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Encyclopedia > World peace

World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations. It is the professed ambition of many past and present world leaders. For other uses, see Freedom. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Definition

World peace is the utopian ideal of planetary non-violence by which nations willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance which prevents warfare. World peace is also the equivalent to the game Super Smash Bros. Brawl, and serves as the archetype of a new generation of peace. See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... Super Smash Bros. ...


Some see a trend in national politics by which city-states and nation-states have unified, and suggest that the international arena will follow suit. Many countries such as China, Italy, the United States, and Germany have unified into single nation-states, with others like the European Union and African Union following suit, suggesting that further globalization will bring about a unified world order. A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... The term New World Order has been used several times in recent history, referring to what appeared to be a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power. ...


Many interpretations of the concept are not overtly political, however. To some, world peace may simply mean the resolution of global and regional conflict through nonviolent means. Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ...


If peace is defined as the absence of hostility, violence and conflict, world peace would imply a worldwide end to violence and thus to institutions which rely on threats of violence to sustain their existence. It follows that there could be no law enforcement, because force is a form of conflict. Without law enforcement, there could be no laws, except those which everyone voluntarily agrees to follow. Finally, there could be no governments of the type that rely on threats of violence to collect taxes, maintain their borders, or govern their citizens. Considered in this light, world peace goes beyond the cessation of nation-state warfare and calls for dramatic changes in most of the political institutions familiar to people worldwide. Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ...


Plausibility

Although world peace is theoretically possible, many believe that it is impossible to achieve.[1][2][3]


The plausibility of world peace tacitly relies on the assumption of rational agents that base their decisions on future consequences, which is not self-evident. Bertrand Russell once expressed his skepticism regarding world peace: Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...

After ages during which the earth produced harmless trilobites and butterflies, evolution progressed to the point at which it has generated Neros, Genghis Khans, and Hitlers. This, however, I believe is a passing nightmare; in time the earth will become again incapable of supporting life, and peace will return.1

World peace theories

Many theories as to how world peace could be achieved have been proposed. Several of these are listed below.


Various political ideologies

World peace is sometimes claimed to be the inevitable result of a certain political ideology. According to the President of the United States, George W. Bush: "The march of democracy will lead to world peace."[4] An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Leon Trotsky, a Marxist theorist, assumed that the world revolution would lead to a communist world peace.[5] Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ...


The democratic peace theory

Proponents of the controversial democratic peace theory claim that strong empirical evidence exists that democracies never or rarely wage war against each other. Several researchers find no wars between well-established liberal democracies.[6] Jack Levy (1988) made an oft-quoted assertion that the theory is "as close as anything we have to an empirical law in international relations". The democratic peace theory, liberal peace theory,[1] or simply the democratic peace is a theory and related empirical research in international relations, political science, and philosophy which holds that democracies — usually, liberal democracies — never or almost never go to war with one another. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...


An increasing number of nations have become democratic since the industrial revolution. A world peace may thus become possible if this trend continues and if the democratic peace theory is correct. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


There are, however, several possible exceptions to this theory. There are now several hundred academic books and papers on the theory. ...


Cobdenism

Some proponents of Cobdenism claim that by removing tariffs and creating international free trade, wars would become impossible, because free trade prevents a nation from becoming self-sufficient, which is a requirement for long wars. For example, if one country produces firearms and another produces ammunition, the two could not fight each other, because the former would be unable to procure ammunition and the latter would be unable to obtain weapons. Cobdenism is economic theory, focusing on the free market and free trade named for the British statesman and economist Richard Cobden. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


Critics argue that free trade does not prevent a nation from establishing some sort of emergency plan to become temporarily self-sufficient in case of war or that a nation could simply acquire what it needs from a different nation.


More generally, other proponents argue that free trade, while not making wars impossible, will make wars, and restrictions on trade caused by wars, very costly for international companies with production, research, and sales in many different nations. Thus there will be a powerful lobby arguing against wars that is not present if there are only national companies.


Mutual assured destruction

Mutual assured destruction (sometimes known as MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.[7] Proponents of the policy of mutual assured destruction during the Cold War attributed this to the increase in the lethality of war to the point where it no longer offers the possibility of a net gain for either side, thereby making wars pointless. Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


Isolationism and non-interventionism

Proponents of isolationism and non-interventionism claim that a world made up of many nations can peacefully coexist as long as they each establish a stronger focus on domestic affairs and do not try to impose their will on other nations. For the electronic album, see Isolationism (album). ... Nonintervention or Non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. ...


Non-interventionism should not be confused with isolationism. Isolationism, like non-interventionism advises avoiding interference into other nation's internal affairs, but also emphasizes protectionism and restriction of international trade and travel. Non-interventionism, on the other hand, advocates combining free trade (like Cobdenism) with political and military non-interference. Nonintervention or Non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. ... For the electronic album, see Isolationism (album). ... For the electronic album, see Isolationism (album). ... Nonintervention or Non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Nonintervention or Non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Cobdenism is economic theory, focusing on the free market and free trade named for the British statesman and economist Richard Cobden. ...


Nations like Japan are perhaps the best known for establishing isolationist policies in the past. The Japanese Edo, Tokugawa, initiated the Edo Period, an isolationist period where Japan cut itself off from the world as a whole. This is a well-known isolation period and well documented in many areas. This article is about the history of the city now known as Tokyo. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


Contemporary Western democractic mainstream politics is mostly interventionist[citation needed] For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ...


Self-organized peace

World peace has been depicted as a consequence of local, self-determined behaviors which inhibit the institutionalization of power and ensuing violence. The solution is not so much based on an agreed agenda, or an investment in higher authority whether divine or political, but rather a self-organized network of mutually supportive mechanisms, resulting in a viable politico-economic social fabric. Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ...


Dr. Frank Laubach, an American missionary to the Philippines in 1935 saw poverty, injustice and illiteracy as impediments to world peace.[8] He developed the "Each One Teach One" literacy program which taught about 60 million people to read in their own language. Dr. Frank C. Laubach (September 2, 1884—June 11, 1970) was a Christian Evangelical missionary and mystic known as The Apostle to the Illiterates. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Religious views of world peace

Bahá'í Faith

With specific regard to the pursuit of world peace, Bahá'u'lláh of the Bahá'í Faith prescribed a world-embracing Collective Security arrangement as necessary for the establishment of a lasting peace. The Universal House of Justice wrote about the process in The Promise of World Peace. Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ...


Buddhists

Many Buddhists believe that world peace can only be achieved if we first establish peace within our minds. Siddhārtha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, said, “Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”[9] The idea is that anger and other negative states of mind are the cause of wars and fighting. They believe we can live in peace and harmony only if we abandon the anger in our minds and learn to love each other and practice altruism. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ...


Christians

The basic Christian ideal promotes peace through goodwill and by sharing the faith with others, as well as forgiving those who do try to break the peace. Below are selections from two gospels: For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


"But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust." Matthew 5:44 - 45


"A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another. By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another." John 13:34-35


Hinduism

Traditionally Hinduism has adopted a saying called Vasuda eva kutumbakam[10] which translates to "The world is one family." The essence of this saying is the observation that only base minds see dichotomies and divisions. The more we seek wisdom, the more we become inclusive and free our internal spirit from worldly illusions or Maya. World peace is hence thought to be achieved only through internal means -- by liberating oneself from artificial boundaries that separate us.


Islam

According to Islam, faith in only one God and having common parents Adam and Eve is greatest reason for humans to live together with peace and brotherhood. Islamic view of global peace is mentioned in the Quran where the whole humanity is recognized as one family. All the people are children of Adam. The purpose of the Islamic faith is to make people recognize their own natural inclination towards their fraternity. According to Islamic eschatology the whole world will be united under the leadership of prophet Jesus in his second coming. At that time love, justice and peace will be so abundant that the world will be in likeness of paradise. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In Jacqueline Careys work, he is called by the Yeshuites Adonai, and is the equivalent of God in modern Christianity, with Yeshua (Jesus) as his son, messiah, and prophet. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ...


See also

Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... Perpetual Peace is one of Immanuel Kants political writings that outline what is needed for prevention of furure wars and injustices. ...

References

  1. ^ Generation Y Continues by Remy Benoit
  2. ^ Ivory Coast Prove That World Peace is Impossible
  3. ^ World peace is impossible By Mignonchang - Posted on August 17th, 2007
  4. ^ President Meets with Bulgarian President Georgi Purvanov
  5. ^ Leon Trotsky: War and the International (1914)
  6. ^ [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], (Rummel 1997), (Ray 1995), (Weart 1998).
  7. ^ Mutual Assured Destruction; Col. Alan J. Parrington, USAF, Mutually Assured Destruction Revisited, Strategic Doctrine in Question, Airpower Journal, Winter 1997.
  8. ^ Dr.Frank Laubach
  9. ^ Quote by Siddhārtha Gautama
  10. ^ http://www.hindudharmaforums.com/showthread.php?t=969&page=3

Citations

  • 1: Cited by Judy Toth, Bertrand Russell Quarterly, February 2003.

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy [2000]. Global communication without universal civilization, INU societal research Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 

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