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Encyclopedia > World Wide Web
Internet Portal
"The World Wide Web" and "WWW" redirect here. For other uses, see Web and WWW (disambiguation).
"Web surfing" redirects here. For the Web browser, see WorldWideWeb.
WWW's historic logo designed by Robert Cailliau
WWW's historic logo designed by Robert Cailliau

The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks. The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of Web standards (such as the markup languages in which Web pages are composed), and in recent years has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. Robert Cailliau, also at CERN Image File history File links Portal. ... Look up web in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up WWW in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... WorldWideWeb was the worlds first web browser and WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) HTML editor. ... Image File history File links WWWlogo. ... Image File history File links WWWlogo. ... Robert Cailliau. ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... Write redirects here. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... W3Cs Semantic Web logo The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and... Robert Cailliau. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...

Contents

How the Web works

Viewing a Web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a Web browser, or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The Web browser then initiates a series of communication messages, behind the scenes, in order to fetch and display it. A screenshot of a web page. ... // Uniform Resource Locator (URL) formerly known as Universal Resource Locator, is a technical, Web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage and many technical documents, it is a synonym for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); Strictly, the idea of a uniform syntax for global identifiers of network-retrievable... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ...


First, the server-name portion of the URL is resolved into an IP address using the global, distributed Internet database known as the domain name system, or DNS. This IP address is necessary to contact and send data packets to the Web server. An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a unique address that certain electronic devices currently use in order to identify and communicate with each other on a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol standard (IP)—in simpler terms, a computer address. ... The Domain Name System (DNS) associates various sorts of information with domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e. ... In information technology, a packet is a formatted block of data carried by a packet mode computer network. ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are...


The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request to the Web server at that particular address. In the case of a typical Web page, the HTML text of the page is requested first and parsed immediately by the Web browser, which will then make additional requests for images and any other files that form a part of the page. Statistics measuring a website's popularity are usually based on the number of 'page views' or associated server 'hits', or file requests, which take place. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ... HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... An example of parsing a mathematical expression. ... A Page view is generally defined as a request to load a single page of an Internet site. ... A Hit is a request to a Web server for a file (image, HTML, javascript or cascading style sheet etc). ...


Having received the required files from the Web server, the browser then renders the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML, CSS, and other Web languages. Any images and other resources are incorporated to produce the on-screen Web page that the user sees. A layout engine, or rendering engine, is a software that takes web content (such as HTML, XML, image files, etc) and formatting information (such as CSS, XSL, etc) and displays the formatted content on the screen. ... CSS redirects here. ...


Most Web pages will themselves contain hyperlinks to other related pages and perhaps to downloads, source documents, definitions and other Web resources. Such a collection of useful, related resources, interconnected via hypertext links, is what was dubbed a "web" of information. Making it available on the Internet created what Tim Berners-Lee first called the WorldWideWeb (a term written in CamelCase, subsequently discarded) in 1990.[1] // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the year. ...


History

This NeXTcube used by Berners-Lee at CERN became the first Web server.

The underlying ideas of the Web can be traced as far back as 1980, when, at CERN in Switzerland, Tim Berners-Lee built ENQUIRE (referring to Enquire Within Upon Everything, a book he recalled from his youth). While it was rather different from the system in use today, it contained many of the same core ideas (and even some of the ideas of Berners-Lee's next project after the World Wide Web, the Semantic Web). Today, the Web and the Internet allow connectivity from literally everywhere on earth—even ships at sea and in outer space. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summary This NeXT workstation (a NeXTcube) was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first Web server on the. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summary This NeXT workstation (a NeXTcube) was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first Web server on the. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... ENQUIRE was an early project (in the second half of 1980) of Tim Berners-Lee, who went on to create the World Wide Web in 1989. ... Enquire Within Upon Everything is a late 19th century how-to book for domestic life. ... W3Cs Semantic Web logo The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and...


In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal,[2] which referenced ENQUIRE and described a more elaborate information management system. With help from Robert Cailliau, he published a more formal proposal for the World Wide Web on November 12, 1990.[3] The role model was provided by EBT's (Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University) Dynatext SGML reader that CERN had licensed. The Dynatext system was considered, however technically advanced (a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime), too expensive and with an inappropriate licensing policy for general HEP (High Energy Physics) community use: a fee for each document and each time a document was charged. Robert Cailliau. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... HyTime - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


A NeXTcube was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first Web server and also to write the first Web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web:[4] the first Web browser (which was a Web editor as well), the first Web server, and the first Web pages[5] which described the project itself. The NeXT Computer and NeXTcube were high-end workstation computers developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1988 until 1993. ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... WorldWideWeb was the worlds first web browser and WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) HTML editor. ... WorldWideWeb was the worlds first web browser and WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) HTML editor. ...


On August 6, 1991, he posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup.[6] This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet. is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ...


First server outside of Europe was created at SLAC in December 1991 [7]. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a U.S. national laboratory operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Department of Energy. ...


The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University--- among others Ted Nelson and Andries van Dam--- Ted Nelson's Project Xanadu and Douglas Engelbart's oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's microfilm-based "memex," which was described in the 1945 essay "As We May Think". In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... Theodor Holm Nelson is an American sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. ... Andries Andy van Dam is a professor of computer science and former Vice-President for Research at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Theodor Holm Nelson is an American sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. ... Project Xanadu was founded by Ted Nelson in 1960 as the original hypertext project. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ... The NLS workstation showing the CRT display, keyboard, pushbuttons, and mouse NLS, or the oNLine System, was a revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... Microfilm machines may be available at libraries or record archives. ... The memex was a theoretical analog computer described by the scientist and engineer Vannevar Bush in the 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article As We May Think. The word was a portmanteau of memory extender. Bush described the device as electronically linked to a library and able to display books and... Vannevar Bushs essay As We May Think, first published in The Atlantic Monthly in July 1945, argued that as humans turned from war, scientific efforts should shift from increasing physical abilities to making all previous collected human knowledge more accessible. ...


Berners-Lee's breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. In his book Weaving The Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities, but when no one took up his invitation, he finally tackled the project himself. In the process, he developed a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere: the Uniform Resource Identifier. A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. ...


The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems that were then available. The Web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones. This made it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing Web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. Link rot is the process by which links on a website gradually become irrelevant or broken as time goes on, because websites that they link to disappear, change their content or redirect to new locations. ... HyperCard was an application program from Apple Computer that was among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web. ...


On April 30, 1993, CERN announced[8] that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due. Coming two months after the announcement that the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web. An early popular Web browser was ViolaWWW, which was based upon HyperCard. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... Screenshot of ViolaWWW ViolaWWW, first developed in the early 1990s, was the first popular web browser (though to a limited audience) which until Mosaic, was the most frequently used for access to the World Wide Web. ... HyperCard was an application program from Apple Computer that was among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web. ...


Scholars generally agree, however, that the turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction[9] of the Mosaic Web browser[10] in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, a funding program initiated by then-Senator Al Gore's High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, also known as the Gore Bill.[11] (See Al Gore's contributions to the Internet and technology for more information.) Prior to the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in Web pages, and its popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet, such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). Mosaic's graphical user interface allowed the Web to become, by far, the most popular Internet protocol. This article is about the browser produced by NCSA. For the browser that was later renamed, see Netscape Navigator. ... This article is about the browser produced by NCSA. For the browser that was later renamed, see Netscape Navigator. ... National Center for Supercomputing Applications NCSA Building, 1205 W. Clark St. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Plaque commemorating the creation of Mosaic web browser by Bina and Andreessen, new NCSA building, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... The High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 (HPCA) was a bill created and introduced by then Senator Al Gore (it was thus referred to as the [1]) It was passed on 09 December 1991. ... The High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 (HPCA) was a bill created and introduced by then Senator Al Gore (it was thus referred to as the [1]) It was passed on 09 December 1991. ... Al Gore, Official portrait, 1994 Al Gore, former Vice-President of the United States (1993-2001) and 2000 Democratic Party presidential nominee, has been involved in the development of the Internet and technology since the 1970s. ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... WAIS: Acronym for Wide Area Information Servers. ...


The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October, 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) -- which had pioneered the Internet -- and the European Commission. CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


History in literature

The concept of a home-based global information system goes back at least as far as Isaac Asimov's short story "Anniversary" (Amazing Stories, March 1959), in which the characters look up information on a home computer called a "Multivac outlet" — which was connected by a "planetwide network of circuits" to a mile-long "super-computer" somewhere in the bowels of the Earth. One character is thinking of installing a Multivac, Jr. model for his kids. Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... First issue of Amazing Stories, art by Frank R. Paul Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, was first published in April 1926 in New York City, thereby becoming the first magazine devoted exclusively to publishing stories in the genre presently known as science fiction (SF). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... Multivac is the name of a fictional computer in many stories by Isaac Asimov from 1955 to 1975. ...


The story was set in the far distant future when commercial space travel was commonplace, and yet the machine "prints the answer on a slip of tape" that comes out a slot — there is no video display — and the owner of the home computer says that he doesn't spend the kind of money to get a Multivac outlet that talks.


Standards

Main article: Web standards

Many formal standards and other technical specifications define the operation of different aspects of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and computer information exchange. Many of the documents are the work of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Berners-Lee, but some are produced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and other organizations. Web standards is a general term for the formal standards and other technical specifications that define and describe aspects of the World Wide Web. ... WWWC redirects here. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. ...


Usually, when Web standards are discussed, the following publications are seen as foundational:

Additional publications provide definitions of other essential technologies for the World Wide Web, including, but not limited to, the following: A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... CSS Zen garden with the Paravion style sheet CSS Zen garden with the Uncultivated style sheet Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a computer language used to describe the presentation of a structured document written in HTML, XHTML or XML. The CSS specification is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium... CSS redirects here. ... ECMAScript is a scripting programming language, standardized by Ecma International in the ECMA-262 specification. ... JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development. ... Ecma International is an international, private (membership-based) standards organization for information and communication systems. ... Hierarchy of objects in an example HTML DOM - Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform- and language-independent standard object model for representing HTML or XML and related formats. ...

  • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is a universal system for referencing resources on the Internet, such as hypertext documents and images. URIs, often called URLs, are defined by the IETF's RFC 3986 / STD 66: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, as well as its predecessors and numerous URI scheme-defining RFCs;
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), especially as defined by RFC 2616: HTTP/1.1 and RFC 2617: HTTP Authentication, which specify how the browser and server authenticate each other.

A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. ... In the field of computer networking, a URI scheme is the top level of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) naming structure. ... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ...

Java and JavaScript

A significant advance in Web technology was Sun Microsystems' Java platform. It enables Web pages to embed small programs (called applets) directly into the view. These applets run on the end-user's computer, providing a richer user interface than simple Web pages. Java client-side applets never gained the popularity that Sun had hoped for a variety of reasons, including lack of integration with other content (applets were confined to small boxes within the rendered page) and the fact that many computers at the time were supplied to end users without a suitably installed Java Virtual Machine, and so required a download by the user before applets would appear. Adobe Flash now performs many of the functions that were originally envisioned for Java applets, including the playing of video content, animation, and some rich UI features. Java itself has become more widely used as a platform and language for server-side and other programming. Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. ... An applet is a software component that runs in the context of another program, for example a web browser. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... Adobe Flash - previously called Shockwave Flash and Macromedia Flash - is a set of multimedia technologies developed and distributed by Adobe Systems and earlier by Macromedia. ... GUI redirects here. ... Java language redirects here. ... In computer networking, the term server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client-server relationship. ...


JavaScript, on the other hand, is a scripting language that was initially developed for use within Web pages. The standardized version is ECMAScript. While its name is similar to Java, JavaScript was developed by Netscape and it has almost nothing to do with Java, although, like Java, its syntax is derived from the C programming language. In conjunction with a Web page's Document Object Model, JavaScript has become a much more powerful technology than its creators originally envisioned. The manipulation of a page's Document Object Model after the page is delivered to the client has been called Dynamic HTML (DHTML), to emphasize a shift away from static HTML displays. JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development. ... Scripting programming languages (commonly called scripting languages or script languages) are computer programming languages designed for scripting the operation of a computer. ... ECMAScript is a scripting programming language, standardized by Ecma International in the ECMA-262 specification. ... Netscape Communications Corporation was the publisher of the Netscape Navigator web browser as well as many other internet and intranet client and server software products. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Hierarchy of objects in an example HTML DOM - Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform- and language-independent standard object model for representing HTML or XML and related formats. ... Dynamic HTML or DHTML is a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (Cascading Style Sheets, CSS), and the Document Object...


In simple cases, all the optional information and actions available on a JavaScript-enhanced Web page will have been downloaded when the page was first delivered. Ajax ("Asynchronous JavaScript And XML") is a group of inter-related web development techniques used for creating interactive web applications that provide a method whereby parts within a Web page may be updated, using new information obtained over the network at a later time in response to user actions. This allows the page to be more responsive, interactive and interesting, without the user having to wait for whole-page reloads. Ajax is seen as an important aspect of what is being called Web 2.0. Examples of Ajax techniques currently in use can be seen in Gmail, Google Maps, and other dynamic Web applications. AJAX redirects here. ... On September 30, 2005, Tim OReilly wrote a piece summarizing his view of Web 2. ... For other uses, see Gmail (disambiguation). ... Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps...


Publishing Web pages

Web page production is available to individuals outside the mass media. In order to publish a Web page, one does not have to go through a publisher or other media institution, and potential readers could be found in all corners of the globe. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ...


Many different kinds of information are available on the Web, and for those who wish to know other societies, cultures, and peoples, it has become easier.


The increased opportunity to publish materials is observable in the countless personal and social networking pages, as well as sites by families, small shops, etc., facilitated by the emergence of free Web hosting services. Web hosting is a service that provides individuals, organizations and users with online systems for storing information, images, video, or any content accessible via the Web. ...


Statistics

According to a 2001 study, there were more than 550 billion documents on the Web, mostly in the "invisible Web", or deep Web.[12] A 2002 survey of 2,024 million Web pages[13] determined that by far the most Web content was in English: 56.4%; next were pages in German (7.7%), French (5.6%), and Japanese (4.9%). A more recent study, which used Web searches in 75 different languages to sample the Web, determined that there were over 11.5 billion Web pages in the publicly indexable Web as of the end of January 2005.[14] As of 2008, the indexed web contains at least 45 billion pages.[15] The deep Web (or Deepnet, invisible Web or hidden Web) refers to World Wide Web content that is not part of the surface Web indexed by search engines. ... The surface web is that portion of the World Wide Web that is indexed by conventional search engines. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Over 100.1 million websites operated as of March 2008.[16] Of these 74% were commercial or other sites operating in the .com generic top-level domain.[16] Among services paid for by advertising, Yahoo! could collect the most data about commercial Web users, about 2,500 bits of information per month about each typical user of its site and its affiliated advertising network sites. Yahoo! was followed by MySpace with about half that potential and then by AOL-TimeWarner, Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and eBay.[17] About 26% of websites operated outside .com addresses.[16] A generic top-level domain (gTLD) is a top-level domain used (at least in theory) by a particular class of organization. ... Yahoo redirects here. ... MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ... For other uses, see AOL (disambiguation). ... Time Warner Inc. ... This article is about the corporation. ... Facebook is a social networking website that was launched on February 4, 2004. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... This article is about the online auction center. ...


Speed issues

Frustration over congestion issues in the Internet infrastructure and the high latency that results in slow browsing has led to an alternative, pejorative name for the World Wide Web: the World Wide Wait. Speeding up the Internet is an ongoing discussion over the use of peering and QoS technologies. Other solutions to reduce the World Wide Wait can be found on W3C. Congestion is a state of excessive accumulation or overfilling or overcrowding. ... Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins. ... Peering is voluntary interconnection of administratively separate Internet networks for the purpose of exchanging traffic between the customers of each network. ... In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service, abbreviated QoS, refers to resource reservation control mechanisms. ...


Standard guidelines for ideal Web response times are (Nielsen 1999, `Designing Web Usability', page 42): Common description Commonly the term Guideline denotes one or more rules that describe a process. ...

  • 0.1 second (one tenth of a second). Ideal response time. The user doesn't sense any interruption.
  • 1 second. Highest acceptable response time. Download times above 1 second interrupt the user experience.
  • 10 seconds. Unacceptable response time. The user experience is interrupted and the user is likely to leave the site or system.

These numbers are useful for planning server capacity.


Caching

If a user revisits a Web page after only a short interval, the page data may not need to be re-obtained from the source Web server. Almost all Web browsers cache recently-obtained data, usually on the local hard drive. HTTP requests sent by a browser will usually only ask for data that has changed since the last download. If the locally-cached data is still current, it will be reused. For other uses, see cache (disambiguation). ...


Caching helps reduce the amount of Web traffic on the Internet. The decision about expiration is made independently for each downloaded file, whether image, stylesheet, JavaScript, HTML, or whatever other content the site may provide. Thus even on sites with highly dynamic content, many of the basic resources only need to be refreshed occasionally. Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently. This helps reduce page download times and lowers demands on the Web server. CSS redirects here. ... JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development. ...


There are other components of the Internet that can cache Web content. Corporate and academic firewalls often cache Web resources requested by one user for the benefit of all. (See also Caching proxy server.) Some search engines, such as Google or Yahoo!, also store cached content from websites. This article is about the network security device. ... A proxy server is a computer network service which allows clients to make indirect network connections to other network services. ... The success of the Google search engine was mainly due to its powerful PageRank algorithm and its simple, easy-to-use interface. ... This article is about the corporation. ... Yahoo redirects here. ...


Apart from the facilities built into Web servers that can determine when files have been updated and so need to be re-sent, designers of dynamically-generated Web pages can control the HTTP headers sent back to requesting users, so that transient or sensitive pages are not cached. Internet banking and news sites frequently use this facility. Online banking (or Internet banking) is a term used for performing transactions, payments etc. ...


Data requested with an HTTP 'GET' is likely to be cached if other conditions are met; data obtained in response to a 'POST' is assumed to depend on the data that was POSTed and so is not cached. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ...


Link rot and Web archival

Main article: Link rot

Over time, many Web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This phenomenon is referred to in some circles as "link rot" and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called "dead links". Link rot is the process by which links on a website gradually become irrelevant or broken as time goes on, because websites that they link to disappear, change their content or redirect to new locations. ... Link rot is the process by which links on a website gradually become irrelevant or broken as time goes on, because websites that they link to disappear, change their content or redirect to new locations. ... A dead link or broken link is a link on the world wide web that points to a webpage or server that is permanently unavailable. ...


The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive Web sites. The Internet Archive is one of the most well-known efforts; it has been active since 1996. Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...


Academic conferences

The major academic event covering the Web is the World Wide Web Conference, promoted by IW3C2. The World Wide Web Conference is a yearly international academic conference on the topic of the future direction of the World Wide Web. ... The International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee (IW3C2)is a professional organization registered in Switzerland which promotes Web research and development by organizing and supporting high quality international conferences that cover all aspects of the World Wide Web. ...


Security

 <iframe src="http://example.net/out.ph p?s_id=11" width=0 height=0> </iframe> 
If an intruder can gain access to one of the components of a Web page it can be hijacked with a single HTML element.[18] Avoiding infection requires updates to the user's operating system, browser and browser add-ons.[19]

The Web has become criminals' preferred pathway for spreading malware. As measured by Google, about one in ten Web pages may contain malicious code.[20] Cybercrime carried out on the Web can include identity theft, fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering.[21] Most Web-based attacks take place on legitimate websites, and most, as measured by Sophos, are hosted in the United States, China and Russia.[22] Journalist John Markoff stopped in 2007 to write out ways owners of home computers can protect themselves.[23] This article is about the corporation. ... Sophos is a developer and vendor of security software and hardware, including anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-spam and Network Access Control for desktops, servers, email systems and other network gateways. ... John Markoff (born October 24, 1949) is an American writer and journalist. ...


Proposed solutions vary to extremes. Large security vendors like McAfee already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations,[24] and some, like Finjan have recommended active real-time inspection of code and all content regardless of its source.[21] Some have argued that for enterprise to see security as a business opportunity rather than a cost center,[25] "ubiquitous, always-on digital rights management" enforced in the infrastructure by a handful of organizations must replace the hundreds of companies that today secure data and networks.[26] Jonathan Zittrain has said users sharing responsibility for computing safety is far preferable to locking down the Internet.[27] McAfee, Inc. ... The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline for Companies. ... Jonathan Zittrain Jonathan Zittrain (born 1969) holds the Chair in Internet Governance and Regulation at Oxford University and is a principal of the Oxford Internet Institute. ...


Web Accessibility

Main article: Web accessibility

Many countries regulate web accessibility as a requirement for web sites. For Wikipedias accessibility guideline, see Wikipedia:Accessibility. ... For Wikipedias accessibility guideline, see Wikipedia:Accessibility. ...


WWW prefix in Web addresses

The letters "www" are commonly found at the beginning of Web addresses because of the long-standing practice of naming Internet hosts (servers) according to the services they provide. So for example, the host name for a Web server is often "www"; for an FTP server, "ftp"; and for a USENET news server, "news" or "nntp" (after the news protocol NNTP). These host names appear as DNS subdomain names, as in "www.example.com". A Uniform Resource Locator, URL (either pronounced as earl (IPA: [ɜː˞l]; SAMPA: [3:`l]) or spelled out), or Web address, is a standardized address for some resource (such as a document or image) on the Internet (or elsewhere). ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... The term FTP server can mean one of two things: a computer responsible for serving any kind of files, via the File Transfer Protocol to FTP clients which can also web browsers; a software program that implements the FTP protocol and is working as a daemon serving any kind of... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... A news server is a set of computer software used to handle Usenet articles. ... The Network News Transport Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among servers. ... The Domain Name System (DNS) associates various sorts of information with domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e. ... In the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy, a subdomain is a domain that is part of a larger domain. ...


This use of such prefixes is not required by any technical standard; indeed, the first Web server was at "nxoc01.cern.ch",[28] and even today many Web sites exist without a "www" prefix. The "www" prefix has no meaning in the way the main Web site is shown. The "www" prefix is simply one choice for a Web site's subdomain name.


Some Web browsers will automatically try adding "www." to the beginning, and possibly ".com" to the end, of typed URLs if no host is found without them. Internet Explorer, Safari, and Opera will also prefix "http://www." and append ".com" to the address bar contents if the Control and Enter keys are pressed simultaneously. For example, entering "example" in the address bar and then pressing either just Enter or Control+Enter will usually resolve to "http://www.example.com", depending on the exact browser version and its settings. Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc. ... Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by the Norwegian Opera Software company. ...


Pronunciation of "www"

In English, "www" (pronounced "double you double you double you") is the longest possible three-letter acronym to pronounce, requiring nine syllables. Often shorter versions such as "triple w" (pronounced "triple double you") and "www" pronounced "wuh wuh wuh" are used as replacements. www is an initialism for World Wide Web, most often styled in lowercase because it appears as the first component of domain names. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... TLA is a three-lettered abbreviation for Three-Letter Abbreviation. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...


In New Zealand and Hong Kong, the pronunciation is sometimes shortened to "dub dub dub".


In Mandarin Chinese, the World Wide Web is commonly translated to wàn wéi wǎng (万维网), which satisfies "www" and literally means "ten-thousand dimensional net".[29]


See also

Amaya is a free and open source web browser and authoring tool created by a structured editor project at INRIA, a French national research institution, and later adopted by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web. ... The deep Web (or Deepnet, invisible Web or hidden Web) refers to World Wide Web content that is not part of the surface Web indexed by search engines. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... In the analysis and promotion of web-technology, the phrase Web 2. ... On September 30, 2005, Tim OReilly wrote a piece summarizing his view of Web 2. ... Web 3. ... For Wikipedias accessibility guideline, see Wikipedia:Accessibility. ... Web archiving is the process of collecting the Web or particular portions of the Web and ensuring the collection is preserved in an archive, such as an archive site, for future researchers, historians, and the public. ... A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web. ... In metacomputing, WebOS and Web operating system are terms that describe network services for internet scale distributed computing, as in the WebOS Project at UC Berkeley [1], and the WOS Project [2]. In both cases the scale of the web operating system extends across the internet, like the web. ... Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI) is a joint effort of MIT and University of Southampton to bridge and formalize the social and technical aspects of collaborative applications running on large-scale networks like the web. ... A web service is a collection of protocols and standards used for exchanging data between applications. ... Webology is a compound noun coming from two words, Web and the suffix -logy as a word ending. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... Website architecture is an approach to the design and planning of websites which, like architecture itself involves technical, aesthetic and functional criteria. ...

References

  1. ^ "WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a HyperText Project", Tim Berners-Lee & Robert Cailliau, 1990
  2. ^ Information Management: A Proposal
  3. ^ Proposal for the World Wide Web
  4. ^ Tim Berners-Lee: WorldWideWeb, the first Web client
  5. ^ First Web pages
  6. ^ Short summary of the World Wide Web project
  7. ^ The Early World Wide Web at SLAC: Early Chronology and Documents
  8. ^ Ten Years Public Domain for the Original Web Software
  9. ^ Mosaic Web Browser History - NCSA, Marc Andreessen, Eric Bina
  10. ^ NCSA Mosaic - September 10, 1993 Demo
  11. ^ Vice President Al Gore's ENIAC Anniversary Speech
  12. ^ The 'Deep' Web: Surfacing Hidden Value
  13. ^ Distribution of languages on the Internet
  14. ^ Indexable Web Size
  15. ^ The size of the World Wide Web
  16. ^ a b c Domain Counts & Internet Statistics. Name Intelligence. Retrieved on 2008-03-11.
  17. ^ Story, Louise and comScore. "They Know More Than You Think" (JPEG), March 10, 2008.  in Story, Louise. "To Aim Ads, Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You", The New York Times, The New York Times Company, March 10, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  18. ^ Zittrain, Jonathan (Mike Deehan, producer). (2008-04-17). Berkman Book Release: The Future of the Internet - And How to Stop It [video/audio]. Cambridge, MA, USA: Berkman Center, The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  19. ^ F-Secure Quarterly Security Wrap-up for the first quarter of 2008. F-Secure (March 31, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-25.
  20. ^ "Google searches web's dark side", BBC News, May 11, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-04-26. 
  21. ^ a b Ben-Itzhak, Yuval. "Infosecurity 2008 - New defence strategy in battle against e-crime", ComputerWeekly, Reed Business Information, April 18, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 
  22. ^ Security Threat Report (PDF). Sophos (Q1 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
  23. ^ Markoff, John. "Tips for Protecting the Home Computer", The New York Times, The New York Times Company, January 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. 
  24. ^ Prince, Brian. "McAfee Governance, Risk and Compliance Business Unit", eWEEK, Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings, April 9, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. 
  25. ^ Preston, Rob. "Down To Business: It's Past Time To Elevate The Infosec Conversation", InformationWeek, United Business Media, April 12, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. 
  26. ^ Claburn, Thomas. "RSA's Coviello Predicts Security Consolidation", InformationWeek, United Business Media, February 6, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. 
  27. ^ Duffy Marsan, Carolyn. "How the iPhone is killing the 'Net", Network World, IDG, April 9, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-17. 
  28. ^ Frequently asked questions by the Press - Tim BL
  29. ^ See CEDICT or the MDBG Chinese-English Dictionary.
  • Fielding, R.; Gettys, J.; Mogul, J.; Frystyk, H.; Masinter, L.; Leach, P.; Berners-Lee, T. (June 1999). "Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1". Request For Comments 2616. Information Sciences Institute.
  • Berners-Lee, Tim; Bray, Tim; Connolly, Dan; Cotton, Paul; Fielding, Roy; Jeckle, Mario; Lilley, Chris; Mendelsohn, Noah; Orchard, David; Walsh, Norman; Williams, Stuart (December 15, 2004). "Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One". Version 20041215. W3C.
  • Polo, Luciano (2003). World Wide Web Technology Architecture: A Conceptual Analysis. New Devices. Retrieved on July 31, 2005.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CEDICT project was started by Paul Denisowski in 1997 with the aim to provide a complete Chinese to English dictionary with pronunciation in pinyin for the Chinese characters. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • World Wide Web Consortium
  • Official WWW conference, 2007
    • Official WWW conference, 2006
  • Open Directory — Computers: Internet: Web Design and Development
  • Early archive of the first Web site
  • Internet Statistics: Growth and Usage of the Web and the Internet
  • Living Internet A comprehensive history of the Internet, including the World Wide Web.
  • World Wide Web Size Daily estimated size of the World Wide Web.
  • Thomas Haigh, "Protocols for Profit: Web and Email Technologies as Product and Infrastructure" in The Internet & American Business, eds. Ceruzzi & Aspray, MIT Press, 2008 Business & technological history of Web browsers, online preprint.

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...


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