, before taking on the other. It called for a strong right flank attack, to seize Belgium and cripple the French army by pre-empting its mobilization. This is a list of notable political scientists. ... This article is about the German historian. ... Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack... “Flanking” redirects here. ... The French Army (French: Armée de Terre) is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces. ...


After the attack, the German army would rush east by railroad and quickly destroy the slowly mobilizing Russian forces. The German Army (German: Heer, [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


France's Plan XVII, envisioned a quick thrust into Germany’s industrial heartland, the Ruhr Valley. This would cripple Germany's ability to wage war. The offensive French military strategy in World War I known as Plan XVII was initially created by Ferdinand Foch. ... Geography Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet or, colloquially, Ruhrpott) is a metropolitan area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. ...


Russia's Plan XIX, foresaw a mobilisation of its armies against both Austria-Hungary and Germany.


All three blueprints created an atmosphere where speed was of the determining factors for victory. Elaborate timetables were prepared. Once mobilisation had begun, there was little possibility of turning back. Diplomatic delays and poor communications exacerbated the problems.


Militarism and autocracy

President Woodrow Wilson of the United States and others blamed the war on militarism.[2] Aristocrats and military elites had too much power in Germany, Russia and Austria, it was argued. War was a consequence of their desire for military power and disdain for democracy. This theme figured prominently in anti-German propaganda. Consequently, supporters of this theory called for the abdication of rulers such as Kaiser Wilhelm II. They advocated an end to aristocracy and militarism. This was used to justify Americans entry into the war, when Czarist Russia surrendered in 1917. The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... Anti-German sentiment should not be confused with Anti-German (ideology),also called Anti-German. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ...


Wilson hoped the League of Nations and disarmament would secure a lasting peace. He also acknowledged that variations of militarism, in his opinion, existed within the British and French Empires. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Disarmament means the act of reducing or depriving arms i. ...


There was some validity to this view, as the Allies consisted of Great Britain and France, both democracies, fighting the Central Powers, which included the autocracies of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. Russia, one of the Allied Powers, was an empire until 1917, but it was opposed to the subjugation of Slavic peoples by Austro-Hungary. Thus, the view of the war as one of democracy versus dictatorship had some validity, but it lost credibility as the conflict dragged on. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Economic imperialism

Vladimir Lenin asserted that imperialism was responsible for the war. He drew upon the economic theories of Karl Marx and English economist John A. Hobson, who predicted that unlimited competition for expanding markets would lead to a global conflict.[3] This argument was popular in the wake of the war and assisted in the rise of Communism. Lenin argued that the banking interests of various capitalist-imperialist powers orchestrated the war.[4] “Lenin” redirects here. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... John Atkinson Hobson (July 6, 1858 – April 1, 1940) was an English economist and imperial critic, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Trade barriers

Cordell Hull, US Secretary of State under Franklin Roosevelt made a statement some years after World War I that trade barriers were the root cause of both World War I and World War II. Around 1943-44, he designed the Bretton Woods Agreements to reduce trade barriers and eliminate what he saw as the cause of the conflicts. Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the State of Tennessee. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... A trade barrier is general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade, the barriers can take many forms, including: Import duties Import licenses Export licenses Quotas Tariffs Subsidies Non-tariff barriers to trade Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some... A root cause is a cause that is at a root of an effect. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Ethnic and political rivalries, both old and new

A Balkan war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia was considered inevitable, as Austria-Hungary’s influence waned and the Pan-Slavic movement grew. The rise of ethnic nationalism coincided with the growth of Serbia, where anti-Austrian sentiment was perhaps most fervent. Austria-Hungary had occupied the former Ottoman province of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which had a large Serb population, in 1878. It was formally annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908. Increasing nationalist sentiment also coincided with the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Russia supported the Pan-Slavic movement. It was motivated by ethnic and religious loyalties and a rivalry with Austria, dating back to the Crimean War, but recent events, such as the failed Russian-Austrian treaty and a century-old dream of a warm water port also motivated St. Petersburg.[5] ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 was caused by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 was caused by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908. ... A warm water port is a port where the water does not freeze (rendering it unusable) in the winter. ...


Germany's position as a central European power, led to the conclusion that the only viable defense was an active offensive, thus the formulation of the Schlieffen Plan. At the same time, the loss of Alsace and Lorraine, as a result of the Franco-Prussian War, influenced the French policy of revanchism or revenge. France allied itself with Russia and a two-front war now became a distinct possibility for Germany. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Moselle is a département in the northeast of France named after the Moselle River. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... In military terminology, a two front war is a war that is waged on two separate fronts, usually opposite each other. ...

See also: Powder keg of Europe

The Powder keg of Europe -sometimes alternately known as the Balkan Powder Keg- refers to the Balkans in the early part of the Twentieth Century. ...

July crisis and declarations of war

Main article: Causes of World War I

Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the Austro-Hungarian government used the assassination as a pretext to deal with the Serbian question. Germany supported the action. On 23 July, an ultimatum was sent to Serbia with demands so extreme that it was rejected. The Serbians, relying on support from Russia, ordered mobilization. Austria-Hungary issued a declaration of war on 28 July. Initially, Russia ordered partial mobilization, directed at the Austrian frontier. On 31 July, after the Russian General Staff informed the Czar that partial mobilization was logistically impossible, a full mobilization was ordered. The Schlieffen Plan, which relied on a quick strike against France, could not afford to allow the Russians to mobilize without launching an attack. Thus, the Germans declared war against Russia on 1 August and on France two days later. Next, Germany violated Belgium's neutrality by the German march through it to Paris. With this, five of the six European powers were now involved in the largest continental European conflict since the Napoleonic Wars.[6] The Causes of World War I were complex and included many factors, central of these being the drives and interests of competing nationalist elements in Europe. ... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl...


Chronology

Opening hostilities

European military alliances in 1914; Central Powers purplish-red, Entente Powers grey and neutral countries yellow
European military alliances in 1914; Central Powers purplish-red, Entente Powers grey and neutral countries yellow

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1198x863, 726 KB) Description: Europe 1914 Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1198x863, 726 KB) Description: Europe 1914 Source: www. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...

Confusion among the Central Powers

The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary’s invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia. Germany, however, envisioned Austria-Hungary directing the majority of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts. The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ...


African campaigns

Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French and German colonial forces in Africa. On 7 August, French and British troops invaded the German protectorate of Togoland. On 10 August German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa. Sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the remainder of the war. Combatants United Kingdom ‎South Africa ‎ France ‎Belgium ‎Portugal German Empire The African Theater of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies scattered in Africa: the German colonies of Cameroon, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Unity, Liberty, Justice Anthem: Namibia, Land of the Brave Capital (and largest city) Windhoek Official languages English1 Government Republic  - President Hifikepunye Pohamba  - Prime minister Nahas Angula Independence from South Africa   - Date March 21, 1990  Area  - Total 824,292 km² (34th) 318,259 sq mi   - Water (%) negligible Population  - July 2005...

Haut-Rhin, France, 1917
Haut-Rhin, France, 1917

Image File history File links WW1 - Guetteur au poste de lécluse 26. ... Image File history File links WW1 - Guetteur au poste de lécluse 26. ... Haut-Rhin is a French département, named after the Rhine river. ...

Serbian campaign

The Serbian army fought the Battle of Cer against the invading Austrians, beginning on 12 August. The Serbians occupied defensive positions on the south side of the Drina and Sava rivers. Over the next two weeks Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses. This marked the first major Allied victory of the war. Austrian expectations of a swift victory were dashed. As a result, Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front, which weakened their efforts against Russia. Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria(1915-1918) Serbia Greece(1916-1918) Montenegro France(1916-1918) United Kingdom(1916-1918) Italy(1916-1918) Commanders August von Mackensen Oskar Potiorek Nikola Zhekov Radomir Putnik Nicholas I Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was... The Battle of Cer was one of the first battles of the First World War. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ...


German forces in Belgium and France

French postcard depicting the arrival of 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I. The post card reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten German hooligans"
French postcard depicting the arrival of 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I. The post card reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten German hooligans"

Initially, the Germans had great successes in the Battle of the Frontiers (14 August24 August). Russia, however, attacked in East Prussia and diverted German forces intended for the Western Front. Germany defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the Second Battle of Tannenberg (17 August2 September). This diversion exacerbated problems of insufficient speed of advance from rail-heads not allowed for by the German General Staff. Originally, the Schlieffen Plan called for the right flank of the German advance to pass to the west of Paris. However, the capacity and low speed of horse-drawn transport hampered the German supply train, allowing French and British forces to finally halt the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5 September12 September), thereby denying the Central Powers a quick victory and forcing them to fight a war on two fronts. The German army had fought its way into a good defensive position inside France and had permanently incapacitated 230,000 more French and British troops than it had lost itself. Despite this, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance for an early victory. Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Image File history File linksMetadata SikhsInFrancePostcard. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SikhsInFrancePostcard. ... The Sikh Regiment is the highest decorated regiment of the Indian Army, with 72 Battle Honours, 15 Theatre Honours and 5 COAS Unit Citations and 1596 other gallantry awards. ... The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ...


Asia and the Pacific

New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August. On 11 September the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain), which formed part of German New Guinea. Japan seized Germany’s Micronesian colonies and after Battle of Tsingtao, the German coaling port of Qingdao, in the Chinese Shandong peninsula. Within a few months, the Allied forces had seized all the German territories in the Pacific. Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force was a small Australia shortly after the outbreak of the First World War to seize and destroy German wireless stations in the south-west Pacific. ... (This article is about the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea. ... German New Guinea (Ger. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ...


Early stages

In the trenches: Infantry with gas masks, Ypres, 1917
In the trenches: Infantry with gas masks, Ypres, 1917

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1071, 521 KB) Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1071, 521 KB) Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR). ... Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask. ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ...

Trench warfare begins

Military tactics in the early part of World War I failed to keep pace with advances in technology. New technology allowed the building of impressive defenses, which out of date tactics could not break through. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances; artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground a nightmare. The Germans introduced poison gas. It soon became a weapon used by both sides. Poison gas never won a battle. Its effects were brutal, however, causing slow and painful deaths. It became one of the most feared and remembered horrors of the war. Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaking through entrenched positions, without massive casualties. Technology, however, began to yield new offensive weapons. The tank was a wartime invention designed by the British to break the trench warfare stalemate. Both Britain and France were the primary users of tanks, while the Germans employed captured Allied tanks, as well some of their own design. Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I. The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. ...


After the First Battle of the Marne, both Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking maneuvers to try to force the other to retreat, in the so-called Race to the Sea. Britain and France soon found themselves facing entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium’s Flemish coast. Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended occupied territories. One consequence was that German trenches were much better constructed than those of their enemy. Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be "temporary" before their forces broke through German defenses. Some hoped to break the stalemate by utilizing science and technology. In April 1915, the Germans used chlorine gas, for the first time, in violation of the Hague Convention. They opened a 6 kilometer (4 mile) hole in the Allied lines, when British and French colonial troops retreated. Canadian soldiers closed the breach at the Second Battle of Ypres. At the Third Battle of Ypres, Canadian forces took the village of Passchendaele. Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total... Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... Prime Minister of Canada Robert Borden at the outbreak at the Great War. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as...


On 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme, the British Army saw the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties and 19,240 dead. Most casualties occurred in the first hour of the attack. The entire offensive cost the British Army almost half a million dead. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom Canada Australia New Zealand South Africa Newfoundland India France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Henry Rawlinson Ferdinand Foch Fritz von Below Strength 13 British divisions 6 French divisions 6 divisions Casualties British: 57,470 French: 7,000 10,000 - 12,000 The first day on the Somme... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years, though protracted German action at Verdun throughout 1916, and the Entente’s failure at the Somme, in the summer of 1916, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse. Futile attempts at frontal assault—with a rigid adherence to unimaginative maneuver—came at a high price for both the British and the French poilu (infantry) and led to widespread mutinies especially during the time of the Nivelle Offensive in the spring of 1917. Combatants France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died 337,000; of whom 100,000 died The Battle of Verdun was one of... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654... Poilu is a warmly informal term for a French infantryman, meaning, literally, hairy one. ... The Nivelle Offensive was a 1917 Allied attack on the Western Front in World War I. The offensive was a costly failure. ...

Canadian troops advancing behind a Canadian Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge
Canadian troops advancing behind a Canadian Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge

Throughout 1915–17, the British Empire and France suffered far more casualties than Germany. However, while the Germans only mounted a single main offensive at Verdun, each failed attempt by the Entente to break through German lines was met with an equally fierce German counteroffensive to recapture lost positions. Around 800,000 soldiers from the British Empire were on the Western Front at any one time. 1,000 battalions, occupying sectors of the line from the North Sea to the Orne River, operated on a month-long four-stage rotation system, unless an offensive was underway. The front contained over 9,600 kilometers (6,000 miles) of trenches. Each battalion held its sector for about a week before moving back to support lines and then further back to the reserve lines before a week out-of-line, often in the Poperinge or Amiens areas. Image File history File linksMetadata Canadian_tank_and_soldiers_Vimy_1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Canadian_tank_and_soldiers_Vimy_1917. ... A Mark I tank on 26 September 1916 (moving left to right). ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Austria-Hungary Commanders Arthur Currie Julian Byng Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,104 wounded 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... Verdun (German (old): Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For the river Orne in Normandy see Orne River. ... Poperinge is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ...


In the British-led Battle of Arras during the 1917 campaign, the only military success was the capture of Vimy Ridge by Canadian forces under Sir Arthur Currie and Julian Byng. It provided the allies with a great military advantage and had a lasting impact on the war. The Battle of Vimy Ridge is considered by many historians to be one of the founding myths of Canada. The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the combined armed forces of Canada. ... General Sir Arthur William Currie (December 5, 1875 - November 30, 1933) was the first Canadian commander of the Canadian Corps on the Western Front during World War I and one of the most successful Allied generals of the war and in Canadian history. ... Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy (September 11, 1862 - June 6, 1935) was commander of the Canadian army in World War I, and later became Governor General of Canada. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Austria-Hungary Commanders Arthur Currie Julian Byng Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,104 wounded 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nations past. ...


Naval War

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe. They were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down. At the Battle of the Falkland Islands, in December 1914, Germany lost 2 armoured cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 2 transports ships. British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Combatants British Empire German Empire Commanders Doveton Sturdee Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 battlecruisers, 3 armoured cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 1 grounded pre-dreadnought 2 armoured cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 3 transports Casualties 10 killed, 19 wounded No ships lost 1,871 killed, 215 captured 2 armoured cruisers, 2...


Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a Naval Blockade, preventing supplies from reaching German ports. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated the generally accepted international law codified by several international agreement of the past two centuries. A blockade of stationed ships within a three mile radius is considered legitimate, however Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships. Since there was limited response to this illegal tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare. A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ...


The 1916 Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht, or "Battle of the Skagerrak") developed into the largest naval battle of the war. Remarkably, it was the only full-scale clash of battleships. The Battle of Jutland was fought on 31 May1 June 1916, in the North Sea off Jutland. The Kaiserliche Marine's High Seas Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer, squared off against the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet, led by Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. The engagement was a standoff, as the Germans, outmaneuvered by the larger British fleet, managed to escape. Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war. Combatants Royal Navy (Grand Fleet) Kaiserliche Marine (High Seas Fleet) Commanders Sir John Jellicoe, Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer, Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships, 9 battlecruisers, 8 heavy cruisers, 26 light cruisers, 78 destroyers 16 battleships, 5 battlecruisers, 6 pre-dreadnoughts, 11 light cruisers, 61 torpedo-boats Casualties 6... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Reinhard Scheer Reinhard Scheer (September 30, 1863 – November 26, 1928) was a Vice-admiral in the German navy. ... Admiral of the Fleet Lord Jellicoe Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe (December 5, 1859- November 20, 1935) was a British Royal Navy admiral. ...


German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain. The nature of submarine warfare meant that attacks often came without warning, giving the crews of the merchant ships little hope of survival. The United States launched a protest and Germany modified its rules of engagement. After the infamous sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in 1915, Germany promised not to target passenger liners. Britain armed its merchant ships. Finally, in early 1917 Germany adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, realising the Americans would eventually enter the war. Germany sought to strangle Allied sea lanes, before the U.S. could transport a large army overseas. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The RMS Lusitania was a Cunard Line ocean liner, that was built by the John Brown & Co. ... Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ...


The U-boat threat lessened in 1917, when merchant ships entered convoys escorted by destroyers. This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets. The accompanying destroyers might sink a submerged submarine with depth charges. The losses to submarine attacks became quite small. But the convoy system slowed the flow of supplies. The solution to the delays was a massive program to build new freighters. Troop ships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys. A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ...


The First World War also saw the first use of aircraft carriers in combat, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a successful raid against the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in July 1918. Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... HMS Furious was a modified Courageous class large light cruiser (an extreme form of battlecruiser) converted into an early aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ... The Sopwith Camel Scout was a British World War I single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its manoeuvrability. ... This is an article about Zeppelin airships. ... Tønder (German Tondern) is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ...


Southern theatres

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers. The secret Ottoman-German Alliance was signed in August 1914. It threatened Russia’s Caucasian territories and Britain’s communications with India via the Suez Canal. The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Turks successfully repelled the British, French and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs). In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the disastrous Siege of Kut (1915–16), British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917. Further to the west, in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, initial British setbacks were overcome when Jerusalem was captured in December 1917. The Egyptian Expeditionary Force, under Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, broke the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918. Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... The Ottoman-German Alliance was an alliance established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2nd, 1914. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Battle of Gallipoli Conflict First World War Date 19 February 1915 - 9 January 1916 Place Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Ottoman victory The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... An ANZAC soldier gives water to a wounded Turk The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India New Zealand United Kingdom France Arab insurgents Ottoman Empire German Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 12,000 mounted troops 57,000 infantry 540 guns 3,000 mounted troops 32,000 infantry 402 guns Casualties 782 killed 382 missing 4,179 wounded...


Russian armies generally had the best of it in the Caucasus. Vice-Generalissimo Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the Turkish armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of conquering central Asia. But he was a poor commander. He launched an offensive against the Russians in the Caucasus in December 1914 with 100,000 troops. Insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous Russian positions in winter, he lost 86% of his force at the Battle of Sarikamis. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ambition could refer to one of the following: Motivation, especially to improve a situation. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ...


The Russian commander from 1915 to 1916, General Yudenich, drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories. General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ...


In 1917, Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the Caucasus front. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917. But, in March 1917, (February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar), the Czar was overthrown in the February Revolution and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart. In this situation, the army corps of Armenian volunteer units realigned themselves under the command of General Tovmas Nazarbekian, with Dro as a civilian commissioner of the Administration for Western Armenia. The frontline had three main divisions: Movses Silikyan, Adrianic and Mikhail Areshian. Another regular unit was under Colonel Korganian. There were Armenian partisian guerrilla detachments (more than 40,000[7]) accompanying these main units. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main... Motto: (Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem: (Freedom) Capital (and largest city)  Tbilisi Official languages Georgian (also Abkhaz within the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic) Government Unitary republic  - President Mikheil Saakashvili  - Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation    - Establishment of first Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... The February Revolution (N.S.: March Revolution) of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Russian Caucasus Army of the World War One was the army established from Russian Cossacks (three sotnias from Kars (non-Cossack district)) under the nominal command of the Governor General of the Caucusus Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Tovmas Nazarbekian (Nazarbekov) (1855 - 1928) armenian, general in the Russain Army who was the governor of Free Vaspurakan. ... General Drastamat Kanayan (Armenian: , known as General Dro, Ô´Ö€Õ¸, May 31, 1884 – March 8, 1956), was an Armenian politician, revolutionary, general and commander of the Armenian Legion of the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Nazi Germany. ... Foundation: May 1915 - Dec 1917 Head: Aram Manougian With the Armenian Revolution, Armenian provisional government with the progressive autonomous region [1] that initially set up around of Lake Van, which later at the end of WWI officiated as Wilsonian Armenia in Treaty of Sèvres. ... Movses Silikyan Movses Silikyan (Armenian: , Russian: , Movses Silikov) (1862 - 1937) was a famed Armenian general and national hero, Major General in the Russian army and subsequently in the Armenian army. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Ô¶Õ¸Ö€Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Ô±Õ¶Õ¤Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ«Õ¯) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ...


Italian participation

Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882. Italy, however, had its own designs on Austrian territory in Trentino, Istria and Dalmatia. Rome had a secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance. At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature, while Austria-Hungary was the aggressor. The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality. It offered the French colony of Tunisia in return. Italy, however, joined the Entente in April 1915 and declared war on Austria-Hungary in May. Fifteen months later, it declared war on Germany. The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Trento (Italian: Provincia autonoma di Trento, German: Autonome Provinz Trient) is an autonomous province in the autonomous Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy. ... Map of Istria Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Italian: Istria) is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... , Italian: Triplice Alleanza) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy pledged on 20 May 1882 to support each other militarily in against any of them by two or more great powers. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was squandered (along with the size and quality of its artillery, which by 1917, rivaled the British and French). Generalissimo Luigi Cadorna insisted on attacking the Isonzo front. Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into the Slovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. It was a Napoleonic plan, which had no realistic chance of success, in an age of barbed wire, poison gas and machine guns. Cadorna unleashed eleven offensives (Battles of the Isonzo) with total disregard for his men's lives. The Italians also went on the offensive to relieve pressure on other Allied fronts. On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen and Italian Alpini engaged in bitter hand to hand combat throughout the summer and winter. The Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916 (Strafexpedition). But they made little progress. A generalissimo is a commissioned officer of the highest rank; the word is often translated as Supreme Commander or Commander in Chief. It is an Italian superlative substantive, which grammatically would actually be disallowed in Italian (superlatives can be made with adjectives only). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The river at at Kanal ob Soči The Isonzo near its outflow into the Adriatic, Isola di Cane, Italy The Soča (Italian: ) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ...   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... The Battle of the Isonzo is the name given to numerous battles fought in the Isonzo River valley of Slovenia. ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... The Alpini are a highly decorated elite infantry corps of the Italian Army. ... Asiago is the name of both a minor township (population roughly 6,500) and the surrounding plateau region (the Altopiano di Asiago) in the Province of Vicenza in the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy ( 45°52. ... Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Conrad von Hötzendorf Strength 172 battalions + 800 guns 300 battalions + 2,000 guns Casualties 150,000 (of whom 50,000 prisoners) 200,000 (estimates vary) The Battle of Asiago or Battle of the Plateaux (in Italian: Battaglia degli Altipiani), nicknamed Strafexpedition (Punitive...


Beginning in 1915, the Italians mounted eleven offensives along the Isonzo River, north of Trieste. These became known collectively as the Battle of the Isonzo. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground. In the summer of 1916, the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. After this minor victory, the front remained static for over a year, despite several Italian offensives. In the fall of 1917, thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austrians received large numbers of reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers. The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October, spearheaded by the Germans. They achieved a victory at Caporetto. The Italian army was routed and retreated more than 100 km (60 miles). They were able to reorganise and stabilize the front at the Piave River. In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians repeatedly failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau. They were decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Austria-Hungary surrendered in November 1918. The river at at Kanal ob Soči The Isonzo near its outflow into the Adriatic, Isola di Cane, Italy The Soča (Italian: ) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... The Battle of the Isonzo is the name given to numerous battles fought in the Isonzo River valley of Slovenia. ... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... The Stormtroopers were special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as in German as Sturmmann (literally storm man or assault man but... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Italy Commanders Otto von Below Luigi Cadorna Strength 35 divisions 41 divisions Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 40,000 dead 20,000 wounded 275,000 captured Difficult Progress In Alps The Battle of Caporetto (or Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the... Combatants Italy France United Kingdom Austria-Hungary Commanders Armando Diaz Arthur Arz von Straussenburg Strength 58 Italian divisions, 6 French divisions, 5 British divisions 57 divisions Casualties 80,000 dead or wounded 60,000 dead, 90,000 wounded, 25,000 captured The Battle of the Piave River, known in Italy... Asiago is the name of both a minor township (population roughly 6,500) and the surrounding plateau region (the Altopiano di Asiago) in the Province of Vicenza in the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy ( 45°52. ... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France United States Image:Flag of Austria-Hungary. ...


War in the Balkans

Faced with Russia, Austria-Hungary could spare only one third of its army to attack Serbia. After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. Serbian counterattacks, however, succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of 1914. For the first ten months of 1915, Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by convincing Bulgaria to join in attacking Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian provinces of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria-Hungary. Troops from the Balkans invaded Serbia, as well as fighting Russia and Italy. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia. The Serbs occupied Macedonia. Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria(1915-1918) Serbia Greece(1916-1918) Montenegro France(1916-1918) United Kingdom(1916-1918) Italy(1916-1918) Commanders August von Mackensen Oskar Potiorek Nikola Zhekov Radomir Putnik Nicholas I Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis Conquest of Serbia, 1915 Both the Allies and the Central Powers tried to get Bulgaria to pick a side in the Great War. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Approximate borders between Bosnia (marked light) and Herzegovina (marked dark) Historically and geographically, the region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna/Босна) comprises the northern part of the present-day country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognised...


Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month. The attack began in October, when the Central Powers launched an offensive from the north. Four days later the Bulgarians joined the attack from the east. The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into Albania. They halted only once, to make a stand against the Bulgarians. The Serbs suffered defeat near modern day Gjilan in Kosovo. Serbian forces were evacuated by ship to Greece. Gnjilane (Serbian:Гњилане Albanian: Gjilan) is a city located in Kosovo, at 42. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ...


In late 1915, a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece, to offer assistance and to pressure the government to declare war against the Central Powers. Unfortunately for the Allies, the pro-German King Constantine I dismissed the pro-Allied government of Eleftherios Venizelos, before the allied expeditionary force could arrive. The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ...


The Salonica Front proved static. It was joked that Salonica was the largest German prisoner of war camp of the war.[citation needed] Only at the end of the conflict were the Entente powers able to break through, which was after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had been withdrawn. The Bulgarians suffered their only defeat of the war, at the battle of Dobro Pole. Days later, however, they decisively defeated British and Greek forces at the battle of Doiran. Thus, Bulgaria avoided occupation. Bulgaria signed an armistice on 29 September 1918. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants Bulgaria France British Empire Commanders Ferdinand I Louis Franchet dEsperey George Milne Strength 4,000 10,000 Casualties Entire army captured, wounded, or killed Minimal The Battle of Dobro Pole was a World War I battle, fought on September 15, 1918. ... Combatants Great Britain, Greece Bulgaria Commanders George Milne Vladimir Vazov Strength - English: 4 divisions, Greeks: 2 divisions - 9-th Infantry division, with parts of 11-th Infantry division and the Mountain Division (Total: 34,500) Casualties English: 47,000 Greeks: 12,000 494 The Battle of Doiran was fought from... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Fighting in India

Although the conflict in India cannot be explicitly said to have been a part of World War One, it can certainly be said to be significant in terms of the wider strategic context, because the British attempt to subjugate the tribal leaders who had rebelled against their British overlords drew away much needed troops from other theaters, in particular, of course, the Western Front, where the real decisive victory would be made. The reason why some Indian and Afgani tribes rose up simply comes down to years of discontent which erupted, probably not coincidentally, in WWI. It is likely that the tribal leaders were aware that Britain would not be able to field the required men, in terms of either number or quality. However, India, despite being located far away from the epicenter of the conflict, was still strategically important since it provided a bounty of men for the fronts; its produce was required for the war effort, and many trade routes running to other profitable areas of the Empire ran through India. Therefore, although the British were not able to send the men that they wanted, they were able to send enough to push the resolve of the tribesmen through a gradual but effective counter-guerilla war. However, the fighting would continue into 1919, and in some areas beyond; and that is why it has been left out of the wider understanding and appreciation of the Great War.


Eastern Front

Initial actions

While the Western Front had reached stalemate, the war continued in the east. Initial Russian plans called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and German East Prussia. Although Russia's initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, they were driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914. Russia's less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership was instrumental in the events that unfolded. By the spring of 1915, the Russians had retreated into Galicia, and in May, the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Polands southern frontiers. On 5 August they captured Warsaw and forced the Russians to withdraw from Poland. This became known as the "Great Retreat" in Russia and the "Great Advance" in Germany. Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants German Empire Russian Empire Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Paul von Rennenkampf Strength German Eighth Army Russian First Army Casualties Less Than 40,000 125,000 The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ...


Ukrainian oppression

During World War I the western Ukrainian people were trapped between Austria-Hungary and Russia. Often villages were torn apart and destroyed because the front cut through their land. Some people where sent to fight for each side when all they wanted was their own freedom. The Ukrainians usually sided with Austria-Hungary to fight off the Eastern Front and then revolt and form an independent state. Ukrainians (Ukrainian: Українці, Ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly- citizens of Ukraine (who may or may not be ethnic Ukrainians). ...


However, Austro-Hungarian authorities subjected Ukrainians in Galicia who sympathized with Russia to repression. Over twenty thousand supporters of Russia were arrested and placed in an Austrian concentration camp in Talerhof, Styria, and in a fortress at Terezín (now in the Czech Republic). Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Talerhof is the concentration camp, created by Austro-Hungarian authorities in the first days of the World War I in a sandy valley in foothills of the Alpes, near Graz, the main city of province Styria. ... Styria redirects here. ... Fortress plan, 1869 For the Nazi concentration camp, see Theresienstadt concentration camp Terezín (IPA: ; German: ) is the name of a former military fortress and garrison town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. ...

Map of the West Ukrainian People's Republic
Map of the West Ukrainian People's Republic

With the Russian and Austrian empires' collapse following World War I and the Russian Revolution of 1917, Ukrainian national movement for self-determination emerged again. During 1917–20 several separate Ukrainian states briefly emerged: the Central Rada, the Hetmanate, the Directorate, the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic. However, with the defeat of the latter in the Polish-Ukrainian War and the failure of the Polish Kiev Offensive (1920) of the Polish-Soviet War, the Peace of Riga concluded in March 1921 between Poland and Bolsheviks left Ukraine divided again. The western part of Ukraine had been incorporated into newly organized Second Polish Republic, and the larger, central and eastern part, established as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1919, later became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, when it was formed in December 1922. Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Image File history File links West_ukraine. ... Image File history File links West_ukraine. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Central Rada or Tsentralna Rada (Ukrainian: ) was a representative body formed in 1917 in Kyiv to govern the Ukrainian Peoples Republic—the Ukrainian autonomy and then independent state. ... The Hetmanate (Ukrainian: , Het’manat) was a short-lived provisional government of Ukraine, installed by Germany after disbanding the Central Rada of the Ukrainian National Republic in 1918. ... Directorate is an agency headed by a director, usually a subdivision of a major government department. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Combatants Poland West Ukrainian Peoples Republic The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and West Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


Russian Revolution

Dissatisfaction with the Russian government's conduct of the war grew, despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov offensive in eastern Galicia. The success was undermined by the reluctance of other generals to commit their forces to support the victory. Allied and Russian forces revived only temporarily with Romanias entry into the war on 27 August. German forces came to the aid of embattled Austrian units in Transylvania and Bucharest fell to the Central Powers on 6 December. Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia, as the Tsar remained at the front. Empress Alexandra's increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin, at the end of 1916. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Russian Empire Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties 500,000+ men killed or wounded 975... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Princess Alix of Hesse, as Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (1872-1918) Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice, 6 June 1872 - 17 July 1918), was the consort of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar of Russia. ... Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (or Grigori Yefimovich Novyh) (Russian: ) (January 22 [O.S. January 10] 1869–December 29 [O.S. December 16] 1916) was a Russian mystic who is perceived as having influenced the later days of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II, his wife the Tsaritsa Alexandra, and their only son...

In March 1917, demonstrations in St Petersburg culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government. It shared power with the socialists of the Petrograd Soviet. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective. Image File history File links Lenin. ... Image File history File links Lenin. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ...


The war and the government became more and more unpopular. Discontent led to a rise in popularity of the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin. He promised to pull Russia out of the war and was able to gain power. The triumph of the Bolsheviks in November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany. At first, the Bolsheviks refused to agree to the harsh German terms. But when Germany resumed the war and marched with impunity across Ukraine, the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. It took Russia out of the war and ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces, parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... “Red October” redirects here. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The Baltic states refer to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. ...


The publication by the new Bolshevik government of the secret treaties signed by the tsar was hailed across the world, either as a great step forward for the respect of the will of the people, or as a dreadful catastrophe which could destabilise the world. The existence of a new type of government in Russia led to the reinforcement in many countries of Communist parties. In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ...


After the Russians dropped out of the war, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia. The intent was primarily to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources and, to a lesser extent, to support the Whites in the Russian Civil War. Troops landed in Archangel (see North Russia Campaign) and in Vladivostok. Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ...


1917–1918

In the trenches: Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench on the first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916
In the trenches: Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench on the first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916

Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until 1918. The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany. In response, in February 1917, the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war. Tonnage sunk rose above 500,000 tons per month from February to July. It peaked at 860,000 tons in April. After July, the reintroduced convoy system became extremely effective in neutralizing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation, and the German industrial output fell. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x672, 256 KB) Photo by a member of the Royal Engineers No 1 Printing Company. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x672, 256 KB) Photo by a member of the Royal Engineers No 1 Printing Company. ... A trench is a long narrow ditch. ... The Regiment of the Infantry of the Line that became to be known as The Royal Ulster Rifles dates backs to the reign of King George III. In 1793 there was some expansion of the Armed Forces to meet the commitments of the war with France. ... Combatants United Kingdom Canada Australia New Zealand South Africa Newfoundland India France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Henry Rawlinson Ferdinand Foch Fritz von Below Strength 13 British divisions 6 French divisions 6 divisions Casualties British: 57,470 French: 7,000 10,000 - 12,000 The first day on the Somme... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The German General Staff or Großer Generalstab was the most important German weapon for nearly two centuries. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29, 1856–January 1, 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


The victory of Austria-Hungary and Germany at the Battle of Caporetto led the Allied at the Rapallo Conference to form the Supreme Allied Council to coordinate planning. Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands. Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Italy Commanders Otto von Below Luigi Cadorna Strength 35 divisions 41 divisions Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 40,000 dead 20,000 wounded 275,000 captured Difficult Progress In Alps The Battle of Caporetto (or Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the... The Rapallo Conference was convened by the allied powers of World War I, on the fifth of November 1917 in Rapallo, Italy, following their defeat by Germany at the Battle of Caporetto. ...


In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia. This released troops for use in the west. Ironically, German troop transfers could have been greater if their territorial acquisitions had not been so dramatic. With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the final outcome was to be decided on the Western front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war. But they held high hopes for a quick offensive. Furthermore, the leaders of the Central Powers and the Allies became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.


Entry of the United States

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

The United States pursued a policy of isolationism, avoiding conflict whilst trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increased tensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed that "America was too proud to fight" and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned that America would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and American ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as "piracy."[8] In January 1917, after the Navy pressured the Kaiser, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Berlin's proposal to Mexico to join the war as Germany's ally against the U.S. angered Americans. After submarines sank seven American merchant ships, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.[9] Download high resolution version (1185x867, 269 KB)President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in the official relations with Germany. ... Download high resolution version (1185x867, 269 KB)President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in the official relations with Germany. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... The RMS Lusitania was a Cunard Line ocean liner, that was built by the John Brown & Co. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note; German: Zimmermann-Depesche; Spanish: Telegrama Zimmermann) was a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917, to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt, at the height of World War I. The telegram instructed... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power". America had a small army, but it drafted 4 million men and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day. Germany had miscalculated that it would be many more months before they would arrive or that the arrival could be stopped by U-boats.[10]

The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, several destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland, and several submarines to help guard convoys. Several regiments of U.S. Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted American units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. The Americans rejected the first proposition, and accepted the second. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up American units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units (though he did allow African American combat units to be used by the French). Pershing ordered the use of frontal assaults, which had been discarded by that time by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life sustained throughout the war. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... Aerial Photo of Scapa Flow Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray, South Ronaldsay and Hoy. ... Grand Fleet during WWI Grand Fleet ships in formation During World War I, the British Home Fleet was renamed the Grand Fleet. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Cathedral of St. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF was the United States military force in World War I. The AEF helped the French defend the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive in May. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


German Spring Offensive of 1918

Main article: Spring Offensive
For most of World War I, Allied forces were stalled at trenches on the Western Front

German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans (codenamed Operation Michael) for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front. The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. The German leadership hoped to strike a decisive blow before significant U.S. forces arrived. Before the offensive began, Ludendorff left the elite Eighth Army in Russia and sending over only a small portion of the German forces to the west. The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... Bishop Museum archive photos of World War I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bishop Museum archive photos of World War I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... The Spring Offensive (Operation Michael) was a German offensive along the Western Front during the First World War which marked the deepest advance by any side since 1914. ... The German Eighth Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ...


Operation Michael opened on 21 March 1918. British forces were attacked near Amiens. Ludendorff wanted to split the British and French armies. German forces achieved an unprecedented advance of 60 kilometers (40 miles). For the first time since 1914, the maneuver was successful on the battlefield.[citation needed] March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ...


British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics, also named Hutier tactics, after General Oskar von Hutier. Attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. However, in the Spring Offensive, the German Army used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points. They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions. German success relied greatly on the element of surprise. In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small, lightly-equipped infantry forces attacking enemy rear areas while bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, isolating them for attack by follow-on friendly troops with heavier weapons. ... Oskar von Hutier (August 27, 1857-December 5, 1934) was one of Germanys most successful and innovative generals of World War I. Hutier spent the first year of the war as a divisional commander in France, performing well but not distinguishing himself until the spring of 1915, when he...


The front moved to within 120 kilometers (75 mi) of Paris. Three heavy Krupp railway guns fired 183 shells on the capital, causing many Parisians to flee. The initial offensive was so successful that Kaiser Wilhelm II declared 24 March a national holiday. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted. Lacking tanks or motorised artillery, the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... A railway gun (also called railroad gun, and formerly called a railgun during World War I and World War II) is a large artillery piece, designed to be placed on rail tracks. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (84th in leap years). ... A U.S. M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) vehicles are a way of giving mobility to artillery. ...


American divisions, which Pershing had sought to field as an independent force, were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March. A supreme command of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference. General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the allied forces. Haig, Petain and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies. March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ...


Following Operation Michael, Germany launched Operation Georgette against the northern English channel ports. The Allies halted the drive with limited territorial gains for Germany. The German Army to the south then conducted Operations Blücher and Yorck, broadly towards Paris. Operation Marne was launched on 15 July, attempting to encircle Reims and beginning the Second Battle of the Marne. The resulting Allied counterattack marked their first successful offensive of the war. By 20 July, the Germans were back at their Kaiserschlacht starting lines, having achieved nothing. Following this last phase of the war in the West, the German Army never again regained the initiative. German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270,000, including many highly trained stormtroopers. The Battle of the Lys was part of the 1918 German Operation Georgette offensive in Flanders during the First World War. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve; Dutch: Het Kanaal) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... The Third Battle of the Aisne was a German offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive in France. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  United States  German Empire Casualties 168,000 The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims, was a major World War I battle fought from July 15 to August 5, 1918, near the Marne River. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ...


Meanwhile, at home Germany was falling apart. Anti-war marches become frequent, and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was 53% of 1913 levels. Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ...


New states under war zone

In 1918, internationally recognized Democratic Republic of Armenia, Democratic Republic of Georgia boardering the Ottoman Empire and not recognized Centrocaspian Dictatorship, South West Caucasian Republic was established. National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Flag Capital Baku Government Dictatorship Historical era World War I  - Established August 1, 1918  - Battle of Baku August 26-September 14  - Fall of Baku September 15, 1918  - Armistice of Mudros November 30, 1918 The Centrocaspian Dictatorship (Russian: , Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya) was a British-backed anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on... Foundation: December 1, 1918 - April 19, 1919 Head: Fakhr al-Din Pirioghlu The Democratic Republic of South West Caucasus (December 1, 1918 - April 19, 1919) (Turkish: Cenubî Garbi Kafkas Cumhuriyeti) or the Kars Republic was a short-lived and nominally independent provisional government, headed by Fakhr al-Din Pirioghlu and...


In 1918, the Dashnaks of Armenian national liberation movement declared the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) through the Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians (unified form of Armenian National Councils) after the dissolution of Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tovmas Nazarbekian become the first Commander-in-chief of DRA. Enver Pasha ordered the creation of a new army to be named the Army of Islam. He ordered the Army of Islam into DRA, with the goal of taking Baku on the Caspian Sea. This new offensive was strongly opposed by the Germans. In early May, 1918, the Ottoman army attacked the newly declared DRA. Although the Armenians managed to inflict one defeat on the Ottomans at the Battle of Sardarapat, the Ottoman army won a later battle and scattered the Armenian army. The Republic of Armenia was forced to sign the Treaty of Batum in June, 1918. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... For the political party under Armenia; see Armenian national movement (party) Armenian national movement, Armenian national liberation movement or before establishment of First Armenian Republic commonly known as Armenian revolutionary movement was the Armenian effort to re-establish an Armenian state in the historic Armenian homelands of eastern Asia Minor. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians was established at October 1917. ... Armenian National Council is a general term that might refer to Armenian National Council of Karabagh, Armenian National Council of Baku or Armenian National Council of Tiflis which all of them are united under Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians. ... Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ... Tovmas Nazarbekian (Nazarbekov) (1855 - 1928) armenian, general in the Russain Army who was the governor of Free Vaspurakan. ... In 1918, Enver Pasha, the War Minister for the Ottoman Empire ordered the creation of a new military force. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 260 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: AZ10 Area code: +99412 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 40° 23 N Longitude: 49° 52 E Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Vahib Pasha Movses Silikian Strength Third Army 100,000 [2] 40,000 Casualties 30,000 30,000 30,000 Armenian civilian casualties The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Allied victory: summer and autumn 1918

American engineers returning from the front during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in September 1918
American engineers returning from the front during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in September 1918

The Allied counteroffensive, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, began on 8 August 1918. The Battle of Amiens developed with III Corps Fourth British Army on the left, the First French Army on the right, and the Australian and Canadian Corps spearheading the offensive in the centre. It involved 414 tanks of the Mark IV and Mark V type, and 120,000 men. They advanced 12 kilometers (7 miles) into German-held territory in just seven hours. Erich Ludendorff referred to this day as the "Black Day of the German army". Combatants Belgium British Empire France United States of America German Empire Commanders King Albert I Ferdinand Foch Douglas Haig Philippe Petain John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Casualties 411,636 British 531,000 French 127,000+ American 785,733 The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag... Image File history File links Battle_of_St. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_St. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 7,000 2000 dead and 5500 wounded The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12 - 15, 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force... Combatants Belgium British Empire France United States of America German Empire Commanders King Albert I Ferdinand Foch Douglas Haig Philippe Petain John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Casualties 411,636 British 531,000 French 127,000+ American 785,733 The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 Aus. ... The British Fourth Army was a field army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. ... French First Army was a field army that fought during World War I and World War II. At the beginning of WWI the First Army was put in charge of General Auguste Dubail and took part, along with the French Second Army, in the Invasion of Lorraine. ... The Canadian Corps was a World War I Canadas soldiers in September of 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. ... A Mark I tank on 26 September 1916 (moving left to right). ... A Mark I tank (moving left to right). ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...


Supply problems caused the offensive to lose momentum. British units had encountered problems when all but seven tanks and trucks ran out of fuel. On 15 August General Haig called a halt and began planning a new offensive in Albert. The Second Battle of the Somme began on 21 August. Some 130,000 U.S. troops were involved, along with soldiers from Third and Fourth British Armies. It was an overwhelming success. The Second German Army was pushed back over a 55 kilometer (34 mile) front. By 2 September, the Germans were back to the Hindenburg Line, their starting point in 1914. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander (Field Marshal) during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme... Albert is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... During the First World War, the Second Battle of the Somme of 1918 was fought on the Western Front from the end of the summer, in the basin of the Somme River. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Third Army was a British Army unit. ... The British Fourth Army was a field army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. ... The German Second Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ...


The Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line began on 26 September. 260,000 American soldiers went "over the top". All initial objectives were captured; the U.S. 79th Infantry Division, which met stiff resistance at Montfaucon, took an extra day to capture its objective. The U.S. Army stalled because of supply problems because its inexperienced headquarters had to cope with large units and a difficult landscape. Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 26,277 killed 95,786 wounded 122,066 total 28,000 killed 92,250 wounded 120,250 total The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was the final offensive of World War... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 79th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. World War I Activated: August 1917. ... Montfaucon is the name of several places: France Montfaucon is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Montfaucon, in the Aisne département Montfaucon, in the du Doubs département Montfaucon, in the Gard département Montfaucon, in the Lot département Montfaucon-dArgonne...


At the same time, French units broke through in Champagne and closed on the Belgian frontier. The most significant advance came from Commonwealth units, as they entered Belgium (liberation of Ghent). The German army had to shorten its front and use the Dutch frontier as an anchor to fight rear-guard actions. This probably saved the army from disintegration but was devastating for morale.


By October, it was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defense. They were increasingly outnumbered, with the few new recruits. Rations were cut. Ludendorff decided, on 1 October, that Germany had two ways out—total annihilation or an armistice. He recommended the latter at a summit of senior German officials. Allied pressure did not let up. October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile, news of Germany’s impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces. The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the "valor" of the German Navy. Knowing the government of Max von Baden would veto any such action; Ludendorff decided not to inform him. Nonetheless, word of the impending assault reached sailors at Kiel. Many rebelled and were arrested, refusing to be part of a naval offensive which they believed to be suicidal. Ludendorff took the blame—the Kaiser dismissed him on 26 October. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food. The reserves had been used up, but the Americans kept arriving at the rate of 10,000 per day.[11] Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) is legally obliged to obey. ... Reinhard Scheer Reinhard Scheer (September 30, 1863 – November 26, 1928) was a Vice-admiral in the German navy. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... Kiel ( ) is a city in northern Germany and the capital of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ...


With power coming into the hands of new men in Berlin, further fighting became impossible. With 6 million German casualties, Germany moved toward peace. Prince Max von Baden took charge of a new government. Negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the vain hope that better terms would be offered than with the British and French. Instead Wilson demanded the abdication of the Kaiser. There was no resistance when the social democrat Philipp Scheidemann on 9 November declared Germany to be a republic. Imperial Germany was dead; a new Germany had been born: the Weimar Republic.[12] Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Philipp Scheidemann ( 26 July 1865– 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was responsible for the proclamation of the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag...


End of war

This photograph was taken after reaching an agreement for the armistice that ended World War I. The location is in the forest of Compiègne. Foch is second from the right. The train carriage seen in the background, where the armistice was signed, would prove to be the setting of France's own armistice in June 1940. When the WWII armistice was signed, Hitler personally ordered the destruction of the train carriage.
This photograph was taken after reaching an agreement for the armistice that ended World War I. The location is in the forest of Compiègne. Foch is second from the right. The train carriage seen in the background, where the armistice was signed, would prove to be the setting of France's own armistice in June 1940. When the WWII armistice was signed, Hitler personally ordered the destruction of the train carriage.

The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


On 24 October the Italians began a push which rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague and Zagreb. On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. But the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine and Trieste. On 3 November Austria-Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an Armistice. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian Commander and accepted. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg monarchy. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Italy Commanders Otto von Below Luigi Cadorna Strength 35 divisions 41 divisions Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 40,000 dead 20,000 wounded 275,000 captured Difficult Progress In Alps The Battle of Caporetto (or Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France United States Image:Flag of Austria-Hungary. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... The Armistice of Villa Giusti 1918 The following text is reproduced from the English translation of the noted Austrian historian Edmund von Glaise-Horstenaus “The Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” published in 1930. ... Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ...


Following the outbreak of the German Revolution, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands. On 11 November an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918 — the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month — a ceasefire came into effect. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions. Canadian George Lawrence Price is traditionally regarded as the last soldier killed in the Great War: he was shot by a German sniper and died at 10:58. November Revolution redirects here. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Private George Lawrence Price (15 December 1892 – 11 November 1918) was a Canadian soldier who is traditionally recognised as being the last Commonwealth soldier killed during the First World War. ...


A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919. Later treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and The Ottoman Empire were signed. However, the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife (the Turkish Independence War) and a final peace treaty was signed between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey, at Lausanne on 24 July 1923. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles treaty was signed in 1919; by contrast, most commemorations of the wars end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918. Legally the last formal peace treaties were not signed until 1923. Some also treat the Versailles treaty as the prelude to World War II. This memorial in England lists the names of soldiers who died in the First World War. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Further information: World War I casualties

Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ...

Prisoners of war

This photograph shows an emaciated Indian army soldier who survived the siege of Kut.

About 8 million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Convention on fair treatment of prisoners of war. In general, a POW's rate of survival was much higher than their peers at the front.[13] Individual surrenders were uncommon. Large units usually surrendered en mass. At the Battle of Tannenberg 92,000 Russians surrendered. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, 20,000 Russians became prisoners. Over half of Russian losses were prisoners (as a proportion of those captured, wounded or killed); for Austria 32%, for Italy 26%, for France 12%, for Germany 9%; for Britain 7%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1.4 million (not including Russia, which lost between 2.5 and 3.5 million men as prisoners.) From the Central Powers about 3.3 million men became prisoners.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... There were two battles, nearly 500 years apart, that bear the name Battle of Tannenberg: Battle of Tannenberg (1410) Battle of Tannenberg (1914) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n...


Germany held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.9 million, and Britain and France held about 720,000. Most were captured just prior to the Armistice. The U.S. held 48,000. The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down. Once prisoners reached a camp, in general, conditions were satisfactory (and much better than in World War II), thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations. Conditions were terrible in Russia, starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike; about 15-20% of the prisoners in Russia died. In Germany food was in short supply, but only 5% died.[15]. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ...


The Ottoman Empire often treated POWs poorly. Some 11,800 British Empire soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after the Siege of Kut, in Mesopotamia, in April 1916; 4,250 died in captivity.[16] Although many were in very bad condition when captured, Ottoman officers forced them to march 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) to Anatolia. A survivor said: "we were driven along like beasts, to drop out was to die."[17] The survivors were then forced to build a railway through the Taurus Mountains. Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros DaÄŸları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ...


The most curious case occured in Russia, where the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army, were released in 1917. They re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War. Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ...


War crimes

Armenian Genocide

Main article: Armenian Genocide

The ethnic cleansing of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is widely considered a genocide. The Turks accused the (Christian) Armenians of preparing to ally themselves with Russia, and saw the entire Armenian population as an enemy. The exact number of deaths is unknown. Most estimates are between 800,000 and 1.5 million[18]. Turkish governments have consistently rejected charges of genocide, often arguing that those who died were simply caught up in the fighting or that killings of Armenians were justified by their individual or collective treason. These claims have often been labeled as historical revisionism by western scholars. Armenian Genocide photo. ... Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... A fifth column is a group of people which clandestinely undermines a larger group to which it is expected to be loyal, such as a nation. ... The number of Ottoman Armenian deaths between 1914 to 1923 during the Armenian Genocide and what followed during the Turkish War of Independence is a subject of controversy. ... Turkish Denial: To have genocide denied is to die twice — An advertisement for the Armenian Genocide Commemoration Holiday on 24th April, 2006 posted in The Times newspaper. ... Traitor redirects here. ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ...


Rape of Belgium

Main article: Rape of Belgium

In Belgium, German troops, in fear of French and Belgian guerrilla fighters, or francs-tireurs, massacred townspeople in Andenne (211 dead), Tamines (384 dead), and Dinant (612 dead). The victims included women and children. On 25 August 1914, the Germans set fire to the town of Leuven, burned the library containing about 230,000 books, killed 209 civilians and forced 42,000 to evacuate. These actions brought worldwide condemnation.[19]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The phrase Francs-tireurs was used to describe irregular military formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and from that usage is is sometimes used to refer more generally to guerrilla fighters who fight outside the laws of war[1]. The term... Andenne is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Namur. ... Coordinates 38°25′ N 24°2′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Greece Prefecture Euboea Population 9,764 source (2001) Elevation 25 m Postal code 345 00 Area code 22230 Licence plate code ΧΑ Taminaioi (Greek: Ταμιναίοι) is a municipality of the Greek prefecture and the island of Euboea. ... The tower of Notre-Dame, seen from the citadel Dinant is a municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur, Belgium. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Leuven   (French Louvain, German Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Flanders, Belgium, European Union. ...


Economics and manpower issues

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased for three Allies (Britain, Italy, and U.S.), but decreased in France and Russia, in neutral Netherlands, and in the main three Central Powers. The shrinkage in GDP in Austria, Russia, France, and the Ottoman Empire reached 30 to 40%. In Austria, for example, most of the pigs were slaughtered and, at war's end, there was no meat. IMF 2005 figures of total GDP of nominal compared to PPP. Absolute, not adjusted for population. ...


All nations had increases in the government’s share of GDP, surpassing fifty percent in both Germany and France and nearly reaching fifty percent in Britain. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its massive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily on Wall Street. President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916, but with war imminent with Germany, he allowed a massive increase in U.S. government lending to the Allies. After 1919, the U.S. demanded repayment of these loans, which, in part, were funded by German reparations, which, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany. This circular system collapsed in 1931 and the loans were never repaid. Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The government of the United States of America, established by the U.S. Constitution, is...


One of the most dramatic effects was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire. In order to harness all the power of their societies, new government ministries and powers were created. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort; many of which have lasted to this day. This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. ... In military affairs, the war effort refers to the harnessing of economic and human resources towards support of a military force. ...


At the same time, the war strained the abilities of the formerly large and bureaucratised governments such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany. Here, however, the long-term effects were clouded by the defeat of these governments.


Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost laborers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women. Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ...


As the war slowly turned into a war of attrition, conscription was implemented in some countries. This issue was particularly explosive in Canada and Australia. In the former it opened a political gap between French-Canadians — who claimed their true loyalty was to Canada and not the British Empire — and the English-speaking majority who saw the war as a duty to both Britain and Canada. Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden pushed through a Military Service Act that caused the Conscription Crisis of 1917. In Australia, a sustained pro-conscription campaign by Prime Minister Billy Hughes, caused a split in the Australian Labor Party and Hughes formed the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917 to pursue the matter. Nevertheless, the labour movement, the Catholic Church and Irish nationalist expatriates successfully opposed Hughes' push to introduce conscription, which was rejected in two plebiscites. This article is about the military strategy. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden (June 26, 1854–June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911 to July 10, 1920. ... UK Military Service Act In January, 1916 David Lloyd George introduced the Military Service Act for the UK. Previous to this Act, the British Government had been relying on voluntary registration called the Derby Scheme. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // Background At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ... Rt Hon Billy Hughes William Morris Billy Hughes (September 25, 1862 - October 28, 1952), Australian politician, was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, the longest-serving member of the Australian Parliament, and one of the most controversial figures in Australian political history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The 1917 Australian plebiscite was held on 20 December 1917. ...


In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early 1918 and was limited to meat, sugar and fats (butter and oleo), but not bread. The new system worked smoothly. From 1914 to 1918 trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million. Work stoppages and strikes became frequent in 1917-18 as the unions expressed grievances regarding prices, liquor control, pay disputes, "dilution", fatigue from overtime and from Sunday work, and inadequate housing. Conscription put into uniform nearly every physically fit man, six million out of ten million eligible in Britain. Of these, about 750,000 lost their lives and 1,700,000 were wounded. Most deaths were to young unmarried men; however, 160,000 wives lost husbands and 300,000 children lost fathers. [Havighurst p 134–5] Oleo is a term for oils. ...


Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply had become difficult from traditional sources. Geologists, such as Albert Ernest Kitson, were called upon to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies. Kitson discovered important new deposits of Manganese, used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast.[20]. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Gold Coast may refer to: // Gold Coast (British colony), British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa Brandenburger Gold Coast, former German colony Danish Gold Coast, former Danish colony Dutch Gold Coast, former Dutch colony Portuguese Gold Coast, former Portuguese colony Swedish Gold Coast, former Swedish colony Gold...


Technology

See also: Technology during World War I

The First World War began as a clash of 20th-century technology and 19th-century tactics, with inevitably large casualties. By the end of 1917, however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of wireless communication, armored cars, tanks, and tactical aircraft. Infantry formations were reorganised, so that 100-man companies were no longer the main unit of maneuver. Instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a junior NCO, were favored. Artillery also under went a revolution. In 1914, cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. By 1917, indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was responsible for the majority of casualties. Counter-battery artillery missions became commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging enemy artillery. The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... WW1 - Nieuport biplane fighter. ... WW1 - Nieuport biplane fighter. ... The Nieuport 17 was a biplane fighter aircraft manufactured by Nieuport, and prominent during the World War I era. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Polish armoured car Korfanty in 1920. ... Tactic could refer to: Tactic (municipality) Tactic (method) Military tactics Tactics (manga) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... The term counter-battery fire refers to the concept of detecting the source of artillery (shells or rockets) landing on friendly forces and firing back at them with artillery, suppressing or destroying them in order to protect the friendly forces and reduce enemy artillery strength. ...


Much of the combat involved trench warfare, where hundreds often died for each yard gained. Many of the deadliest battles in history occurred during the First World War. Such battles include Ypres, Marne, Cambrai, Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli. The Haber process of nitrogen fixation was employed to provide the German forces with a constant supply of gunpowder, in the face of British naval blockade. Artillery was responsible for the largest number of casualties and consumed vast quantities of explosives. The large number of head-wounds caused by exploding shells and shrapnel forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet. The French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915, led this effort. It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet, worn by British Imperial and U.S. troops, and in 1916 by the German Stahlhelm, the distinctive steel helmet, which, with improvements, is still in use today. Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... There were four Battles of Ypres during World War I: First Battle of Ypres (October 19 – November 22, 1914) Second Battle of Ypres (April 22 – May 15, 1915) Third Battle of Ypres (July 31 – November 6, 1917) (also known as Passchendaele) Fourth Battle of Ypres (September 28 – October 2, 1918... There were two Battles of the Marne during World War I: First Battle of the Marne (1914) Second Battle of the Marne (1918) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants United Kingdom Newfoundland German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Georg von der Marwitz Strength 2 Corps 1 Corps Casualties 44,207 Casualties 179 tanks out of action 45,000 Casualties (British estimates) The Battle of Cambrai (20 November - 3 December 1917) was a British campaign of World War I. Noted... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died 337,000; of whom 100,000 died The Battle of Verdun was one of... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... The Haber Process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the headgear. ... The M26 Adrian helmet (French term: Casque Adrian) was a military helmet issued to the French Army during World War I. It was designed when millions of French troops were engaged in trench warfare and head wounds became a significant proportion of battlefield casualties. ... US Marine Corps M1917 Brodie pattern helmet The Brodie helmet (also called the shrapnel helmet or Tommy helmet, and in the United States known as a doughboy helmet) was a steel helmet designed and patented in 1915 by John L. Brodie. ... German Stahlhelme from the Second World War Stahlhelm (plural, Stahlhelme) is German for steel helmet. The Imperial German Army began to replace the traditional leather Pickelhaube (spiked helmet) with the Stahlhelm during the First World War in 1916. ...


There was chemical warfare and aerial bombardment, both of which were outlawed by the 1907 Hague Convention. Both were of limited tactical effectiveness. Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terror bombing. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


The widespread use of chemical warfare, was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas, and phosgene. Only a small proportion of total war casualties were caused by gas. Effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks. General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask. ...


The most powerful land based weapons were naval guns weighing hundreds of tons apiece and nicknamed Big Berthas by the British. They could only be moved by rail. The largest Allied guns were severely out-ranged by these. Big Bertha Big Bertha (German: Dicke Bertha; literal translation Fat Bertha) is the name of the L/14 model of heavy mortar-like howitzers built and used by Germany during World War I. The name Big Bertha is often mistakenly applied to the Langer Max and Paris Gun railway guns. ...


Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily during the First World War. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed. Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 The Early Years of War The early years of war saw canvas-and-wood aircraft used primarily to function as mobile observation vehicles. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Close air support (often abbreviated CAS) is the use of military aircraft in a ground attack role against targets in close proximity to friendly troops, in support of ground combat operations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A strategic bomber is a large bomber designed to drop massive amounts of ordinance on a single target, generally in carpet bombing style. ... This is an article about Zeppelin airships. ...


Towards the end of the conflict, aircraft carriers were used for the first time, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a raid against the Zepplin hangars at Tondern in 1918. Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... HMS Furious was a modified Courageous class large light cruiser (an extreme form of battlecruiser) converted into an early aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ... The Sopwith Camel Scout was a British World War I single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its manoeuvrability. ... Tønder (German Tondern) is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ...

German U-boats or (submarines), were deployed after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, they were employed by the Kaiserliche Marine in a strategy to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies. The deaths of British merchantmen and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges (1916), hydrophones (passive sonar, 1917), blimps, hunter-killer submarines (HMS R 1, 1917), ahead-throwing weapons, and dipping hydrophones (both abandoned in 1918). To extend their operations, the Germans proposed supply submarines (1916). Most of these would be forgotten in the interwar period until World War II revived the need. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... A hydrophone is a sound-to-electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ... The F70 type frigates (here, La Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C towed sonars SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) â€” or sonar â€” is a technique that uses sound propagation under water (primarily) to navigate, communicate or to detect other vessels. ... Blimp can refer to: a non-rigid airship as opposed to a rigid airship (e. ... A Hunter Killer is a light weight military submarine class used for fighting sea vehicles. ... Ahead Throwing Weapons: Weapons thrown by hand, like hand grenades, molitov cocktails, and other such things. ... Europe between 1929 and 1938 The Interwar period (also interbellum) is understood within Western culture to be the period between the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, specifically 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939. ...


Trenches, the machine gun, air reconnaissance, barbed wire, and modern artillery with fragmentation shells helped bring the battle lines of World War I to a stalemate. The infantry was armed mostly with magazine fed bolt-action rifles, but the machine gun, with the ability to fire hundreds of rounds per minute, blunted most infantry attacks. The British sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare. The first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916. Mechanical reliability became an issue, but the experiment proved its worth. Within a year, the British were fielding tanks by the hundreds and showed their potential during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, by breaking the Hindenburg Line, while combined arms teams captured 8000 enemy soldiers and 100 guns. Light automatic weapons also were introduced, such as the Lewis Gun and Browning automatic rifle. A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Shrapnel, in the strict sense, is shot deliberately included in a landmine or shell intended to be scattered by the explosion. ... A bolt-action firearm is one that is manually operated (i. ... Rate of fire is the speed at which a specific firearm or artillery piece can ]] per minute (RPM or round/min), or rounds per second Note that heat and ammunition concerns mean that most automatic weapons are unlikely ever to sustain their cyclic rate of fire for a full minute... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Armoured warfare. ... A Mark I tank on 26 September 1916 (moving left to right). ... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom Newfoundland German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Georg von der Marwitz Strength 2 Corps 1 Corps Casualties 44,207 Casualties 179 tanks out of action 45,000 Casualties (British estimates) The Battle of Cambrai (20 November - 3 December 1917) was a British campaign of World War I. Noted... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... M2 machine gun An automatic firearm is a firearm that will continue to load and fire ammunition as long as the trigger (or other activating device) is pressed or until it runs out of ammunition. ... The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. ... The Browning Automatic Rifle (commonly known as the BAR; properly pronounced bee ay are) is a family of automatic rifles (or machine rifles) and light machine guns used by the United States and other countries during the 20th century. ...


Manned observation balloons, floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes. In the event of an enemy air attack, the crew could parachute to safety. At the time, parachutes were too bulky to be used by pilots of aircraft and smaller versions would not be developed until the end of the war. Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft. To defend against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft. Blimps and balloons contributed to air-to-air combat among aircraft because of their reconnaissance value. The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines. Observation balloons were widely employed as aerial platforms for purposes of intelligence gathering and artillery direction during the First World War and beyond. ... This article refers to the device for slowing descent through the air. ...


Another new weapon sprayed jets of burning fuel: flamethrowers. First used by the German army and later adopted by other forces. Although not of high tactical value, they were a powerful, demoralizing weapon and caused terror on the battlefield. It was a dangerous weapon to wield, as its heavy weight made operators vulnerable targets. Despite Hollywood's portrayal, however, there was little actual danger of the fuel tank exploding if shot. German troops use a flamethrower on the Eastern Front during the Second World War A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to throw flames or, more correctly, project an ignited stream of liquid. ...


Opposition to the war

The trade union and socialist movements had long voiced their opposition to a war, which they argued, meant only that workers would kill other workers in the interest of capitalism. Once war was declared, however, the vast majority of socialists and trade unions backed their governments. The exceptions were the Bolsheviks and the Italian Socialist Party, and individuals such as Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg and their followers in Germany. There were also small anti-war groups in Britain and France. Other opposition came from conscientious objectors - some socialist, some religious - who refused to fight. In Britain 16,000[citation needed] people asked for conscientious objector status. Many suffered years of prison, including solitary confinement and bread and water diets. Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked "No conscientious objectors need apply". Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. These included Eugene Debs in the United States and Bertrand Russell in Britain. The First World War was mainly opposed by left-wing groups, there was also opposition by Christain groups baised on pacifism The trade union and socialist movements had declared before the war their determined opposition to a war which they said could only mean workers killing each other in the... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ▶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... May refer to the politcal leader Eugene_V._Debs May also be in reference to a a debutante ball, a formal party undertaken by the leaving members of second-level schools in Ireland, most often in the month of August or September. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ...


Aftermath

No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically—four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian. Four defunct dynasties, the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburg, Romanovs and the Ottomans together with all their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war. Belgium was badly damaged, as was France with 1.4 million soldiers dead, not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly effected. The war had profound economic consequences. In addition, a major influenza epidemic that started in Western Europe in the latter months of the war, killed millions in Europe and then spread around the world. Overall, the Spanish flu killed at least 50 million people.[21][22] Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Beaumont_hamel_newfoundland_memorial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Beaumont_hamel_newfoundland_memorial. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The Newfoundland Memorial at Beaumont Hamel Beaumont-Hamel is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Image:Spanish flu notice. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Image:Spanish flu notice. ...


Peace Treaties

After the war, the Allies imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers. The 1919 Versailles Treaty ended the war with Germany. Germany was kept under blockade until it signed the treaty, which declared that Germany was responsible for the war. The treaty required Germany to pay enormous war reparations, which it did by borrowing from the United States, until the reparations were suspended in 1931. The "Guilt Thesis" became a controversial explanation of events in Britain and the United States. The Treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany, which nationalist movements, especially the Nazis, exploited. (See Dolchstosslegende). The treaty contributed to one of the worst economic collapses in history of Germany, sparking runaway inflation. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the Central Powers. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstosslegende (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend often translated into English as stab-in-the-back myth) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World...


The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920. The treaty, however, was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish republican movement. This led to the Turkish Independence War and, ultimately, to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Members of the movement during the Sivas Congress The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries (in Turkish Kuvayi Milliye or Kuvai Milliye) which resulted with the creation and shaping of the Republic of Turkey, a consequence of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire... The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly...


Austria-Hungary was also partitioned, largely along ethnic lines. The details were contained in the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon. The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ...


New national identities

Poland reemerged as an independent country, after more than a century. Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were entirely new nations. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


In the British Empire, the war unleashed new forms of nationalism. In Australian and New Zealand the Battle of Gallipoli became known as those nations' "Baptism of Fire". It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians, not just subjects of the British Crown. Anzac Day, commemorating the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, celebrates this defining moment. Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... ANZAC Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who in the Battle of Gallipoli landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. ANZAC Day is also a public holiday in Cook... An ANZAC soldier gives water to a wounded Turk The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. ...


This effect was even greater in Canada. Canadians proved they were a nation and not merely subjects of a distant empire. Indeed, many Canadians refer to Canada as a nation "forged from fire". Canadians had proved themselves on the battlefield and were respected internationally for their accomplishments. When Canada entered the war it was a Dominion of the British Empire. When the war came to a close, Canada emerged as a fully independent nation. Canadian diplomats played a significant role in negotiating the Versailles Treaty. Canada was an independent signatory of the treaty, whereas other Dominions were represented by Britain. Canadians commemorate the war dead on Remembrance Day. In French Canada, however, the conscription crisis of 1917 left bitterness in its wake. Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (South Africa and Malta), and Armistice Day (United Kingdom, New Zealand and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the holiday internationally) is a day to commemorate... The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // Background At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ...


Social trauma

The experiences of the war led to a collective trauma for all participating countries. The optimism of the 1900's was gone and those who fought in the war became known as the Lost Generation. For the next few years, much of Europe mourned. Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. The soldiers returning home from World War I suffered greatly from the horrors they had witnessed. Although it was called shell shock at the time, many returning veterans suffered from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Optimists see the world as a positive place Optimism, the opposite of pessimism, exemplifies a lifeview where one looks upon the world as a positive place. ... Lost Generation is traditionally attributed to John Wilks Booth[1] and was then popularized by Ernest Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises and his memoir A Moveable Feast. ... The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ...


The social trauma caused by years of fighting manifested itself in different ways. Some people were revolted by nationalism and its results. They began to work toward a more internationalist world, supporting organisations such as the League of Nations. Pacifism became increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only strength and military-might could be relied upon in a chaotic and inhumane world. Anti-modernist views were an outgrowth of the many changes taking place in society. The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. Similarly, the popularity of the Dolchstosslegende was a testament to the psychological state of defeated Germany and was a rejection of responsibility for the conflict. The myth of betrayal became common and the aggressors came to see themselves as victims. The popularity of the Dolchstosslegende myth played a significant role in the outbreak of World War II and the Holocaust. A sense of disillusionment and cynicism became pronounced, with nihilism growing in popularity. This disillusionment for humanity found a cultural climax with the Dadaist artistic movement. Many believed that the war heralded the end of the world as they had known it, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. Communist and socialist movements around the world drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a level of popularity they had never known before. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Antimodernism or anti-modernism are any of a number of viewpoints critical of modernism and its impact on contemporary society. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstosslegende (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend often translated into English as stab-in-the-back myth) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World... Mental states redirects here. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstosslegende (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend often translated into English as stab-in-the-back myth) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... ... Disillusionment is the process of removal of an illusion from the human mind. ... Cynicism (Greek ) was originally the philosophy of a group of ancient Greeks called the Cynics, founded by Antisthenes. ... Nihilism (from the Latin nihil, nothing) is a philosophical position which argues that the world, especially past and current human existence, is without objective meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... End of the world may refer to: The ultimate fate of the universe, in cosmology The end of planet Earth, ultimate fate of planet Earth Risks to civilization, humans and planet Earth, future doomsday scenarios covering the end of civilization, humanity or the planet. ... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...

Lt. Col. John McCrae of Canada, who wrote the poem In Flanders Fields, died in 1918 of pneumonia

In 1915, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae of Canada wrote the memorable poem In Flanders Fields as a salute to those who perished in the Great War. It is still recited today, especially on Remembrance and Memorial Day. Portait of John McCrae, author of In Flanders Fields Source: Veterans Affairs Canada Retrieved from: http://www. ... Portait of John McCrae, author of In Flanders Fields Source: Veterans Affairs Canada Retrieved from: http://www. ... John McCrae Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist, soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the battle of Ypres. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... A small portion of In Flanders Fields appeared alongside McCraes portrait on a Canadian stamp of 1968, issued to commemorate a half-century since his death. ... Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (South Africa and Malta), and Armistice Day (United Kingdom, New Zealand and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the holiday internationally) is a day to commemorate... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ...


Other names

World War I has also been called "The Great War" (a title previously used to refer to the Napoleonic Wars) or sometimes "the war to end all wars" until World War II. "War of the Nations" and "War in Europe" were commonly employed as descriptions during the war itself and in the 1920s. In France and Belgium it was also sometimes referred to as La Guerre du Droit ('the War for Justice') or La Guerre Pour la Civilisation / de Oorlog tot de Beschaving ("the War to Preserve Civilisation"), especially on medals and commemorative monuments. The term used by official histories of the war in Britain and Canada is First World War, while American histories generally use the term World War I. In Italy it is often referred to as "La Guerra del '15 - '18" ("The 1915 - 1918 War"), and more seldom as "The Fourth War of Independence", following the other three conflicts waged against the Austrian Empire in the 19th century. Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... World War I (originally known as The Great War before World War II) was at the time and in the years just after described as the war to end all wars (or, in the jargon of the French Poilus: la der des ders, i. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In many European countries, it appears that the current usage is tending back to calling it "the Great War" / la Grande Guerre / de Grote Oorlog / der Große Krieg, because of the growing historical awareness that, of the two 20th-century world wars, the 1914-1918 conflict caused more social, economic and political upheaval. It was also one of the prime factors in the outbreak of Second World War.


Historical Era

Preceded by
Edwardian Era
World History
1914-1918
Succeeded by
Interwar Period

The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ... An interbellum is a period between wars. ...

See also

World War I Portal

The following is a list of noteworthy people who served in World War I sorted by the country for which they served. ... The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the First World War (28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918). ... This memorial in England lists the names of soldiers who died in the First World War. ... // When a World War One medal was issued, it was issued with a Service Number, Rank, Name and Regiment. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Portal. ...

Media

  • Bombers of WWI ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • Video clip of allied bombing runs over German lines.
  • Tanks of WWI ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • Primitive WWI tanks help the Allies with an advance in Langres, France (1918).
  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Bombers of WW1. ... Tanks of WWI.ogg Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Evans, David. Teach yourself, the First World War, Hodder Arnold, 2004.p.188
  2. ^ 30 October 1918 in Herbert Hoover, Ordeal of Wo<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Lupin/navpop.css&action=raw&ctype=text/css&dontcountme=s">odrow Wilson p. 47
  3. ^ “Imperialism" (1902) fordham.edu website
  4. ^ 1917 pamphlet “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism”
  5. ^ Web reference
  6. ^ Joll, James. The Origins of the First World War, 2nd ed. (Harlow, 1992), pp. 10-38
  7. ^ Boghos Nubar the president of the "Armenian National Assembly" declared to Paris Peace Conference, 1919 through a letter to French Foreign Office - December 3, 1918
  8. ^ H. W. Brands, T. R. (1997) p. 756.
  9. ^ (see: Woodrow Wilson declares war on Germany on Wikisource).
  10. ^ William John Wilgus, Transporting the A. E. F. in Western Europe, 1917-1919 p. 52
  11. ^ Stevenson, Cataclysm (2004) p 383.
  12. ^ Stevenson, Cataclysm (2004) ch 17.
  13. ^ Geo G. Phillimore and Hugh H. L. Bellot, "Treatment of Prisoners of War", Transactions of the Grotius Society Vol. 5, (1919), pp. 47-64.
  14. ^ Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War (1999) p 368-9 for data.
  15. ^ Richard B. Speed, III. Prisoners, Diplomats and the Great War: A Study in the Diplomacy of Captivity (1990); Ferguson, The Pity of War (1999) ch 13; Desmond Morton, Silent Battle: Canadian Prisoners of War in Germany, 1914-1919 1992
  16. ^ The Mesopotamia campaign. British National Archives. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  17. ^ Stolen Years: Australian Prisoners of War. Men of Kut Driven along like beasts. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  18. ^ 1.5 estimate retrieved from here. Data collected by the International Center for Transitional Justice
  19. ^ Keegan, John. The First World War. 1998. pp82-83
  20. ^ John Frederick Norman Green, 'Obituary: Albert Ernest Kitson', Geological Society, Quarterly Journal no 94, 1938, p. CXXVI
  21. ^ NAP
  22. ^ Influenza Report

October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Herbert Clark Hoover, (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Boghos Nubar (1851-1930) son of Nubar Pasha He was a liberal and disenchanted socialists with ten other Armenian national movement leaders drafted the Armenian General Benevolent Union on April 15, 1905. ... Armenian National Assembly was the governing body of the Armenian Millet established by Armenian National Constitution of 1863 under Ottoman Empire. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... Mission Statement The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) assists countries pursuing accountability for past mass atrocity or human rights abuse. ...

References

See also: List of World War I books
  • Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I (1998)
  • Cruttwell, C. R. M. F. A History of the Great War, 1914-1918 (1934), general military history
  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900-1918 (1997), despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory (1975), on literature
  • Gray, Edwyn A. The U-Boat War, 1914-1918 (1994)
  • Haber, L. F. The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War (1986)
  • Halpern, Paul G. A Naval History of World War I (1995)
  • Hardach, Gerd. The First World War 1914-1918 (1977), economics
  • Henig, Ruth The Origins of the First World War (2002)
  • Herrmann, David G. The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War(1996)
  • Herwig, Holger H. The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914-1918 (1996)
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Howard, Michael. The First World War (2002), short (175 pp) general military history
  • Hubatsch, Walther. Germany and the Central Powers in the World War, 1914-1918 (1963)
  • Joll, James. The Origins of the First World War (1984)
  • Keegan, John. The First World War (1999), general military history
  • Kennedy, David M. Over Here: The First World War and American Society (1982), covers politics & economics & society
  • Kennett, Lee B. The First Air War, 1914-1918 (1992)
  • Lee, Dwight E. ed. The Outbreak of the First World War: Who Was Responsible? (1958), readings from multiple points of view
  • Lyons, Michael J. World War I: A Short History (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall, (1999)
  • Morton, Desmond, and J. L. Granatstein Marching to Armageddon: Canadians and the Great War 1914-1919 (1989)
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Robbins, Keith. The First World War (1993), short overview
  • Silkin, Jon. ed. The Penguin Book of First World War Poetry (2nd ed. 1997)
  • Stevenson, David. Cataclysm: The First World War As Political Tragedy (2004), major reinterpretation, 560pp
  • Stevenson, David. The First World War and International Politics (2005)
  • Stokesbury, James. A Short History of World War I (1981)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004): the major scholarly synthesis. Thorough coverage of 1914; Also: The First World War (2004): a 385pp version of his multivolume history
  • Taylor, A. J. P. The First World War: An Illustrated History, Hamish Hamilton, 1963
  • Tuchman, Barbara. The Guns of August, tells of the opening diplomatic and military manoeuvres
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 vol 2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)
  • Venzon, Anne ed. The United States in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1995)
  • Winter, J. M. The Experience of World War I (2nd ed 2005), topical essays; well illustrated
  • van der Vat, Dan. The Atlantic Campaign. (1988). Connects submarine and antisubmarine operations between wars, and suggests a continuous war
  • Price, Alfred, Dr. Aircraft versus the Submarine. Deals with technical developments, including the first dipping hydrophones

List of World War I books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to World War I. There are thousands of books written about this topic; therefore, the list has been segregated into groups to make it more manageable. ... Sir John Keegan (born 1934) is an English military historian. ... Professor Jack Lawrence Granatstein, OC , Ph. ... David Stevenson (born 1954) is a British academic and historian specialising in World War One. ... David Stevenson (born 1954) is a British academic and historian specialising in World War One. ... Professor Hew Strachan is a military historian, well known for his work on the administration of the British Army and the history of the First World War. ... For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ... The Guns of August (1962) (also published as August 1914) is an enormously popular military history book written by Barbara Tuchman. ...

Literature and movies

World War I has inspired great novels, drama and poetry. ...

Poetry and songs

The Dream of the Blue Turtles is the first solo album released by Sting. ... For professional wrestler Steve Borden, see Sting (wrestler). ... All Together Now is a song by Liverpudlian pop band The Farm from their album Spartacus, and is said to link many of the bands favourite themes, Socialism, brotherhood and football. ... The Farm is a band from Liverpool, UK. They were popular through the early 1990s. ... The grave of a Willie McBride, died 1916. ... Eric Bogle (born September 23, 1944) is a Scottish-born Australian singer and songwriter. ... George Lamberts Anzac, the landing 1915, depicting the landing at Anzac Cove. ... Eric Bogle (born September 23, 1944) is a Scottish-born Australian singer and songwriter. ... They is a poem by the English soldier and poet Siegfried Sassoon disparaging the attitude of the established church to the Great War. ... Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE, MC (September 8, 1886 – September 1, 1967) was an English poet and author. ... Base Details is a war poem by the English war poet Siegfried Sassoon. ... Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE, MC (September 8, 1886 – September 1, 1967) was an English poet and author. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Anthem for Doomed Youth Anthem for Doomed Youth is one of the best-known and most popular of Wilfred Owens poems. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was an English poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Dulce et Decorum Est is a poem written by English poet and World War I soldier Wilfred Owen in 1917, and published posthumously in 1921. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was an English poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Disabled is a poem written by Wilfred Owen, a World War I poet. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was an English poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Over There is a 1917 song popular with United States soldiers in both world wars. ... George M. Cohan George Michael Cohan (July 3 or July 4, 1878 – November 5, 1942) was a United States entertainer, playwright, composer, lyricist, actor, singer, dancer, director, and producer of Irish descent. ... A small portion of In Flanders Fields appeared alongside McCraes portrait on a Canadian stamp of 1968, issued to commemorate a half-century since his death. ... John McCrae Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist, soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the battle of Ypres. ... On Receiving News of the War is a poem by Isaac Rosenberg which he wrote after hearing of the outbreak of World War I while in Cape Town, South Africa. ... Isaac Rosenberg (November 25, 1890 - April 1, 1918) was a Jewish-English poet of the First World War who was one of the greatest of all British war poets. ...

Books and novels

Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... Henri Barbusse (May 17, 1873 - August 30, 1935) was a French novelist and journalist. ... Storm of Steel (in German: In Stahlgewittern, ISBN 0865273103) is the memoir of German officer Ernst Jüngers experiences on the Western Front during the First World War. ... Ernst Jünger as a soldier in World War I Ernst Jünger, (March 29, 1895 – February 17, 1998) was a German author of novels and accounts of his war experiences. ... Rilla of Ingleside (1921) is the final book in the Anne of Green Gables series by Lucy Maud Montgomery, but was the sixth of the eight Anne novels she wrote. ... Lucy Maud Montgomery (November 30, 1874 - April 24, 1942) was a Canadian author, best known for a series of novels beginning with Anne of Green Gables. ... Three Soldiers is a 1921 novel by the American writer and critic John Dos Passos. ... John Rodrigo Dos Passos (January 14, 1896 — September 28, 1970) was an important Portuguese-American novelist and artist. ... Plot Summary Willa Cathers novel One of Ours, winner of the 1923 Pulitzer Prize, tells the story of the life of Claude Wheeler, a native of Nebraska around the turn of the 20th century. ... Willa Cather photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1936 Wilella Sibert Cather (December 7, 1873[1] – April 24, 1947) is among the most eminent American authors. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel... T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... The Good Soldier Å vejk is an unfinished satirical novel by Jaroslav HaÅ¡ek. ... Jaroslav HaÅ¡ek Jaroslav HaÅ¡ek (IPA: ) (April 30, 1883 in Prague – January 3 , 1923 in Lipnice nad Sázavou ) was a Czech humorist and satirist who became well-known mainly for his world-famous novel The Good Soldier Å vejk, an unfinished collection of farcical incidents about a soldier in... For the films, see All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film) and All Quiet on the Western Front (1979 film). ... Erich Maria Remarque (June 22, 1898 – September 25, 1970) was the pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, a German author. ... Death of a Hero is a World War I novel by Richard Aldington. ... Richard Aldington (July 8, 1892 &#8211; July 27, 1962) was an English writer and poet. ... A Farewell to Arms is a semi-autobiographical novel written by Ernest Hemingway in 1929. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Goodbye to All That, an autobiography by Robert Graves, first appeared in print in 1929. ... Portrait of Robert Graves (circa 1974) by Rab Shiell Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 5 November 1955) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... A series of books by the English poet and novelist, Siegfried Sassoon, consisting of Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man, Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, and Sherstons Progress. ... Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE, MC (September 8, 1886 – September 1, 1967) was an English poet and author. ... Testament of Youth is the first instalment, covering 1913-1925, in the autobiography of Vera Brittain. ... Vera Mary Brittain, Lady Catlin (1893 – March 29, 1970) was an English writer, feminist and pacifist, best remembered as the author of the best-selling memoir Testament of Youth, recounting her experiences during the First World War and the growth of her ideology of specifically Anglican Christian pacifism. ... Paths of Glory (1957) is an anti-war film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb. ... Humphrey Cobb (September 5, 1899 - April 25, 1944) was a screenwriter and novelist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the 1997 film adaption of the novel see Regeneration (1997 film). ... The Eye in the Door is a novel by Pat Barker, first published in 1993, and forming the second part of the Regeneration trilogy. ... The Ghost Road is a novel by Pat Barker, first published in 1995 and winner of the Booker Prize. ... Pat Barker (born May 8, 1943) is an English writer and historian. ... Birdsong is a 1993 war novel by the English author Sebastian Faulks. ... 88. ... Anne Perry (born October 28, 1938), born Juliet Hulme in England, is a British historical novelist and convicted murderer (see also Parker-Hulme Murder). ... Deafening is a book of fiction written by Frances Itani This article about a novel is a stub. ... Francis Itani (born 1942) is a novelist, short story writer, and poet based in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Sebastian Barry (born 1955 in Dublin) is an Irish playwright and novelist. ... For other uses, see To the Last Man (disambiguation). ... Jeffrey M. Shaara (born 1952) is an American novelist, the son of Pulitzer Prize winner Michael Shaara. ... Johnny Got His Gun is an anti-war novel written in 1939 by American novelist and screenwriter Dalton Trumbo. ... Dalton Trumbo (December 9, 1905 – September 10, 1976) was an American screenwriter and novelist, and a member of the Hollywood Ten, one of group of film professionals who refused to testify before the 1947 House Un-American Activities Committee about alleged communist involvement. ... Johnny Got His Gun is a 1971 anti-war film written and directed by Dalton Trumbo and starred by Timothy Bottoms, Jason Robards and Donald Sutherland. ...

Films, plays, television series and mini-series

For the 1962 film version, see Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (film). ... Rex Ingram & Alice Terry Rex Ingram (January 12, 1893 – July 21, 1950) was a film director, producer, writer and actor. ... Vicente Blasco Ibáñez Woman Triumphant, a translation of La maja desnuda by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez into English Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (January 29, 1867 - January 28, 1928) was a Spanish realist novelist writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director. ... Mare Nostrum (1926) is a silent film set during World War I. Production The young Michael Powell worked as an apprentice grip on the film, having been introduced by set-designer Harry Lachman. ... Wings is a 1927 silent movie about fighter pilots during World War I (Charles Buddy Rogers and Richard Arlen), who vie for the same girl (Clara Bow) directed by William Wellman. ... William Augustus Wellman (February 29, 1896 - December 9, 1975) was an American movie director. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Journeys End is the seventh and most famous play by R. C. Sherriff. ... Robert Cedric Sherriff (6 June 1896 – 13 November 1975) was an English writer. ... All Quiet on the Western Front is the name of two films based on the Erich Maria Remarque novel All Quiet on the Western Front, one a cinematic treatment directed by Lewis Milestone, the other a television film directed by Delbert Mann. ... Lewis Milestone (born Lev Milstein) (September 30, 1895 - September 25, 1980) was an accomplished, and award-winning motion picture director. ... Erich Maria Remarque (June 22, 1898 – September 25, 1970) was the pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, a German author. ... Hells Angels Theatrical Release poster Hells Angels was a 1930 film directed by Howard Hughes. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... La Grande Illusion is a 1937 film by renowned director Jean Renoir (1894-1979)—son of artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir—and is regarded by critics and film historians as one of the masterpieces of French cinema. ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... For the unsuccessful U.S. weapon system, see M247 Sergeant York. ... Howard Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... Yankee Doodle Dandy is a 1942 biographical film about George M. Cohan, starring James Cagney, Joan Leslie, Walter Huston, Richard Whorf, Irene Manning, George Tobias, Rosemary DeCamp and Jeanne Cagney. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director, whose best known films include The Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca, and White Christmas. ... Paths of Glory (1957) is an anti-war film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb. ... Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an influential and acclaimed American film director and producer. ... Humphrey Cobb (September 5, 1899 - April 25, 1944) was a screenwriter and novelist. ... During World War I, the river Drina (located in Bosnia and Serbia)was the site of a bloody battle between the Serbian and Austro-Hungarian army, the Battle of Cer, from September 8 to September 16, 1914 To honour the bravery of the fallen, the Serbian composer Stanislav Binički... The war film is a film genre that has to do with warfare, usually focusing on naval, air, or land battles, but sometimes focusing instead on prisoners of war, covert operations, military training, or other related subjects. ... The Battle of Cer was one of the first battles of the First World War. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 &#8211; May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916&#8211;1918. ... T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born Peter James OToole on August 2, 1932) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 Chihuahua, Mexico – June 3, 2001 Boston, Massachusetts) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican-American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... For Pakistani actor of same name see Umer Sharif. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. Its current president is Sean McManus who is also head of CBS Sports. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Correlli Barnett (born June 28, 1927 in Norbury, Surrey) is an English military historian, who has written also on the United Kingdoms industrial decline. ... Doctor Zhivago (Russian: Доктор Живаго) is a 1965 film directed by David Lean and loosely based on the famous novel of the same name by Boris Pasternak. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Russian: ) (February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1890 – May 30, 1960) was a Nobel Prize winner Russian poet, writer best known in the West for his epic novel Doctor Zhivago, a tragedy whose events span the last period of Czarist Russia and the early days of the... The Blue Max is a 1966 United Kingdom World War I film, directed by John Guillermin, filmed in Ireland, starring George Peppard, James Mason, Ursula Andress and Jeremy Kemp. ... John Guillermin (born on November 11, 1925 in London, England), is a film director, writer, and producer who was most active in big budget, action adventure movies throughout his lengthy career. ... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... Oh! What A Lovely War began life in 1963 as a stage musical by Joan Littlewood and her London Theatre Workshop based on a book by the historian Alan Clark. ... Sir Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE (born August 29, 1923) is a prolific English film and stage actor, and Academy Award, BAFTA and three-time Golden Globe winning director, producer and entrepreneur. ... The Fantasticks is the longest-running musical in history. ... Joan Maud Littlewood (6 October 1914 - 20 September 2002) was a theatrical director, famous for her work in developing the left-wing Theatre Workshop. ... Johnny Got His Gun is a 1971 anti-war film written and directed by Dalton Trumbo and starred by Timothy Bottoms, Jason Robards and Donald Sutherland. ... Johnny Got His Gun is an anti-war novel written in 1939 by American novelist and screenwriter Dalton Trumbo. ... Dalton Trumbo (December 9, 1905 – September 10, 1976) was an American screenwriter and novelist, and a member of the Hollywood Ten, one of group of film professionals who refused to testify before the 1947 House Un-American Activities Committee about alleged communist involvement. ... Gallipoli is a 1981 Australian film, directed by Peter Weir and starring Mel Gibson, about several young men from rural Western Australia who enlist in the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War. ... Peter Lindsay Weir (born August 21, 1944) is an Australian film director. ... Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme, is perhaps one of Frank McGuinnesss most respected plays. ... Frank McGuinness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Lighthorsemen is a 1987 Australian feature film. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The second series of Blackadder was set in Elizabethan England, starring (left to right) Tony Robinson as Baldrick, Rowan Atkinson as Edmund, Lord Blackadder, and Tim McInnerny as Lord Percy Percy. ... Richard Curtis in London, 1999 Richard Curtis CBE, (born 8 November 1956), is a New Zealand-born British screenwriter, best known for the TV programmes Blackadder and The Vicar of Dibley as well as movies such as Four Weddings and a Funeral, Notting Hill, and Love Actually. ... Benjamin Charles Elton (born 3 May 1959) is an English comedian, writer and director. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ... For the 1997 film adaption of the novel see Regeneration (1997 film). ... Gillies MacKinnon (born 8 January 1948 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a Scottish film director and writer. ... Pat Barker (born May 8, 1943) is an English writer and historian. ... The Lost Battalion is the name given to eight American units of the 77th Division, roughly 550 men, isolated by German forces during World War I after an American attack in the Argonne Forest in October 1918. ... Russell Mulcahy (born January 1, 1953) is a film director, born in Melbourne, Australia. ... A Very Long Engagement (Un long dimanche de fiançailles) is a novel by Sebastien Japrisot, first published in 1993. ... Jean-Pierre Jeunet (born 3 September 1953) is a French film director. ... Sébastien Japrisot (July 4, 1931 – March 4, 2003) is a French author, screenwriter and film director, born in Marseille. ... Merry Christmas (French title: Joyeux Noël) is a 2005 film about the Christmas truce of December 1914 by French, British and German solidiers of World War I, written and directed by Christian Carion. ... A cross, left near Ypres in Belgium in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce in 1914. ... Actor-Director Paul Gross with a movie poster for Passchendaele at the news conference announcing the release of the film in November 2005. ... Paul Michael Gross (born 30 April 1959), is a Canadian actor, producer, director, singer and writer born in Calgary, Alberta. ... Flyboys is a 2006 drama film set during World War I. Starring James Franco, Martin Henderson, Jean Reno, Jennifer Decker, David Ellison and Tyler Labine. ... Tony Bill (born 23 August 1940, San Diego, California) is an American actor, producer, and director. ... The Military of France has a long history of serving its country. ...

External links

Listen to this article (3 parts) · (info)
Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3
Spoken Wikipedia
This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-0624, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
  • A Guide to World War I Materials at the Library of Congress
  • Chronology World War I World History Database
  • A multimedia history of World War I
  • The War to End All Wars on BBC
  • “The Heritage of the Great War” with numerous pictures (many in color!)
  • Royal Engineers Museum The Royal Engineers and the First World War
  • GenealogyBuff.com — World War I Casualty Reports for the U.S. Army 1918
  • The British Army in the Great War
  • A history of opposition to the war in Britain
  • The French Army in the Great War
  • World War I — Wars And Battles
  • Encyclopedia of the First World War
  • Trenches on the Web
  • Online World War I Records & Indexes
  • World War I Document Archive
  • The Medical Front WWI
  • World War I Naval Combat
  • Wanted! 500 000 Canadians for WWI — Illustrated Historical Essay
  • Memoirs of the Great War — A personal account in diary format of one man’s experiences throughout the Great War
  • War diaries of TF Littler A personal account, war postcards and propaganda comic postcards
  • Mediatheque Autochromes — French site with many color photographs from WWI
  • The World War I Years — NVR’s Film & Discussion Series in Public Libraries
  • WWW-VL: Military History: The Great War 1914-1918
  • WWI links
  • Chailey 1914-1918 - A Sussex community's response to the First World War
  • canadiansoldiers.com
  • World War I Poster Collection hosted by the University of North Texas Libraries' Digital Collections
  • German submarine industries WWI
  • Documents of World War One
  • First World War in the News
  • Last Days before the day of fate, by German Historian Guido Knopp, as 1999 History repeated - saved by Web.Archive.org in 2000
  • The Great War in a Different Light Photographs, illustrations, postcards, artists, period newspaper and magazine articles/excerpts, complete war-time books. Material in English, French, Dutch, German, Spanish

Image File history File links World_War_I_(part_1). ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... North Texas. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
World War I - MSN Encarta (1333 words)
World War I, military conflict, from August 1914 to November 1918, that involved many of the countries of Europe as well as the United States and other nations throughout the world.
World War I was one of the most violent and destructive wars in European history.
The immediate cause of the war was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Serbian nationalist.
World War I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (10350 words)
Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles treaty was signed in 1919; by contrast, most commemorations of the war’s end concentrate on the armistice of November 11, 1918.
With World War I in progress, the Turks accused the (Christian) Armenians as liable to ally with Russia, and used it as a pretext to deal with the entire Armenian population as an enemy within their empire.
During the war, the Haber process of nitrogen fixation was employed to provide the German forces with a continuing supply of powder for the ongoing conflict in the face of British naval control over the trade routes for naturally occurring nitrates.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m