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Encyclopedia > World War Two
World War II

Clockwise from top: Allied landing on Normandy beaches on D-Day, the gate of a Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz, Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, the Nagasaki atom bomb, the 1936 Nuremberg Rally
Date: September 1, 1939September 2, 1945
Location: Europe, Pacific, South-East Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean and Africa
Result: Allied victory. Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers. Creation of First World and Second World spheres of influence in Europe leading to the Cold War.
Casus belli: German invasion of Poland and the USSR, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Combatants
Allied Powers:
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Soviet Union
United States
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Canada Canada
et al
Axis Powers:
Germany
Japan
Italy
et al
Commanders
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Joseph Stalin
Franklin Roosevelt
United Kingdom Winston Churchill
Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King
Adolf Hitler
Hideki Tojo
Benito Mussolini
Casualties
Military dead:
17,000,000
Civilian dead:
33,000,000
Total dead:
50,000,000
Military dead:
8,000,000
Civilian dead:
4,000,000
Total dead:
12,000,000
Theatres of World War II
EuropeEastern EuropeAfricaMiddle EastMediterraneanAsia & PacificAtlantic

World War II, or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict fought between the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers (see below), from 1939 until 1945. It is the largest armed conflict the world has ever seen involving air, land and sea battles spanning much of the globe, and including military forces from most nations. The Allies won in 1945. Image File history File links This is a picture I created for the World War II Main Page in Wikipedia. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Mont Saint Michel, one of the famous symbols of Normandy. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Bertram Ramsay Trafford Leigh-Mallory Gerd von Rundstedt Erwin Rommel Friedrich Dollmann Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split up over the entire... Prior to and during World War II Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) throughout the territory it controlled. ... Auschwitz, Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau, KL Auschwitz, Nazi German Concentration Camp of Auschwitz was the largest of the Nazi German extermination camps, along with a number of concentration camps, comprising three main camps and 40 to 50 sub-camps. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Soviet Flag: 1:4 ratio July 1923-November 13, 1923 The first official flag of the Soviet Union was adopted in December of 1922 at the First Congress of Soviets of the USSR. It was agreed that the red banner was transformed from the symbol of the Party to the... The Reichstag building. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, literally National Day of the (Nazi)Party - referring to the Nazi Party) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (246th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting from 1939 to 1945 during World War II. // Preceding events Main articles: Events preceding World War II in Europe, Causes of World War II After Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... The name African campaigns of World War II refers to actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A map of countries often considered to make up the Second World. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between capitalism and communism, centering around the global superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, and their military alliance partners. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin-based expression meaning occasion of war, used officially to refer to the grievances section of a formal Declaration of war. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 33+ Soviet... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines, 441 planes Casualties... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Stalin redirects here. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC(Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, LL.B, Ph. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機; ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army, a ultranationalist thinker, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan; he served as prime minister during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting from 1939 to 1945 during World War II. // Preceding events Main articles: Events preceding World War II in Europe, Causes of World War II After Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... A world war is a military conflict affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents


Overview

Europe

The war started in Europe on September 1, 1939 when Germany led by Adolf Hitler invaded Poland. The United Kingdom and France responded by declaring war on Germany two days later. The Soviet Union, in fulfilment of the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, invaded Eastern Poland on 17 September. Later that year Stalin attacked Finland in the Winter War, and seized the Baltic states. September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ...


Vast areas of Europe and North Africa, as well as the oceans, became battlefields. The German Blitzkrieg rapidly overwhelmed Poland in 1939, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in 1940, and Yugoslavia and Greece in 1941. By summer 1941, Germany had conquered France and most of Western Europe, but it had failed to subdue the United Kingdom. One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ...


Hitler then opened another front, on June 22, 1941, with the surprise invasion of the Soviet Union. This was bogged down upon reaching the outskirts of Moscow in late 1941. The Soviets later encircled and captured the German Sixth Army at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43), decisively defeated the Axis during the Battle of Kursk, and broke the Siege of Leningrad. The Red Army then pursued the retreating Wehrmacht all the way to Berlin, and won the street-by-street Battle of Berlin, as Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker on 30 April 1945. June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... The word axis has several meanings: In mathematics, axis can mean: A straight line around which a geometric figure can be rotated. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Günther von Kluge, Walther Model Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Nikolai Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... Combatants Axis Powers, Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда) was the German... German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Campaign of 1939 Wehrmacht (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ...


Meanwhile, the western Allies invaded North Africa (1942) and Italy (1943), then liberated France following amphibious landings in the Battle of Normandy in 1944. Repulsing a German counterattack at the Battle of the Bulge in December, the Allies crossed the Rhine River, and linked up with the Soviets at the Elbe River in central Germany. Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Bertram Ramsay Trafford Leigh-Mallory Gerd von Rundstedt Erwin Rommel Friedrich Dollmann Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split up over the entire... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ...


The naval war in the North Atlantic was the failed attempt by German U-boats to stop the flow of equipment and supplies to Britain. It was defeated by convoys and systematic patrols, using improved sonar, radar, and by directing destroyers to the U-boats' locations by breaking the German naval code.


The Luftwaffe tried and failed to defeat the Royal Air Force in the Battle of Britain (1940). The British and American air forces bombed German facilities in France and cities in Germany. The Allied used large-scale strategic bombing tactics, systematically destroying all major cities inside Germany. For a representative case study see Ludwigshafen am Rhein, the city targeted because it was the center of Germany's chemical industry. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or (German: air force, literally Air Arm or Air Weapon, IPA: [luftvafə]) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700 fighters 1,260 bombers, 316 dive-bombers, 1,089 fighters Casualties 1,547 aircraft, 27,450 civilian dead, 32,138 wounded 2,698 aircraft One of the major campaigns of the early part of World War... Map of Germany showing Ludwigshafen am Rhein Panorama from the west Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, with about 162,000 inhabitants. ...


Asia and the Pacific

In Asia, Japan had invaded China in 1937. The United States supported China, cut off Japan's oil and scrap metal supplies (1941), and was in turn attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941 at Pearl Harbor. After six months of sweeping successes, including victory in the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Japanese were decisively defeated in the Battle of Midway, in which they lost four aircraft carriers. American submarines gradually cut off supply of oil and raw materials to Japan. After the close-fought Battle of Guadalcanal in 1942, the Americans achieved victory in a series of great naval battles such as the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944, and invasions of key islands such as Iwo Jima and Okinawa in 1945. The Americans and Allies had over a million infantry poised to invade the home islands of Japan in late 1945. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines, 441 planes Casualties... Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Aritomo Goto Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 large carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker, 543 personnel 1 small carrier, 1 destroyer, 1,074 personnel... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength Three carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Four carriers, Seven battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier and... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Combatants Allies Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts Many PT boats, submarines and fleet auxiliaries About 1,500 planes 4 aircraft carriers 9 battleships 19 cruisers 34 destroyers About 200 planes... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi† Strength 100,000 Marines 20,700 soldiers Casualties 6,821 dead 20,000 wounded 18,000 dead 216 captured Battle of Iwo Jima (Operation Detachment) was fought between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during... Combatants United States United Kingdom (naval involvement only) Empire of Japan Commanders Simon Bolivar Buckner† Joseph Stilwell Mitsuru Ushijima† Strength 548,000 marines 107,000 regulars 24,000 militia Casualties 12,500 killed or missing 38,000 wounded 33,096 non-combat wounded 38 ships lost 763 aircraft lost 110...


The Japanese in October 1944 started using Kamikaze aircraft on suicide missions. Loaded with explosives, the pilots dived into warships, a far more effective tactic than trying to drop a bomb. Kamikaze pilot Hachiro Hosokawa during World War II. He survived the war, because he belonged to a covering fighter squadron. ...


The American strategic bombing campaign against Japan depended on development of the very long-range B-29 bomber, which by 1945 burned out Tokyo and most of Japan's larger cities with fire bombs and ended with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August, 1945. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ...


Aftermath

About 62 million people, or 2.5% of the world population, died in the war, though estimates vary greatly (refer to the Casualties section). The war concluded with the surrender and occupation of Germany and Japan. The United Nations was founded in 1945. After World War II, Europe was informally split into Western and Soviet spheres of influence, which set the stage for the Cold War. In Asia however, the defeat of Japan led to its democratization and independence for China and Korea. China's civil war was finally won by the Communists under Mao Zedong, who created the People's Republic of China. The war also resulted in many ideological revolutions, the establishment of new states, technological innovations, and changes in society. Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between capitalism and communism, centering around the global superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, and their military alliance partners. ... Democratization is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalist Party Chinese Communist Party Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 3,600,000 circa June 1948 2,800,000 circa June 1948 The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: 國共内戰; Simplified Chinese: 国共内战; Pinyin: guógòng neìzhàn; literally Nationalist-Communist Civil War) was a conflict in... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Causes

Commonly held general causes for WWII are the rise of nationalism, the rise of militarism, and the presence of unresolved territorial issues. Fascist movements emerged in Italy and Germany during the global economic instability of the 1920s, and consolidated power during the Great Depression of the 1930s. In Germany, resentment of the Treaty of Versailles — specifically article 231 (the "Guilt Clause") —, the belief in the Dolchstosslegende, and the onset of the Great Depression fueled the rise to power of the militarist National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi party) of which Adolf Hitler was the leader. Meanwhile, the Treaty's provisions were laxly enforced from fear of another war. Closely related is the failure of the UK and French policy of appeasement, which sought to avoid or postpone another war but actually encouraged Hitler to become bolder. The Soviet Union's signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freed Germany of fear of reprisal from the Soviet Union when Germany invaded Poland. The League of Nations, despite its efforts to prevent the war, relied on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions and was unable to prevent the start of The Second World War. Image File history File links Hitlermusso. ... Image File history File links Hitlermusso. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The immediate Causes of World War II are generally held to be the German invasion of Poland, and the Japanese attacks on China, the United States, and British and Dutch colonies. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Fascism is a radical political ideology that combines elements of corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism, militarism, anti-anarchism, anti-communism and anti-liberalism. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles was the “Guilt Clause” or the War Guilt Clause, in which Germany was forced to take complete responsibility for starting World War I or face renewed warfare. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende or Dolchstosslegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda and belief among bitter post-World War I German... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Appeasement of Hitler be merged into this article or section. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ...


Japan in the 1930s was ruled by a militarist clique devoted to becoming a world power. Japan invaded China in 1937 to bolster its meager stock of natural resources. The United States and the United Kingdom reacted by making loans to China, providing covert military assistance, and instituting increasingly broad embargoes of raw materials against Japan. These embargoes would have eventually forced Japan to give up its newly conquered possession in China because the Japanese would not have enough fuel to run their war machine. Japan was faced with the choice of withdrawing from China or going to war with the United States in order to conquer the oil resources of the Dutch East Indies. It chose the latter, and went ahead with plans for the Greater East Asia War in the Pacific. Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... This article concerns the American Volunteer Group, a World War II unit usually known as the Flying Tigers. For other uses of the term see Flying Tigers (disambiguation). ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... The Greater East Asia War was a term used, at least publicly in December of 1941, by Japans Imperial General Headquarters (Imperial GHQ) to refer to the conflict that followed (and ultimately reversed) Japans invasions in the 1930s and early 1940s of other nations in eastern Asia and...


Chronology

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting from 1939 to 1945 during World War II. // Preceding events Main articles: Events preceding World War II in Europe, Causes of World War II After Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... The Mediterranean region. ... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II and the German surrender took place in late April and early May 1945. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ...

Second Sino-Japanese war 1937-1945

Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War began in 1937 when Japan attacked deep into China from its foothold in Manchuria. On July 7, 1937, Japan, after occupying Manchuria since 1931, launched another attack against China near Beiping (now Beijing). The Japanese made initial advances but were stalled in the Battle of Shanghai. The city eventually fell to the Japanese in December 1937, and the capital city Nanjing (Nanking) also fell. As a result, the Chinese government moved its seat to Chongqing for the remainder of the war. The Japanese forces committed brutal atrocities against civilians and prisoners of war in the Rape of Nanking, slaughtering as many as 300,000 civilians within a month. By 1940, the war had reached a stalemate with both sides making minimal gains. The United States provided heavy financial support for China and set up the Flying Tigers air unit to bolster Chinese air forces. Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變) was a battle between Japans Imperial Army and Chinas National Revolutionary Army, marking the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). ... Beijing (Chinese: ; pinyin: Běijīng; ; IPA: ), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Chu Shao-liang, Chang Fa-kuei Heisuke Yanagawa, Iwane Matsui Strength 600,000 troops in 75 divisions and 9 brigades, 250 airplanes 300,000 troops in 8 divisions and 6 brigades, 3000 airplanes, 300 tanks, 130 warships... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京 [ ]; Romanizations: Nánjīng (Pinyin) , Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal System Pinyin) ) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade-Giles: Chung-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... This article concerns the American Volunteer Group, a World War II unit usually known as the Flying Tigers. For other uses of the term see Flying Tigers (disambiguation). ...


War breaks out in Europe: 1939

Appeasement and Pre-war alliances

Main articles: Appeasement, Franco-Polish Military Alliance, Polish-British Common Defence Pact, Munich Agreement, and Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

The chief aim of the German expansionist policy at the time was the acquisition of Lebensraum (living space) for a greater German Empire at the expense of the peoples of Eastern Europe. As the war developed and military victory became more and more unrealistic, the German leadership focused its attention to a more sinister project, the elimination of European Jewry (see Casualties, civilian impact, and atrocities). It has been suggested that Appeasement of Hitler be merged into this article or section. ... The term Franco-Polish Military Alliance refers to the military alliance between Poland and France that was active between 1921 and 1939. ... The Polish-British Common Defence Pact was an annex to the Franco-Polish Military Alliance signed on August 25, 1939 between representatives of the United Kingdom and Poland. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Lebensraum is the German term for habitat; used both in ecological and sociological contexts, it literally means living room. ...


The UK and French governments followed a policy of appeasement, in order to avoid a new European war. This policy culminated in the Munich Agreement in 1938, in which the seemingly inevitable outbreak of the war was averted when the United Kingdom and France agreed to the annexation and immediate occupation of the German-speaking regions of Czechoslovakia. UK Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain declared that the agreement represented "peace in our time". In March 1939, Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia, effectively killing appeasement. Less than a year after the Munich agreement, the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany. It has been suggested that Appeasement of Hitler be merged into this article or section. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Sudetenland (German: Sudetenland; Czech: Sudety, Polish: Sudety) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the various places of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ...


The failure of the Munich Agreement showed that deals made with Hitler at the negotiating table could not be trusted and that his aspirations for power and dominance in Europe went far beyond anything that the western democracies could tolerate. Poland and France pledged on May 19, 1939 to provide each other with military assistance in the event either was attacked. The British had already offered support to Poland in March. On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The Pact included a secret protocol which would divide Central Europe into German and Soviet areas of interest, including a provision to partition Poland. Each country agreed to allow the other a free hand in its area of influence, including military occupation. The deal provided for sales of oil and food from the Soviets to Germany, thus reducing the danger of a UK blockade such as the one that had nearly starved Germany in World War I. Hitler was then ready to go to war with Poland and, if necessary, with the United Kingdom and France. He claimed there were German grievances relating to the issues of the "free city" of Danzig and the "Polish corridor", but he planned to conquer all Polish territory and incorporate it into the German Reich. The signing of a new alliance between the United Kingdom and Poland on August 25 did not significantly alter his plans. Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ...


Enigma
On 25 July 1939 the Polish Cipher Bureau revealed its Enigma-decryption achievements to intelligence representatives of France and Britain. Former Bletchley Park mathematician-cryptologist Gordon Welchman has written: "Ultra would never have gotten off the ground if we had not learned from the Poles, in the nick of time, the details both of the German military... Enigma machine, and of the operating procedures that were in use." The Biuro Szyfrów ( (?), Polish for Cipher Bureau) was the Polish agency concerned with cryptology between World Wars I and II. The Bureau enjoyed notable successes against Soviet cryptography during the Polish-Soviet War, helping to preserve Polands independence. ... Look up enigma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park solved messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... William Gordon Welchman (15 June 1906–8 October 1985) was a British mathematician and World War II codebreaker at Bletchley Park. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ...


Invasion of Poland

Polish infantry during the Invasion of Poland, September 1939.
Polish infantry during the Invasion of Poland, September 1939.

On September 1, Germany invaded Poland, using the false pretext of a faked "Polish attack" on a German border post. Image File history File links Polish infantry File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Polish infantry File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 950,000[1] 56 German divisions 4 German... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 950,000[1] 56 German divisions 4 German... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... The Gleiwitz incident was the simulated attack on 31 August, 1939 against the German radio station Sender Gleiwitz (Polish: Radiostacja Gliwicka) in Gleiwitz, Germany (now Gliwice, Poland) on the eve of World War II in Europe. ...


On September 3, the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany, followed quickly by Canada, Australia and New Zealand.


The French mobilized slowly, and then mounted only a token offensive in the Saar, which they soon abandoned, while the British could not take any direct action in support of the Poles in the time available (see Western betrayal). Meanwhile, on September 8, the Germans reached Warsaw, having slashed through the Polish defenses. With an area of 2570 km² and 1. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in several Central European nations (including Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through World War II and to the Cold War. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...


On September 17, the Soviet Union, pursuant to its agreement with Germany, invaded Poland from the east, throwing Polish defences into chaos by opening the second front. A day later the Polish president and commander-in-chief both fled to Romania. On October 1, hostile forces, after a one-month siege of Warsaw, entered the city. The last Polish units surrendered on October 6. Poland, however, never officially surrendered to the Germans. Some Polish troops evacuated to neighboring countries. In the aftermath of the September Campaign, occupied Poland managed to create a powerful resistance movement and contributed significant military forces to the Allies for the duration of World War II. September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Poland: First to Fight (poster, 1939). ...


Phony War

Main article: Phony War

After Poland fell, Germany paused to regroup during the winter of 1939-1940 until April 1940, while the British and French stayed on the defensive. The period was referred to by journalists as "the Phony War," or the "Sitzkrieg," because so little ground combat took place. British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ...


Battle of the Atlantic

The U-Boat U-47 returns from sinking HMS Royal Oak, the battleship Scharnhorst is in the background
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The U-Boat U-47 returns from sinking HMS Royal Oak, the battleship Scharnhorst is in the background

Meanwhile in the North Atlantic, German U-boats operated against Allied shipping. The submarines made up in skill, luck, and courage what they lacked in numbers. One U-boat sank the UK aircraft carrier HMS Courageous, while another U-boat managed to sink the battleship HMS Royal Oak in its home anchorage of Scapa Flow. Altogether, the U-boats sank more than 110 vessels in the first four months of the war. The most damaging effect of the U-boats was in sinking transatlantic merchant shipping. Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... Combatants Nazi Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 pocket battleship (Panzerschiffe) Admiral Graf Spee 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 pocket battleship scuttled 36 killed 1 heavy cruiser Exeter heavily damaged 72 killed The Battle of the River Plate (December 13, 1939... Image File history File links Scharnhorst-8. ... Image File history File links Scharnhorst-8. ... Unterseeboot 47 (U-47) was a German type VII B U-Boat (submarine). ... Seven (or eleven, depending on how one counts) vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Royal Oak. ... Gerhard von Scharnhorst was a Prussian general. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... HMS Courageous was a warship of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport, Devon on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ...


After 1943 Germany had no serious chance of victory at sea. The Allies produced ships faster than they were sunk, and lost fewer ships by adopting the convoy system. Improved anti-submarine warfare meant that the life-expectancy of a typical U-boat crew would be measured in months. The vastly improved Type 21 U-boat appeared as the war ended, but too late. A convoy is a group of vehicles or ships traveling together for mutual support. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... Type XXI U-boat U 3008, postwar photo Type XXI U-boats, also known as the Elektroboote, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack. ...


Germany used only a few surface raiders, most notably the pocket battleship Graf Spee. It sank 9 merchant ships, won the Battle of the River Plate, then was scuttled by its crew at Montevideo, Uruguay in December, 1939. Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser which served with the Kriegsmarine of Germany during World War II. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff), she was later reclassified as a heavy cruiser, and was referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... Combatants Nazi Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 pocket battleship (Panzerschiffe) Admiral Graf Spee 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 pocket battleship scuttled 36 killed 1 heavy cruiser Exeter heavily damaged 72 killed The Battle of the River Plate (December 13, 1939... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


War spreads: 1940

Soviet-Finnish War and occupation of Baltic Republics

In a secret Soviet-German agreement, Finland was designated an SU buffer zone, and the Soviets attacked on November 30, 1939, which started the Winter War. Despite outnumbering Finnish troops by 4:1, the war proved embarrassingly difficult for the Red Army, and the Finnish defence prevented an all-out invasion. Finally, however, the Soviets prevailed and the peace treaty saw Finland cede strategically important border areas near Leningrad. The war triggered an international outcry and on December 14 the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations. In June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, sending the local leadership to the Gulag; it annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000... This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Russia in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish... Bukovina (Ukrainian: Буковина, Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ...


Invasion of Denmark and Norway

Main article: Norwegian Campaign

Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, in Operation Weserübung, in part to counter the threat of an impending Allied invasion of Norway. Denmark did not resist, but Norway fought back. The United Kingdom, whose own invasion was ready to launch, landed in the north. By late June, the Allies were defeated and withdrew, Germany controlled most of Norway, and the Norwegian Army had surrendered, while the royal family escaped to London. Germany used Norway as a base for air and naval attacks on Arctic convoys headed to the Soviet Union. German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Norwegian Army (Norwegian: Hæren) is Norways military land force. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ...


Invasion of France and the Low Countries

On May 10, 1940, the Germans invaded Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France, ending the Phony War. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and the French Army advanced into northern Belgium and planned to fight a mobile war in the north while maintaining a static continuous front along the Maginot Line further south. The Allied plans were immediately smashed by the most classic example in history of Blitzkrieg. The Dutch city of Rotterdam was destroyed in a bombing raid. Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Australia New Zealand Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H... Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Nazi Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939 - 1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maʒino], named after French minister of defense André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy in the wake of World War I. Generally the term... One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... The bombing of Rotterdam was a terror bombardment by German forces on 14 May 1940, in the initial phases of World War II, when they invaded the Netherlands. ...


In the first phase of the invasion, Fall Gelb (CACA), the Wehrmacht's Panzergruppe von Kleist raced through the Ardennes, a heavily forested region which the Allies had thought impenetrable for a modern, mechanized army. They broke the French line at Sedan, held by reservists rather than first-line troops, then drove west across northern France to the English Channel, splitting the Allies in two. Meanwhile Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands fell quickly against the attack of German Army Group B. The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... A Ford Taurus, a recognizable sedan. ...


The BEF and French forces, encircled in the north, were evacuated from Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo. The operation was one of the biggest military evacuations in history as 338,000 British and French troops were transported across the English Channel on warships and civilian boats. Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk Location within France Dunkirks seafront Map of Dunkirk courtesy of the Calgary Highlanders. ... Men from the French army disembark in England after evacuation of Dunkirk, France 1940. ... Satellite view of the English Channel Map of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche (IPA: ) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


On June 10 Italy joined the war, attacking France in the south. German forces then continued the conquest of France with Fall Rot (Case Red). France signed an armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940, leading to the direct German occupation of Paris and two thirds of France, and the establishment of a neutral (but pro-German) state headquartered in southeastern France known as Vichy France. June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... France under German occupation 1940-44 Presidential flag of Vichy France For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ...

Heinkel He 111 over London on 7 Sep. 1940
Heinkel He 111 over London on 7 Sep. 1940
Afrika Korps tanks advance during the North African campaign.

Battle of Britain Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Panzer(Afrika). ... Image File history File links Panzer(Afrika). ... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is...

Main article: Battle of Britain

Germany had began preparations in summer of 1940 to invade the United Kingdom in Operation Sea Lion. Most of the UK Army's heavy weapons and supplies had been lost at Dunkirk. The Germans had no hope of overpowering the Royal Navy, but they did think they had a chance of success, if they could gain air superiority. To do that, they first had to deal with the Royal Air Force. The ensuing contest in the late Summer of 1940 between the two air forces became known as the Battle of Britain. The Luftwaffe initially targeted RAF Fighter Command aerodromes and radar stations. Hitler, angered at the UK bombing of Berlin, switched his attentions towards the bombing of London, in an operation known as The Blitz. The Luftwaffe was eventually beaten back by Hurricanes and Spitfires while the Royal Navy remained in control of the English Channel. Thus, the invasion plans were cancelled indefinitely, as Hitler turned to the East. Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700 fighters 1,260 bombers, 316 dive-bombers, 1,089 fighters Casualties 1,547 aircraft, 27,450 civilian dead, 32,138 wounded 2,698 aircraft One of the major campaigns of the early part of World War... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen (Undertaking) Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700 fighters 1,260 bombers, 316 dive-bombers, 1,089 fighters Casualties 1,547 aircraft, 27,450 civilian dead, 32,138 wounded 2,698 aircraft One of the major campaigns of the early part of World War... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or (German: air force, literally Air Arm or Air Weapon, IPA: [luftvafə]) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Fighter Command was one of three functional commands that dominated the public perception of the RAF for much of the mid-20th century. ... German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London The Blitz was the bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 16 May 1941, during World War II. It was carried out by the Luftwaffe across the UK, but their attack was concentrated on London. ...


Italian Invasion of Greece

Main article: Battle of Greece

Italy invaded Greece on October 28, 1940, from Italian occupied Albania. The Greek army forced the Italians to retreat back to Albania. By mid-December, the Greeks occupied one-quarter of Albania, tying down 530,000 Italians. In March 1941 a major Italian counterattack failed, humiliating Italian military pretensions. Combatants Germany Bulgaria Italy Greece, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Alexander Papagos Strength Germany: 3 armies 4 corps Bulgaria: ? Greece: 2 armies British Commonwealth: 2 divisions 1 armored brigade Casualties Germany: 1,533 dead, 3,362 wounded, Italy: 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874... The Greco-Italian War was a conflict between Italy and Greece from October 28, 1940 to April 6, 1941. ... 1628 - The Siege of La Rochelle, which had been ongoing for 14 months, ends with Huguenot surrender 1664 - The Duke of York and Albanys Maritime Regiment of Foot later to be known as the Royal Marines is established. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


North African Campaign

With the French fleet neutralized, the UK Royal Navy faced the Italian fleet for supremacy in the Mediterranean. The British had strong bases at Gibraltar, Malta, and Alexandria, Egypt. In Africa, Italian troops invaded and captured British Somaliland in August. In September, the North African Campaign began when Italian forces in Libya attacked British forces in Egypt. The aim was to capture the Suez Canal, a vital link between the United Kingdom and India. UK, Indian and Australian forces counter-attacked in Operation Compass, but this offensive stopped in 1941 when much of the Australian and New Zealand forces were transferred to Greece to defend it from German attack. German forces (known later as the Afrika Korps) under General Erwin Rommel, however, landed in Libya and renewed the assault on Egypt. During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria, from Qaitbays Citadel Antiquity and modernity stand side-by-side in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... Combatants United Kingdom India Australia Italy Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength Western Desert Force: British 7th Armoured Division Australian 6th Division Indian 4th Infantry Division 36,000 men 120 guns 275 tanks Italian Tenth Army 200,000 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 494 killed 1... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (November 15, 1891 – October 14, 1944) was one of the most distinguished German Field Marshals of World War II and one of the greatest military leaders of all time. ...


War becomes global: 1941

European Theatre

Lend-Lease

Main article: Lend-Lease

After France had fallen in 1940, the United Kingdom was out of money. Franklin Roosevelt persuaded the US Congress to pass the Lend-Lease act on March 11, 1941. The Lend-Lease act provided the United Kingdom and 37 other countries with $50 Billion dollars in military equipment and other supplies, $31.4 billion of it going to the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. The United Kingdom will finish paying off its Lend-Lease loans by the end of 2006. [1] The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


Canada operated a similar program that sent $4.7 billion in supplies to the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union.


Balkans

On April 6, 1941, German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces invaded Yugoslavia, ending with the surrender of the Yugoslavian army on April 17, and the creation of a puppet state in Croatia. Two rival resistance movements endured in Yugoslavia for the remainder of the war. The Communist group, AVNOJ, led by Tito finally prevailed over the Chetniks led by Draža Mihailović. Invasion of Yugoslavia Operation 25 was the german code-name for the so-called April War, the German attack on Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941. ... Combatants Greece New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength 43,000 25,000 Casualties 3,500 dead 1,900 wounded 17,500 captured 6,200–16,100 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Crete (German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) began on the morning... Combatants Germany Bulgaria Italy Greece, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Alexander Papagos Strength Germany: 3 armies 4 corps Bulgaria: ? Greece: 2 armies British Commonwealth: 2 divisions 1 armored brigade Casualties Germany: 1,533 dead, 3,362 wounded, Italy: 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all South Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for the three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... AVNOJ, Antifašističko V(ij)eće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije, stands for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... The Chetniks (Serbian četnici, четници) were a Serbian nationalist and royalist organization with origins in the 19th century Serbian movement opposing Ottoman rule. ... Dragoljub Drazha Mihailovich (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, also ÄŒiča, Draža Mihailović), (April 26, 1893 – July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general who led the Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland, also referred to as Chetniks during World War II. Mihailović was tried and executed by the Yugoslav Government because he was a...


On April 6, Germany invaded Greece from Bulgaria. Greek troops put up a brave fight but the army was outnumbered and collapsed. Athens fell on April 27, yet the United Kingdom managed to evacuate over 50,000 troops. The stubborn Greek resistance and the attack on Yugoslavia, however, delayed the German invasion of the Soviet Union by a critical six weeks. April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ...


On May 20, 1941, Germany invaded Crete with over 22,000 men (excluding reinforcements) using gliders and parachute jumps. Crete was defended by about 11,000 Greek and 28,000 ANZAC troops (see Creforce), who had just escaped Greece without their artillery or vehicles. German losses were very high, but on May 21 they gained control of Maleme airfield and were able to land their reinforcements. The Allies evacuated the island by June 1, 1941. In view of the 7,000 Germans killed, Hitler forbade further airborne operations. Combatants Greece New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength 43,000 25,000 Casualties 3,500 dead 1,900 wounded 17,500 captured 6,200–16,100 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Crete (German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) began on the morning... This is the complete order of battle for the Battle of Crete and related operations in 1941. ...


Invasion of Soviet Union

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German advances during Operation Barbarossa from June to December 1941.

From the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in August, 1939 through half of 1941, Stalin and the Soviet Union fed and equipped Hitler and Germany as Germany invaded Western Europe and attacked the United Kingdom by air. Germany then betrayed its partner. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB) from en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB) from en. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Dmitry Pavlov Casualties Unknown 425,000 The Battle of Białystok-Minsk was one of the Border Battles during the opening stage of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Typhoon. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Rostov. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


On June 22, 1941, Operation Barbarossa, the largest invasion in history, began. Three German army groups, an Axis force of over four million men, advanced rapidly deep into the Soviet Union, destroying almost the entire western Soviet army in huge battles of encirclement. Nevertheless, the Soviets dismantled as much industry as possible ahead of the advancing Axis forces, moving it to areas east of the Ural Mountains for reassembly to supply the Soviet armies which ultimately contributed mightily to the destruction of Germany. By late November, the Axis had reached a line at the gates of Leningrad, Moscow, and Rostov, at the cost of about 23 percent casualties. Their advance then ground to a halt as the harsh Russian winter set in. The German General Staff had underestimated the size of the Soviet army and its ability to draft new troops. German soldiers were ill-equipped for harsh weather, and logistics were poor because of the distances, the rudimentary rail and road system, and the breakdown of men, animals and machinery in extreme cold. Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ...

Soviet Siberian Soldiers fighting during the Battle of Moscow.
Soviet Siberian Soldiers fighting during the Battle of Moscow.
The British battlecruiser HMS Hood which was sunk on May 24 by the German battleship Bismarck.
The British battlecruiser HMS Hood which was sunk on May 24 by the German battleship Bismarck.

They were now dismayed by the presence of new forces, including fresh Siberian troops under General Zhukov, and by the onset of a particularly cold winter. The Battle of Moscow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Battle of Moscow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Image File history File links HMS_Hood_at_Panama_Canal. ... Image File history File links HMS_Hood_at_Panama_Canal. ... HMS Hood (pennant number 51) was a battlecruiser of the Royal Navy. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ...


German forward units had advanced within distant sight of the golden onion domes of Moscow's Saint Basil's Cathedral, but then on December 5, the Soviets counter-attacked and pushed the Axis back some 150-250 kilometers (100-150 mi), the first major German defeat of World War II. St. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile, on June 25, the Continuation War between Finland and the Soviet Union began with Soviet air attacks shortly after the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... The Continuation War or War of Continuation (Finnish: , Swedish: ) June 25, 1941-September 19, 1944, was the war that was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II. The United Kingdom declared war on Finland on December 6, 1941, but did not participate actively. ...


Allied conferences


The Atlantic Charter was issued as a joint declaration by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt, at Argentia, Newfoundland, on August 14, 1941. Churchill meets FDR aboard USS Augusta at their 1941 secret meeting at Argentia, Newfoundland. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC(Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


In December 1941, after the United States entered the war, Churchill met with Roosevelt again at the Arcadia Conference. They agreed that defeating Germany had priority over defeating Japan. The Americans proposed a 1942 cross-channel invasion of France which the British strongly opposed, suggesting instead a small invasion in Norway or landings in French North Africa. The Declaration by the United Nations was issued. The Arcadia Conference (ARCADIA was the code name used for the conference), held in Washington, D.C. was a World War II strategic meeting from December 22, 1941 to January 14, 1942 between the heads of government of the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ...


Mediterranean

Main articles: Operation Sonnenblume, Siege of Tobruk, Battle of Gazala, and Syria-Lebanon campaign

In North Africa, Rommel's forces advanced rapidly eastward, laying siege to the vital seaport of Tobruk. Two Allied attempts to relieve Tobruk were defeated, but a larger offensive at the end of the year (Operation Crusader) drove Rommel back after heavy fighting. During World War II. Operation Sonnenblume (German for sunflower) was the deployment of German troops (the “Afrika Korps”) to the North African Campaign in February, 1941. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 - Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North African Campaign of World... The Battle of Gazala was an important battle of the World War II Western Desert Campaign, fought around the port of Tobruk in Libya from May 26 to June 21, 1942. ... The Syria-Lebanon campaign was the Allied invasion of Vichy French-controlled Syria and Lebanon in 1941, during World War II. The Allied offensive, also known as Operation Exporter, was aimed at preventing Nazi Germany from using Vichy territory as a springboard for attacks on the Allied stronghold of Egypt... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Poland Germany Italy Commanders Claude Auchinleck Alan Gordon Cunningham Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Strength 8th Army comprising XIII Corps, XXX Corps and 70th Division. ...


In June 1941, Allied forces invaded Syria and Lebanon and captured Damascus on June 17. Later, in August, UK and Soviet troops occupied neutral Iran securing its oil and a southern supply line to the Soviet. Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ...


Hunt for the Bismarck


On May 24, the German battleship Bismarck left port, threatening British shipping in the Atlantic. After British battlecruiser HMS Hood was sunk in the Battle of the Denmark Strait, the Royal Navy engaged in a massive hunt across the North Atlantic for Bismarck. The German battleship was sunk after a 1,700-mile (2,700 kilometers) chase in which the British employed eight battleships and battle cruisers, two aircraft carriers, 11 cruisers, 21 destroyers, and six submarines. After an extensive chase, Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers from aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal struck the Bismarck, resulting in only minor damage to the ship, but causing her rudder to jam and allowing the pursuing Royal Navy Task Force to catch and sink her. May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Three ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Hood after members of the Hood family, which produced several notable Navy officers: The first Hood, launched in 1859 as Edgar, was a second-rate ship of the line of 91 guns. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom Commanders Günther Lütjens Lancelot Holland Strength 1 battleship 1 heavy cruiser 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser Casualties 1 battleship damaged 1 battlecruiser sunk 1 battleship heavily damaged The Battle of the Denmark Strait was a World War II naval engagement in which the British battleship... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Fairey Swordfish The Fairey Swordfish was a torpedo bomber built by the Fairey Aviation Company and used by the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy during World War II. Affectionately known as the Stringbag by its crews, it was outdated by 1939, but achieved some spectacular successes during the... HMS Ark Royal (R07) in Greenwich dock, London This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Enigma

On May 9, the British destroyer HMS Bulldog captured a German U-Boat and recoverd a complete, intact Enigma Machine. This was a vital for the Allies in the Battle of the Atlantic, and in their code-breaking efforts. The machine was taken to Bletchley Park where it was used to help decipher and understand German encryption techniques. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Seven vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Bulldog, after the bulldog: The first Bulldog was a small 4-gun vessel bought in March 1794 and sold later in the same year. ... A three-rotor German military Enigma machine showing, from bottom to top, the plugboard, the keyboard, the lamps and the finger-wheels of the rotors emerging from the inner lid (version with labels). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park solved messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ...


Pacific Theatre

The American Battleships USS West Virginia and USS Tennessee under attack at Pearl Harbor
The American Battleships USS West Virginia and USS Tennessee under attack at Pearl Harbor

Japan and United States enter the War Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x1107, 284 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): World War II ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x1107, 284 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): World War II ... USS West Virginia (BB-48), a Colorado-class battleship, was the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 35th state. ... USS Tennessee (BB-43), the lead ship of her class of battleship, was the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 16th state. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ...

In the summer of 1941, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands began an oil embargo against Japan, threatening its ability to fight a major war at sea or in the air. However, Japanese forces continued to advance into China. Japan planned an attack on Pearl Harbor to cripple the U.S. Pacific Fleet, then seize oil fields in the Dutch East Indies. On December 7, a Japanese carrier fleet launched an unexpected air attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The raid destroyed most of the American air forces on the island and knocked the main American battle fleet out of action (six battleships sank but four of them, along with two other badly damaged battleships eventually returned to service). However the four American aircraft carriers were off at sea; the main dock, supply and repair facilities were quickly repaired. US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines, 441 planes Casualties... The Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse was a World War II naval engagement which illustrated the effectiveness of aerial attacks against naval forces that were not protected by air cover and the resulting importance of including an aircraft carrier in any major fleet action. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a theater-level unit of the U.S. armed forces, under the operational control of the United States Pacific Command. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun) or sometimes referred to as the Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan (Dai Nippon Teikoku) from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The attack united American public opinion to demand vengeance against Japan. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan. On the same day, Japan invaded Malaya, and China officially declared war against Japan. Disaster struck the British on the 10th, as they lost two major battleships, Prince of Wales and Repulse. They were attacked by 85 Japanese bombers and torpedo planes based in Saigon. 840 UK sailors perished. Churchill was to say of the event " “In all of the war I have never received a more direct shock." December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC(Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ...


Germany declared war on the United States on December 11, even though it was not obliged to do so under the Tripartite Pact. Hitler hoped that Japan would support Germany by attacking the Soviet Union. Japan did not oblige because it had signed a non aggression treaty with the Soviet Union. Instead, Germany's declaration largely removed any significant opposition to the United States joining the fight in the Europe Theater with full commitment. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Axis Powers signing with Saburo Kurusu, Galeazzo Ciano and Adolf Hitler in 1940. ...


Japanese offensive

Main articles: Pacific War, Battle of Hong Kong, and Battle of the Philippines (1941-42)

Less than 24 hours after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded Hong Kong. The Philippines and the British colonies of Malaya, Borneo, and Burma soon followed, with Japan's intention of seizing the oilfields of the Dutch East Indies. Despite fierce resistance by Philippine, Australian, New Zealand, British, Canadian, Indian and American forces, all these territories capitulated to the Japanese in a matter of months. The British island fortress of Singapore was captured in what Churchill considered one of the most humiliating British defeats of all time.
US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... Combatants British Army, Canadian Army, British Indian Army Imperial Japanese Army Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed; 8,500 POWs 2,750 killed; 1,500 wounded For the movie, see The Battle of Hong Kong (film). ... Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Combatants Philippines United States Japan Commanders George M. Parker (II Philippine Corps) Edward P. King (Bataan Forces) Masaharu Homma (Philippine invasion forces) Strength 120,000 Filipino troops; 30,000 U.S. troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 10,000 killed, 20,000 wounded, 75,000 prisoners 7,000 killed, 12... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... Combatants United States Netherlands United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Karel Doorman† Takeo Takagi Strength 5 cruisers 12 destroyers 4 cruisers 14 destroyers 10 transports Casualties 5 cruisers sunk 5 destroyers sunk 2,300 sailors killed 4 loaded troop transports sunk The Battle of the Java Sea was a major naval... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought...


Deadlock: 1942

European Theatre

Picture taken after the failed Canadian assault on the beach at Dieppe
Picture taken after the failed Canadian assault on the beach at Dieppe
Western and Central Europe

In May, the architect of the Final Solution, Reinhard Heydrich was assassinated by Czech resistance agents in Operation Anthropoid. Hitler ordered severe reprisals. (See Lidice). Image File history File links British_Landing_Craft_on_Beach_at_Dieppe. ... Image File history File links British_Landing_Craft_on_Beach_at_Dieppe. ... Dieppe is the name of several places and events: Dieppe, France (pop. ... Reinhard Heydrich, the target of Operation Anthropoid. ... Dieppes chert beach and cliff immediately following the raid on 19 August 1942. ... In a February 26, 1942 letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (March 7, 1904 – June 4, 1942, Prague) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (which included the Gestapo, security agency and criminal police) and Reich governor of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Reinhard Heydrich, the target of Operation Anthropoid. ... Lidice (Liditz in German) is a village in Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic) which was completely eradicated by the Nazis during World War II. // History The village is first mentioned in writing in 1318. ...


On August 19, forces, mainly Canadian, launched the Dieppe Raid (codenamed Operation Jubilee) on the German occupied port of Dieppe, France. The attack was a disaster but provided critical information utilized later in Operation Torch and Operation Overlord. Dieppes chert beach and cliff immediately following the raid on 19 August 1942. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Bertram Ramsay Trafford Leigh-Mallory Gerd von Rundstedt Erwin Rommel Friedrich Dollmann Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split up over the entire...

Soviet winter and early spring offensives
Main articles: Battle of Moscow, Toropets-Kholm Operation, Demyansk Pocket, Second Battle of Kharkov, and Battles of Rzhev

In the north, Soviets launched the Toropets-Kholm Operation January 9 to February 6 1942, trapping a German force near Andreapol. The Soviets also surrounded a German garrison in the Demyansk Pocket which held out with air supply for four months (February 8 until April 21), and established themselves in front of Kholm, Velizh and Velikie Luki. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Colonel General Ernst Busch General Kurochkin Strength Unknown 122,100 Casualties Unknown 29,200 The Toropets-Kholm Operation was a military operation ~conducted by the Red Army during the Soviet-German War, from 9th January to 6th February 1942 south of Lake Ilmen. ... Demyansk Pocket (German: die Demjansker Operation, Russian: ) is a name of encirclement of German troops by Red Army near Demyansk (Demjansk), south of Leningrad, during the Second World War, which lasted mainly from February 8 until April 21, 1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Colonel General Ernst Busch General Kurochkin Strength Unknown 122,100 Casualties Unknown 29,200 The Toropets-Kholm Operation was a military operation ~conducted by the Red Army during the Soviet-German War, from 9th January to 6th February 1942 south of Lake Ilmen. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Andreapol (Russian: Андреаполь) is a town in Tver Oblast in Russia, located in the upper reaches of the Western Dvina River. ... Demyansk Pocket (German: die Demjansker Operation, Russian: ) is a name of encirclement of German troops by Red Army near Demyansk (Demjansk), south of Leningrad, during the Second World War, which lasted mainly from February 8 until April 21, 1942. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ...


In the south, Soviet forces launched an offensive in May against the German Sixth Army, initiating a bloody 17 day battle around Kharkov which resulted in the loss of over 200,000 Red Army personnel. The 6. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted. ...

Axis summer offensive

On June 28, the Axis began their summer offensive, Operation Blue, a planned drive southeast from the Don river to the Volga river toward the Caucasus mountains. German Army Group B planned to capture the city of Stalingrad which would secure the German left flank while Army Group A planned to capture the southern oil fields. In the Battle of the Caucasus, fought in the late summer and fall of 1942, the Axis forces captured the oil fields. Combatants Germany, Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Filipp Oktyabrskiy, Ivan Petrov Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured. ... Combatants Germany, Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Gusztav Jany Yevgeny Golikov Strength Casualties The Battle of Voronezh was a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the city of Voronezh on the Don river in June and July 1942. ... The Battle of Caucasus is a generic name for a series of operations during the Great Patriotic War. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... The Battle of Caucasus is a generic name for a series of operations during the Great Patriotic War. ...

German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad.
German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad.
Stalingrad
Main articles: Battle of Stalingrad, Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive, and Operation Uranus

After two months of bitter street fighting, the Germans captured 90% of Stalingrad by November. The Soviets, however, had been building up massive forces on the flanks of Stalingrad. They launched Operation Uranus on November 19, with twin attacks that met at Kalach four days later and trapped the Sixth Army in Stalingrad. Image File history File links Ww2_Stalingrad_GermanSoldiers. ... Image File history File links Ww2_Stalingrad_GermanSoldiers. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The Germans requested permission to attempt a break-out, which was refused by Hitler, who ordered Sixth Army to remain in Stalingrad where he promised they would be supplied by air until rescued. About the same time, the Soviets launched Operation Mars in a salient near the vicinity of Moscow. Its objective was to tie down Army Group Center and to prevent it from reinforcing Army Group South at Stalingrad. The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ...


In December German relief forces got within 50 kilometers (30 mi) of the trapped Sixth Army before they were turned back by the Soviets. By the end of the year, Sixth Army was in desperate condition, as the Luftwaffe was only able to supply about a sixth of the supplies needed.


Finally, the Sixth Army was completely encircled by Zhukov's SU troops. Newly appointed Fieldmarshall von Paulus surrendered to the Red Army on February 2, 1943. Only 91,000 prisoners were taken, including 22 generals. This was to be the greatest, and most costly battle in terms of human life, in world history. Around 2 million men were killed or wounded on both sides including civilians, with Axis casualties estimated to be approximately 850,000. February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The word axis has several meanings: In mathematics, axis can mean: A straight line around which a geometric figure can be rotated. ...

Eastern North Africa

At the beginning of 1942, the Allied forces in North Africa were weakened by detachments to the Far East. Rommel once again attacked and recaptured Benghazi. Then he defeated the Allies at the Battle of Gazala, and captured Tobruk with several thousand prisoners and large quantities of supplies. Following up, he drove deep into Egypt. Combatants British Commonwealth Poland Free French Greece Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 200,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 100,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 23,500 dead or wounded 710 tanks 12,000 dead or wounded 25,000 captured... Benghazi (Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī) is a seaport in Libya, Africa. ... The Battle of Gazala was an important battle of the World War II Western Desert Campaign, fought around the port of Tobruk in Libya from May 26 to June 21, 1942. ...


The First Battle of El Alamein took place in July 1942. Allied forces had retreated to the last defensible point before Alexandria and the Suez Canal. The Afrika Korps, however, had outrun its supplies, and the defenders stopped its thrusts. The Second Battle of El Alamein occurred between October 23 and November 3. Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery was in command of Allied forces known as the British Eighth Army. The Eighth Army took the offensive and was ultimately triumphant. After the German defeat at El Alamein, the Axis forces made a successful strategic withdrawal to Tunisia. The First Battle of El Alamein 1–July 27, 1942 was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, fought between the German–Italian Afrika Korps commanded by Erwin Rommel and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Claude Auchinleck. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria, from Qaitbays Citadel Antiquity and modernity stand side-by-side in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... Combatants British Commonwealth Poland Free French Greece Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 200,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 100,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 23,500 dead or wounded 710 tanks 12,000 dead or wounded 25,000 captured... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ...


Western North Africa

Operation Torch was launched by the US, British and Free French forces on November 8, 1942. It aimed to gain control of North Africa through simultaneous landings at Casablanca, Oran and Algiers, followed a few days later with a landing at Bône, the gateway to Tunisia. The local forces of Vichy France put up minimal resistance before submitting to the authority of Free French General Henri Giraud. In retaliation, Hitler invaded and occupied Vichy France. The German and Italian forces in Tunisia were caught in the pincers of Allied advances from Algeria in the west and Libya in the east. Rommel's tactical victory against inexperienced American forces at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass only postponed the eventual surrender of the Axis forces in North Africa. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... The Tunisia Campaign was a series of World War II battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the World War II, between forces of the German/Italian Axis, and allied forces consisting primarily of U.S., British and small numbers of Vichy French. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Logo of Casablanca Casablanca from space Casablanca (Spanish for white house ; Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء transliterated ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda; Berber: Taddart Tashemlalt) is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. ... View of Oran Oran (population 700,000) (Arabic: , Wahran) is a city in northwest Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ... Annaba (ِArabic عنّابة, formerly Bône) is a city in the north-eastern corner of Algeria near the river Wadi Seybouse and the Tunisian border. ... France under German occupation 1940-44 Presidential flag of Vichy France For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to continue fighting against Axis forces after the surrender of France and German occupation, following the call of General De Gaulle, and the de jure government (Free French Government) of France... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Lloyd Fredendall Erwin Rommel Strength 30,000 22,000 Casualties 4,500 minimum dead or wounded 1,000 maximum dead or wounded The Battle for Kasserine Pass took place in World War II during the Tunisia Campaign. ...


Pacific Theatre

Main article: Pacific War

Central and South West Pacific US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ...

U.S. Marines rest in the field on Guadalcanal, circa August-December 1942
U.S. Marines rest in the field on Guadalcanal, circa August-December 1942

On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt signed United States Executive Order 9066, leading to the internment of thousands of Japanese, Italians, and German Americans for the duration of the war. Most of these Marines are armed with M1903 bolt-action rifles and carry M1905 bayonets and USMC 1941 type packs. ... Most of these Marines are armed with M1903 bolt-action rifles and carry M1905 bayonets and USMC 1941 type packs. ... Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Aritomo Goto Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 large carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker, 543 personnel 1 small carrier, 1 destroyer, 1,074 personnel... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength Three carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Four carriers, Seven battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier and... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... United States Executive Order 9066 was signed into law on February 19, 1942 (during World War II), by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, utilizing his authority as Commander in Chief to exercise war powers. ... German-Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ...


In April, the Doolittle Raid, the first US air raid on Tokyo, boosted morale in the United States and caused Japan to shift resources to homeland defense, but did little physical damage. Combatants United States Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle N/A Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells N/A Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 would die in captivity) about 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ...


In early May, a Japanese naval invasion of Port Moresby, New Guinea, was thwarted by Allied navies in the Battle of the Coral Sea. This was both the first successful opposition to a Japanese attack and the first battle fought between aircraft carriers. The US did however lose the major aircraft carrier USS Lexington giving Japan a tactical victory. Port Moresby town Port Moresby, (9°30′ S 147°12′ E), population 193,242 (1990), is the capital of Papua New Guinea. ... Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Aritomo Goto Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 large carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker, 543 personnel 1 small carrier, 1 destroyer, 1,074 personnel... Five ships of the United States Navy have borne the name Lexington, after Lexington, Massachusetts, where the colonial militia first fought back against the British in the shot heard round the world. The first Lexington was a 14-gun brigantine originally named Wild Duck purchased in 1776 and used by...


A month later, on June 5, US carrier-based dive-bombers sank four of Japan's best aircraft carriers in the Battle of Midway, a major victory for the United States. Historians mark this battle as a turning point and the end of Japanese expansion in the Pacific. Cryptography played an important part in the battle, as the United States had broken the Japanese naval codes and knew the Japanese plan of attack. June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength Three carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Four carriers, Seven battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier and... The history of cryptography dates back thousands of years. ...

Main article: Kokoda Track campaign

In July, a Japanese overland attack on Port Moresby was led along the rugged Kokoda Track. An outnumbered, untrained and ill equipped Australian battalion defeated the 5,000-strong Japanese force, the first land defeat of Japan in the war and one of the most significant victories in Australian military history. This article concerns the World War II military campaign. ... This article concerns the World War II military campaign. ... Military history of Australia refers to the long history of Australias involvement in war. ...


On August 7, US Marines began the Battle of Guadalcanal. For the next six months, US forces fought Japanese forces for control of the island. Meanwhile, several naval encounters raged in the nearby waters, including the Battle of Savo Island, Battle of Cape Esperance, Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, and Battle of Tassafaronga. August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Gunichi Mikawa Strength 5 cruisers, 5 destroyers 7 cruisers, 1 destroyer Casualties 4 cruisers sunk, 1 cruiser damaged, 2 destroyers damaged 1,270 killed, 709 wounded 2 cruisers damaged, 58 dead, 70 wounded The Battle of Savo Island was a naval... Battle of Cape Esperance Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date October 11, 1942 – October 12, 1942 Place Off Cape Esperance, Guadalcanal Result Allied victory The Battle of Cape Esperance, originally known as the Second Battle of Savo Island, was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War... Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Isoroku Yamamoto Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 light cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 26 aircraft destroyed, 1,732 killed[1] 2 battleships, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 destroyers, 11... The Battle of Tassafaronga was a naval battle fought between United States and Japanese forces on 30 November 1942. ...


In late August and early September, while battle raged on Guadalcanal, an amphibious Japanese attack on the eastern tip of New Guinea was met by Australian forces in the Battle of Milne Bay. Battle of Milne Bay Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 25, 1942 – September 5, 1942 Place Milne Bay, New Guinea Result Allied victory The Battle of Milne Bay was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Japanese marines attacked the Australian base at Milne Bay...


Sino-Japanese War

Japan launched a major offensive in China following the attack on Pearl Harbor. The aim of the offensive was to take the strategically important city of Changsha which the Japanese had failed to capture on two previous occasions. For the attack, the Japanese massed 120,000 soldiers under 4 divisions. The Chinese responded with 300,000 men, and soon the Japanese army was encircled and had to retreat. The Battle of Changsha (December 24, 1941 _ January 15, 1942) was the third attempt by Japan to take the city of China during the China following their attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Mao Zedong Museum in Changsha Changsha (Simplified Chinese: 长沙; Traditional Chinese: 長沙; Pinyin: Chángshā; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ...


War turns: 1943

European Theatre

Soviet and German spring offensives

Soviet soldiers crossing the River Dneiper under withering German fire.
Soviet soldiers crossing the River Dneiper under withering German fire.

After the surrender of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad on February 2, 1943, the Red Army launched eight offensives during the winter. Many were concentrated along the Don basin near Stalingrad, which resulted in initial gains until German forces were able to take advantage of the weakened condition of the Red Army and regain the lost territory. Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn. ... Combatants Soviet Union Axis powers Commanders Filipp Golikov Nikolay Vatutin Erich von Manstein †Theodor Eicke Strength 300,000 men 160,000 men Casualties Voronezh Front: army of Popov: 3,000 KIA, 11,000 WIA, Southwestern Front: 20,000 KIA, 90,000 WIA, 9,000 POWs, finally battles: 25,000 KIA... Image File history File linksMetadata Dnieper_Forcing_Boats. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dnieper_Forcing_Boats. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ...


German summer offensive

Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers and Tiger tanks of the SS Panzergrenadier Division Totenkopf during the start of Operation Zitadelle
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Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers and Tiger tanks of the SS Panzergrenadier Division Totenkopf during the start of Operation Zitadelle

On July 4, the Wehrmacht launched a much-delayed offensive against the Soviet Union at the Kursk salient. Their intentions were known by the Soviets, and they hastened to defend the salient with an enormous system of earthwork defenses. Both sides massed their armor for what became a decisive military engagement. The Germans attacked from both the north and south of the salient and hoped to meet in the middle, cutting off the salient and trapping 60 Soviet divisions. The German offensive was ground down as little progress was made through the Soviet defenses. The Soviets then brought up their reserves, and the largest tank battle of the war occurred near the city of Prokhorovka. The Germans had exhausted their armored forces and could not stop the Soviet counter-offensive that threw them back across their starting positions. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Günther von Kluge, Walther Model Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Nikolai Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... Battle of Prokhorovka (July 12, 1943) was the largest tank battle in human history and the pivotal battle of Operation Citadel (the German offensive to encircle Soviet forces in the Kursk salient, also known as the Battle of Kursk of the Great Patriotic War. ... Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf, discussing an offensive action with a Tiger commander of 9. ... Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf, discussing an offensive action with a Tiger commander of 9. ... This article needs cleanup. ... First Tiger I tank captured near Tunis The Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf. ... SS-Division Totenkopf Kampfgruppe Eicke 3. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk) is a city in Central Russia, the administrative center of Kursk Oblast. ... --152. ...


Soviet fall and winter offensives

In August, Hitler agreed to a general withdrawal to the Dnieper line, and as September proceeded into October, the Germans found the Dnieper line impossible to hold as the Soviet bridgeheads grew. Important Dnieper towns started to fall, with Zaporozhye the first to go, followed by Dnepropetrovsk. Early in November the Soviets broke out of their bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and recaptured the Ukrainian capital. First Ukrainian Front attacked at Korosten on Christmas Eve. The Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the 1939 Soviet-Polish border was reached. The Fourth Battle of Kharkov was fought on August 23, 1943 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men 8,800 guns 500 tanks 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men 20,640 guns 1,430 tanks 1,100 planes[2] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, December 24, the day before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas festivities. ...


Italy

The surrender of Axis forces in Tunisia on May 13, 1943 yielded some 250,000 prisoners. The North African war proved to be a disaster for Italy, and when the Allies invaded Sicily on July 10 in Operation Husky, capturing the island in a little over a month, the regime of Benito Mussolini collapsed. On July 25, he was removed from office by the King of Italy, and arrested with the positive consent of the Great Fascist Council. A new government, led by Pietro Badoglio, took power and declared ostensibly that Italy would stay in the war. Badoglio had already begun secret peace negotiations with the Allies. The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ...


The Allies invaded mainland Italy on September 3, 1943. Italy surrendered to the Allies on September 8, as had been agreed in negotiations. The royal family and Badoglio government escaped to the south, leaving the Italian army without orders, while the Germans took over the fight, forcing the Allies to a complete halt in the winter of 1943-44 at the Gustav Line south of Rome. This article covers the invasion of mainland Italy by the World War II Allies in September 1943 during the Italian Campaign. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... The Winter Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the Roman People) coordinates: 41°54′N 12°29′E Time Zone: UTC+1 Administration Subdivisions 19 municipi Province Rome Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni ( The Union ) Characteristics Area 1,285 km² Population 2,547,677 (2005 estimate) Density 1983/km...


In the north Mussolini, with Nazi support, created what was effectively a puppet state, the Italian Social Republic or "Republic of Salò", named after the new capital of Salò on Lake Garda. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... Salo (Italian: Salò) is a small town in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy on the banks of Lake Garda. ... Lake Garda Riva del Garda Punta San Vigilio View from Gargnano Lake Garda from space Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda) is the largest lake in Italy. ...


Mid-1943 brought the fifth and final German Sutjeska offensive against the Yugoslav Partisans. The Sutjeska offensive in mid-1943 was a joint attack of the Axis forces that aimed to destroy the Yugoslav partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in southeastern Bosnia. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Slovene: Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije...


Atlantic


The turning point of the Battle of the Atlantic took place in early 1943 as the Allies refined their naval tactics effectively while making use of new technology to counter the U-Boats. Although two convoys suffered heavy losses, the U-Boats were also taking increasingly heavy casualties, and were forced to abandon their main offensive in the mid-Atlantic. Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose...


The Allies had also resumed running the Arctic convoys to Russia. In December the last major sea battle between the Royal Navy and the German Navy took place. At the Battle of North Cape, Germany's last battlecruiser, the Scharnhorst, was sunk by HMS Duke of York, HMS Belfast and several destroyers. The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... The German Navy (German: Deutsche Marine (help· info)) is the navy of Germany and part of the Bundeswehr. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom Commanders Erich Bey† Bruce Fraser Strength 1 battleship 5 destroyers 1 battleship 4 cruisers 4 destroyers Casualties 1 battleship sunk 1 heavy cruiser and light cruiser lightly damaged The naval Battle of the North Cape took place on December 26, 1943 during World War II, fought... Gerhard von Scharnhorst was a Prussian general. ... HMS Duke of York was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, and the second of the name, the predecessor having been a 4-gun cutter purchased in 1763 and sold in 1766. ... Belfast at her London berth in 2004. ...


Pacific Theatre

Main article: Pacific War

Central and South West Pacific US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ...

The Battle of Changde, called the Stalingrad of the East. China and Japan lost a combined total of 100,000 men in this battle.
The Battle of Changde, called the Stalingrad of the East. China and Japan lost a combined total of 100,000 men in this battle.
Main articles: Battle of Buna-Gona and Battle of Tarawa

On January 2, Buna, New Guinea was captured by the Allies. This ended the threat to Port Moresby. By January 22, 1943, the Allied forces had achieved their objective of isolating Japanese forces in eastern New Guinea and cutting off their main line of supply. Image File history File links Changde_battle. ... Image File history File links Changde_battle. ... The Battle of Changde (Traditional Chinese: 常德會戰; Simplified Chinese: 常德会战; pinyin: ) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Buna-Gona was a battle in the Pacific campaign of World War II. On November 16, 1942, Australian and United States forces began to attack the main Japanese beachheads in New Guinea, at Buna, Sanananda and Gona. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Julian Smith Shibasaki Keiji Strength 35,000 2,600 troops, 1,000 Japanese workers and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,009 killed, 2,101 wounded 3,583 Japanese killed 1,169 Korean laborers killed 17 POWs and 129 Koreans freed The Battle of Tarawa... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Buna-Gona was a battle in the Pacific campaign of World War II. On November 16, 1942, Australian and United States forces began to attack the main Japanese beachheads in New Guinea, at Buna, Sanananda and Gona. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


American authorities declared Guadalcanal secure on February 9. Australian and U.S. forces undertook the prolonged campaign to retake the occupied parts of the Solomon Islands, New Guinea and the Dutch East Indies, experiencing some of the toughest resistance of the war. The rest of the Solomon Islands were retaken in 1943.


In November, US Marines won the Battle of Tarawa. This was the first heavily opposed amphibious assault in the Pacific theater. The high casualties taken by the Marines sparked off a storm of protest in the United States, where the large losses could not be understood for such a tiny and seemingly unimportant island. This led to the adoption of the "Island hopping" strategy, where the Allies bypassed some Japanese island strongholds and let them "wither on the vine". United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Julian Smith Shibasaki Keiji Strength 35,000 2,600 troops, 1,000 Japanese workers and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,009 killed, 2,101 wounded 3,583 Japanese killed 1,169 Korean laborers killed 17 POWs and 129 Koreans freed The Battle of Tarawa... Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. ...


Sino-Japanese War

Main article: Battle of Changde

A vigorous, fluctuating battle for Changde in China's Hunan province began on November 2, 1943. The Japanese threw over 100,000 men into the attack on the city, which changed hands several times in a few days but ended up still held by the Chinese. Overall, the Chinese ground forces were compelled to fight a war of defense and attrition while they built up their armies and awaited an Allied counteroffensive. The Battle of Changde (Traditional Chinese: 常德會戰; Simplified Chinese: 常德会战; pinyin: ) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


South East Asia

Main article: Burma Campaign

The Nationalist Kuomintang Army, under Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communist Chinese Army, under Mao Zedong, both opposed the Japanese occupation of China but never truly allied against the Japanese. Conflict between Nationalist and Communist forces emerged long before the war; it continued after and, to an extent, even during the war, though more implicitly. The Burma Campaign was a campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II. It was fought primarily between Commonwealth, Chinese and American forces against the Empire of Japan. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Japanese had captured most of Burma, severing the Burma Road by which the Western Allies had been supplying the Chinese Nationalists. This forced the Allies to create a large sustained airlift from India, known as "flying the Hump". Under the American General Joseph Stilwell, Chinese forces in India were retrained and re-equipped, while preparations were made to drive the Ledo Road from India, to replace the Burma Road. This was to prove an enormous engineering task. The Burma Road is a road linking Burma (also called Myanmar) with China. ... The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew from India to China to resupply the Flying Tigers and the Chinese Government of Chiang Kai-shek. ... Joseph Warren Stilwell (March 19, 1883 – October 12, 1946) was a United States Army four-star general best-known for his service in China. ... The Northern Combat Area Command or NCAC was a mainly Sino-American formation that held the northern end of the Allied front in Burma during World War II. For much of its existence it was commanded by the acerbic General Joseph Stilwell. ... The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ...


Beginning of end: 1944

European Theatre

Soviet winter and spring offensives

Soviet advances from August 1943 to December 1944.
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Soviet advances from August 1943 to December 1944.
Main articles: Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket, Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, Battle of Narva - Battle for the Narva Bridgehead (1944), Battle of the Crimea (1944), and Battle of Târgul Frumos

In the north, an SU offensive in January 1944 had relieved the siege of Leningrad. The Germans conducted an orderly retreat from the Leningrad area to a shorter line based on the lakes to the south. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 283 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Operation Bagration Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 283 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Operation Bagration Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Germany (Large numbers of Foreign Volunteers) Soviet Union Commanders Georg von Küchler/Walter Model (Army Group North) Georg Lindemann (18. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht 17. ... The Battle of Târgul Frumos (May 2-4, 1944) was fought at IaÅŸi, Romania between Nazi Germany and its Romanian allies on one side and the Soviet Red Army. ... Combatants Axis Powers, Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда) was the German...


In the south, in March, two SU fronts encircled Generaloberst Hans-Valentin Hube's First Panzer Army north of the Dniestr river. The Germans escaped the pocket in April, saving most of their men but losing their heavy equipment. General der Panzertruppen Hans-Valentin Hube Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890 - 21 April 1944) was a General who served in the German Heer during the First and Second World Wars. ... Panzer Group Kleist Panzer Group 1 First Panzer Army The First Panzer Army (German ) was a German tank army that fought during World War II. When formed the First Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on November 16, 1940 with Field Marshal Ewald von... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ...


In early May, the SU Red Army's 3rd Ukrainian Front engaged German Seventeenth Army of Army Group South which had been left behind after the German retreat from the Ukraine. The battle was a complete victory for the Red Army, and a botched evacuation effort across the Black Sea led to over 250,000 German and Romanian casualties.


During April 1944, a series of attacks by the SU Red Army near the city of Iaşi, Romania aimed at capturing the strategically important sector. The German-Romanian forces successfully defended the sector throughout the month of April. The attack at Târgul Frumos was the final attempt by the Red Army to achieve its goal of having a spring-board into Romania for a summer offensive.


With SU forces approaching, German troops occupied Hungary on March 20. Hitler thought that Hungarian leader Admiral Miklós Horthy might no longer be a reliable ally. March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Duke of Szeged and Otranto (Hungarian: Vitéz* nagybányai Horthy Miklós, Szeged és Otranto hercege; Kenderes, June 18, 1868 – Estoril, February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October...


Finland sought a separate peace with Stalin in February 1944, but would not accept the initial terms offered. On June 9, the Soviet Union began the Fourth strategic offensive on the Karelian Isthmus that, after three months, forced Finland to accept an armistice. June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ...


Italy and the Balkans

Following Italy's surrender, German troops took over the defense of the Italian peninsula and established the Gustav line in the southern Apennine Mountains south of Rome. The Allies were unable to break this line, and so attempted to bypass it with an amphibious landing at Anzio on January 22, 1944. The landing, named Operation Shingle, quickly became encircled by the Germans and bogged down, leading Churchill to comment, "Instead of hurling a wildcat onto the shore all we got was a stranded whale." Operation Shingle (January 22, 1944), during the Italian Campaign of World War II, was an Allied amphibious landing against Axis forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Poland New Zealand India Free France Morocco Brazil and others Nazi Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Albert Kesselring Frido von Senger Strength 105,000 80,000 Casualties 54,000 20,000 The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... Anzio (2003 pop. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Operation Shingle (January 22, 1944), during the Italian Campaign of World War II, was an Allied amphibious landing against Axis forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. ...


Unable to circumvent the Gustav line, the Allies again attempted to break through with frontal assaults. The western part of the German line made use of the historic abbey of Monte Cassino, founded in 524 by St. Benedict, high on a peak overlooking the town of Cassino. On February 15, the monastery was destroyed by American B17 and B26 bombers. Two days after the bombing, crack German paratroopers poured into the ruins to defend it. From January 12 to May 18, it was assaulted four times by Allied troops, for a loss of over 54,000 Allied and 20,000 German soldiers. The restored Abbey Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about eighty miles (130 km) south of Rome, Italy, a mile to the west of the town of Cassino (the Roman Cassinum having been on the hill) and about 1700 ft (520 m) altitude. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... The restored Abbey Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about eighty miles (130 km) south of Rome, Italy, a mile to the west of the town of Cassino (the Roman Cassinum having been on the hill) and about 1700 ft (520 m) altitude. ...


After months, the Gustav line was broken and the Allies marched north. On June 4, Rome was liberated, and the Allied army reached Florence in August. They then were held at the Gothic Line on the Tuscan Apennines during the winter. June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the Roman People) coordinates: 41°54′N 12°29′E Time Zone: UTC+1 Administration Subdivisions 19 municipi Province Rome Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni ( The Union ) Characteristics Area 1,285 km² Population 2,547,677 (2005 estimate) Density 1983/km... Country Italy Region Tuscany Province Florence (FI) Mayor Leonardo Domenici Elevation 50 m Area 102 km² Population  - Total (as of 2006-06-02) 366,488  - Density 3,593/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Fiorentini Dialing code 055 Postal code 50100 Frazioni Galluzzo, Settignano Patron St. ... The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last line of defence along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of Nazi Germanys forces from Italy in the final stages of World War II. The Gothic Line developed as a result...


Germany withdrew from the Balkans and held Hungary until February 1945. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Romania turned against Germany in August 1944, threatening German lines of retreat from the Ukraine. Bulgaria surrendered in September.

A V-1 Flying Bomb in flight
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A V-1 Flying Bomb in flight

V Rockets V-1 flying bomb File links The following pages link to this file: V-1 flying bomb Categories: Polish government site pictures ... V-1 flying bomb File links The following pages link to this file: V-1 flying bomb Categories: Polish government site pictures ... The Fieseler Fi 103/FZG-76 (Vergeltungswaffe-1, V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ...

Main articles: V-1 flying bomb and V-2 rocket

In June 1944 the Germans used the world's first cruise missile; the V-1 flying bomb to attack UK targets. Later they would employ the V-2 rocket, a liquid-fuelled guided ballistic missile. The Fieseler Fi 103/FZG-76 (Vergeltungswaffe-1, V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... The V-2 rocket or Vergeltungswaffe 2 (Reprisal weapon 2) was an early ballistic missile used by the German Army during the later stages of World War II against mostly Belgian and British targets. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... The Fieseler Fi 103/FZG-76 (Vergeltungswaffe-1, V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... The V-2 rocket or Vergeltungswaffe 2 (Reprisal weapon 2) was an early ballistic missile used by the German Army during the later stages of World War II against mostly Belgian and British targets. ... Polish missile wz. ...


Area bombing raids

Winston Churchill ordered the 1000 bomber raid and the destruction of Cologne in 1942
Winston Churchill ordered the 1000 bomber raid and the destruction of Cologne in 1942

The US and UK air forces counter-attacked the Luftwaffe and began large-scale strategic bombing, eventually targeting major cities inside Germany. This was orchestrated by Air Chief Marshall Harris who became known as 'Bomber Harris'. Additionally Winston Churchill ordered "terror raids" intended to wipe out whole cities in one go, by incendiary devices causing firestorms, thus depriving German workers of their homes. Mass raids involving upwards of 500 to 1000 heavy bombers at a time were undertaken against airfields, industrial centers, submarine bases, rail-marshalling yards, oil depots and, in the later stages of the war, launching sites for weapons such as the V-1 missile (nicknamed 'doodlebug'), the V-2 rocket and a jet-engined plane, the Messerschmitt Me 262. The Luftwaffe was overwhelmed and had only a few operational planes left by late 1944 on the Western Front. By 1945 all major German cities were burnt-out ruins. Aerial area bombardment is the policy of indiscriminate bombing of an enemys cities, for the purpose of destroying the enemys means of producing military materiel, communications, government centres and civilian morale. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Image File history File links Koeln_1945. ... Image File history File links Koeln_1945. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC(Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Köln redirects here. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet (April 13, 1892 - April 5, 1984), commonly known as Bomber Harris, and often within the RAF as Butcher Harris[1], was commander of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of the... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC(Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (Ger. ...


SU summer offensive

Main article: Operation Bagration

Operation Bagration, an SU offensive involving 2.5 million men and 6,000 tanks, was launched on June 22. Its objective was to clear German troops from Belarus. The subsequent battle resulted in the destruction of German Army Group Centre and over 800,000 German casualties, the greatest defeat for the Wehrmacht during the war. The Soviets swept forward, reaching the outskirts of Warsaw on July 31. Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ...

Ruins of the Bank Polski after the Warsaw Uprising
Ruins of the Bank Polski after the Warsaw Uprising

Warsaw Uprising Ruins of Bank Polski area during the Warsaw Uprising, see also Image:Uprising bank polski. ... Ruins of Bank Polski area during the Warsaw Uprising, see also Image:Uprising bank polski. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed...

Main article: Warsaw Uprising

The proximity of the SU Red Army led the Poles in Warsaw to believe they would soon be liberated. On August 1, they revolted as part of the wider Operation Tempest. Nearly 40,000 Polish resistance fighters seized control of the city. The Soviets, however, were unable to advance any further. [1] The only assistance given to the Poles was artillery fire as German army units moved into the city to put down the revolt. The resistance ended on October 2. German units then destroyed most of what was left of the city. Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ...


Soviet autumn and winter offensives

Main articles: Lvov-Sandomierz Operation, Battle of Narva - Battle of the Tannenbergstellung (1944), Battle of Romania (1944), Battle of Debrecen, and Battle of the Baltic (1944)
Main article: Battle of Budapest
Bucharesters greet the Red Army liberating the city on 31 August 1944.
Bucharesters greet the Red Army liberating the city on 31 August 1944.

After the destruction of Army Group Center, the Soviets attacked German forces in the south in mid-July 1944, and in a month's time they cleared Ukraine of German presence. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 368,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 37,400 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was... Combatants Germany (Large numbers of Foreign Volunteers) Soviet Union Commanders Walter Model (Army Group North) Johannes Frießner (Armee-Abteilung Narwa) , Felix Steiner (III SS (Germanic) Panzer Corps), Leonid Govorov (Leningrad Front), Kirill Meretskov (Volkhov Front), Strength 45,000 60 tanks / assault guns 200,000 450 tanks Casualties 20,000... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Heeresgruppe Südukraine, Romanian Army Commanders Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Generaloberst Friessner Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... The Battle of Debrecen, was a battle on the Eastern Front of World War II. In October 1944 General der Artillerie Maximilian Fretter-Picos 6. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unkown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown // Overview The Battle of the Baltic, called the Baltic Operation by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes combat operations between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army in the Baltic region... The Battle Of Budapest was a 2 month long siege in which Soviet forces captured the city of Budapest from German SS forces and Hungarian forces in World War II. Categories: World War II stubs | Battles and operations of World War II ... Image File history File links Liberationofbucharest. ... Image File history File links Liberationofbucharest. ... Bucharest (Romanian: Bucureşti ) is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


The SU Red Army's 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts engaged German Heeresgruppe Südukraine, which consisted of German and Romanian formations, in an operation to occupy Romania and destroy the German formations in the sector. The result of the battle was complete victory for the Red Army and a switch of Romania from the Axis to the Allied camp.


In October 1944, General der Artillerie Maximilian Fretter-Pico's Sixth Army encircled and destroyed three corps of Marshal Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky's Group Pliyev near Debrecen, Hungary. This was to be the last German victory in the Eastern front.


The SU Red Army's 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Baltic Fronts engaged German Army Group Center and Army Group North to capture the Baltic region from the Germans. The result of the series of battles was a permanent loss of contact between Army Groups North and Centre, and the creation of the Courland Pocket in Latvia. From December 29, 1944 to February 13, 1945, Soviet forces laid siege to Budapest, which was defended by German Waffen-SS and Hungarian forces. It was one of the bloodiest sieges of the war. December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Allied invasion of Western Europe

American troops disembark in the surf at Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944.
American troops disembark in the surf at Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944.
American troops march down the Champs Elysées in Paris
American troops march down the Champs Elysées in Paris

On "D-Day" (June 6, 1944), the western Allies of mainly the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada invaded German-held Normandy.[2] German resistance was stubborn, especially on Omaha Beach and in the city of Caen. During the first month, the Allies measured progress in hundreds of yards and bloody rifle fights in the Bocage. An Allied breakout (Operation Cobra) was effected at St.-Lô. Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Bertram Ramsay Trafford Leigh-Mallory Gerd von Rundstedt Erwin Rommel Friedrich Dollmann Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split up over the entire... During World War II, the Falaise pocket (also known as the Chambois pocket, Chambois-Montcormel pocket, Falaise-Chambois pocket and in French: Poche de Falaise) was the area between the four cities of Trun-Argentan-Vimoutiers-Chambois near Falaise, France, in which Allied forces tried to encircle and destroy the... A map of the operation. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ... Download high resolution version (800x606, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x606, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Lieutenant Omar Bradley, U.S. 1st Infantry Division and U.S. 29th Infantry Division Generalleutnant Dietrich Kraiss, German 352nd Infantry Division Strength 34,000  ? Casualties 2,400 Unknown The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Bertram Ramsay Trafford Leigh-Mallory Gerd von Rundstedt Erwin Rommel Friedrich Dollmann Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split up over the entire... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1388x1103, 316 KB) Description: Image: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1388x1103, 316 KB) Description: Image: http://www. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Bertram Ramsay Trafford Leigh-Mallory Gerd von Rundstedt Erwin Rommel Friedrich Dollmann Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split up over the entire... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Lieutenant Omar Bradley, U.S. 1st Infantry Division and U.S. 29th Infantry Division Generalleutnant Dietrich Kraiss, German 352nd Infantry Division Strength 34,000  ? Casualties 2,400 Unknown The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland. ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery, Miles Dempsey, Richard OConnor, Guy Simonds Edgar Feuchtinger, Erwin Rommel, Gerd von Rundstedt, Günther von Kluge Strength 2nd British Army, 51st Highland Division, 11th British Armoured divison, 7th British Armoured Divison, Polish 1st Armoured Division, VIII British Corps, Royal Air... Bocage is a French word referring to a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, with tortuous side-roads and lanes bounded on both sides by banks surmounted with high thick hedgerows limiting visibility. ... Operation Cobra was the codename for the World War II operation planned by United States Army General Omar Bradley to break out from the Normandy area after the previous months D-Day landings. ... Saint-Lô is a town and commune of France, the préfecture (capital) of the Manche département, in Normandy. ...


During August 1944, the German Seventh Army and Fifth Panzer Army were almost completely encircled in the Falaise pocket after they mounted a counter-attack. 50,000 were captured, but 100,000 managed to escape the pocket. Allied forces stationed in Italy invaded the French Riviera on August 15 and linked up with forces from Normandy. The clandestine French Resistance in Paris rose against the Germans on August 19, and a French division under General Jacques Leclerc, pressing forward from Normandy, received the surrender of the German forces there and liberated the city on August 25. During World War II, the Falaise pocket (also known as the Chambois pocket, Chambois-Montcormel pocket, Falaise-Chambois pocket and in French: Poche de Falaise) was the area between the four cities of Trun-Argentan-Vimoutiers-Chambois near Falaise, France, in which Allied forces tried to encircle and destroy the... A map of the operation. ... The Quai des États-Unis in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Bold textItalic textLink title // Headline text Headline text Headline text == The cross of Lorraine used by the French Resistance as a symbolic reference to Joan of Arc. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France and a famous French military leader. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ...


Allied autumn offensive

Logistical problems plagued the Allies' advance east as the supply lines still ran back to the beaches of Normandy. Allied paratroopers and armor attempted a war-winning advance through the Netherlands and across the Rhine River with Operation Market Garden in September, but they were repulsed. A decisive victory by the Canadian First Army in the Battle of the Scheldt secured the entrance to the port of Antwerp, which freed it to receive supplies by late November 1944. Meanwhile, the Americans launched an attack through the Hurtgen Forest in September but the Germans despite having smaller numbers were able to use the difficult terrain and find good defensive positions. In October, the Americans captured Aachen, the first major German city to be occupied. Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Gerd von Rundstedt Strength XXX Corps, 35,000 airborne 20,000 Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical objectives were... The Battle of Aachen was a battle in World War II that took place in October 1944 in the small German city of Aachen. ... Battle of Hurtgen Forest (German: Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) is the name given to the series of fierce battles fought between the Americans and the Germans during World War II in the Hürtgen forest (or Huertgen forest). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Gerd von Rundstedt Strength XXX Corps, 35,000 airborne 20,000 Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical objectives were... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Gerd von Rundstedt Strength XXX Corps, 35,000 airborne 20,000 Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical objectives were... The Canadian First Army was the overall command for the Canadian military forces in Europe during World War II. It was formed in early 1942 to command two corps composed of the three infantry divisions, two armoured divisions, and two armoured brigades that had assembled in England. ... Combatants Canada, Britain, Poland Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength ? ? Casualties 12,873 total; 6,367 Canadian ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a military operation which took place in northern Belgium and south-western Netherlands during the Second World... The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to several triptychs by Baroque painter Rubens. ... Battle of Hurtgen Forest (German: Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) is the name given to the series of fierce battles fought between the Americans and the Germans during World War II in the Hürtgen forest (or Huertgen forest). ... The Battle of Aachen was a battle in World War II that took place in October 1944 in the small German city of Aachen. ...


Winter offensive

Main article: Battle of the Bulge

In December 1944, the German Army made its last major offensive in the West, known as the Battle of the Bulge. Hitler sought victory similar to the 1940 Ardennes offensive, which he envisioned would drive back the Western Allies and force them to agree to a separate peace. At first, the Germans scored successes against the unprepared Allied forces. The lead group of panzers, Kampfgruppe Peiper led by Jochen Peiper got so far out in front, he created a "bulge" in the American lines, hence the name of the battle. Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... Jochen Peiper Joachim Peiper (1915 - 1976);more often known as Jochen Peiper from the common German nickname for Joachim; born on January 30, 1915 was a senior Waffen-SS officer, and commander in the Panzer campaigns of 1939-1945. ...


Poor weather during the initial days of the offensive favored the Germans because Allied aircraft were grounded. Stubborn US resistance at St. Vith and by the surrounded 101st Airborne Division at Bastogne, an important crossroads, blunted the German advance. The arrival of the United States Third Army under General George Patton ended the German threat, and further counterattacks trapped many German units in the resulting pocket. The remaining Germans were forced to retreat back into Germany. It was the bloodiest battle in US military history. Sankt Vith (French: Saint-Vith) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) —nicknamed the Screaming Eagles— is an air assault division of the United States Army mainly trained for air assault operations. ... Combatants Allied Forces Germany Commanders Anthony McAuliffe Hasso von Manteuffel, General der Panzertruppen Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown {{{notes}}} The Battle of Bastogne was a smaller battle in and around the Belgian town of Bastogne, during the larger Battle of the Bulge. ... Distinctive Unit Insignia // Activation and World War I The Third U.S. Army was first activated as a formation during the First World War on November 7, 1918, at Chaumont, France, when the General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces issued General Order 198 organizing the Third Army and announcing... George Smith Patton, Jr. ...


Pacific Theatre

Main article: Pacific War

Central and South West Pacific US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ...

Berlin and Prague offensive on the Eastern Front 1945.
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Berlin and Prague offensive on the Eastern Front 1945.

The American advance continued in the southwest Pacific with the capture of the Marshall Islands before the end of February. 42,000 US Army soldiers and US Marines landed on Kwajalein atoll on January 31. Fierce fighting occurred, and the island was taken on February 6. U.S. Marines next defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Eniwetok. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 216 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1945-01-01 to 1945-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Lake Balaton Offensive User:Gdr/Gallery Prague Offensive Vistula... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 216 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1945-01-01 to 1945-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Lake Balaton Offensive User:Gdr/Gallery Prague Offensive Vistula... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Battle of Eniwetok Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 17 February 1944 – 23 February 1944 Place Eniwetok Atoll, United States Japan Commanders Harry W. Hill Yoshimi Nishida Strength 2 regiments 2,000+ Casualties 339 killed or missing, 757 wounded 2,000+ dead, 16 captured The Battle of Eniwetok was...


The US strategic objective was to gain airbases within bombing range of the new B-29's on the Mariana Islands, especially Saipan, Tinian and Guam. On June 11, the battle fleet bombarded Saipan, defended by 32,000 Japanese troops; 77,000 Marines landed starting the 15th and the island was secure by July 9. The Japanese committed much of their declining naval strength in the Battle of the Philippine Sea but suffered severe losses in both ships and aircraft. After the battle, the Japanese aircraft carrier force was no longer militarily effective. With the capture of Saipan, Japan was finally within range of B-29 bombers. The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the western Pacific Ocean. ... Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and site of the capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, a chain of 15 tropical islands in the western Pacific Ocean with a total area of 120 km² (46. ... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan (Click to enlarge) Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Raymond A. Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 7 heavy carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 6 heavy carriers, 3 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties 123 planes destroyed (about...


Guam was invaded on July 21 and taken on August 10, but the Japanese fought fanatically. Mopping up operations continued long after the Battle of Guam was officially over. The island of Tinian was invaded on July 24 and was conquered on August 1. This was the first use of napalm in the war.[citation needed] July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The battle of Guam was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands from 21 July 1944 to 10 August 1944. ... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan (Click to enlarge) Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... A Napalm airstrike in Vietnam. ...


General MacArthur's troops liberated the Philippines, landing on the island of Leyte on October 20. The Japanese had prepared a rigorous defense and used the last of their naval forces in a failed attempt to destroy the invasion force in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, October 23 through October 26, 1944, the largest naval battle in history. This was the first battle that had kamikaze attacks. The Japanese battleship Musashi, one of the two largest battleships ever built, was sunk by 19 American torpedoes and 17 bombs. Leyte can refer to several things: Leyte, an island in the Phillipines, site of a major World War II battle Leyte Gulf, also in the Phillipines, and site of a WW II battle Leyte province, a province of the Phillipines, including most of Leyte island Southern Leyte, a province of... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Combatants Allies Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts Many PT boats, submarines and fleet auxiliaries About 1,500 planes 4 aircraft carriers 9 battleships 19 cruisers 34 destroyers About 200 planes... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Kamikaze pilot Hachiro Hosokawa during World War II. He survived the war, because he belonged to a covering fighter squadron. ... Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ...


Throughout 1944, US submarines and aircraft attacked Japanese merchant shipping and deprived Japan's industry of the raw materials it had gone to war to obtain. The main target was oil, and Japan ran almost dry by late 1944. In 1944, submarines sank over two million tons of cargo,[3] while the Japanese were only able to replace less than one million tons.[4]

MacArthur coming ashore back to the Philippines. Photo taken by Carl Mydans of Life magazine.
MacArthur coming ashore back to the Philippines. Photo taken by Carl Mydans of Life magazine.
US marines attack a Japanese blockhouse on Kwajalein
US marines attack a Japanese blockhouse on Kwajalein

Sino-Japanese War This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Raymond A. Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 7 heavy carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 6 heavy carriers, 3 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties 123 planes destroyed (about... Combatants Allies Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts Many PT boats, submarines and fleet auxiliaries About 1,500 planes 4 aircraft carriers 9 battleships 19 cruisers 34 destroyers About 200 planes... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner, Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on... Attack by US marines on a Japanese blockhouse in the battle of Kwalajein, February 1944 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Attack by US marines on a Japanese blockhouse in the battle of Kwalajein, February 1944 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Main articles: Battle of Henan-Hunan-Guangxi, Battle of Changsha (1944), and Battle of Guilin-Liuzhou

In April 1944, the Japanese launched Operation Ichigo to secure the railway route across Japanese occupied territories of northeast China, Korea, and South East Asia, and to destroy US airbases in the area. In June 1944, the Japanese deployed 360,000 troops and invaded Changsha for the fourth time. This involved more Japanese troops than any campaign in the Sino-Japanese war, and after 47 days of bitter fighting, the city was taken. By November, the Japanese had also taken the cities of Guilin and Liuzhou which had served as US airbases for bombing raids on Japan. However, the USAAF could still strike Japan from newly acquired bases. By December, Japanese forces reached French Indochina and achieved the purpose of the operation, but only after incurring heavy losses. Combatants National Revolutionary Army Japan Commanders General Wei Lihuang Lt. ... The Battle of Changsha (1944), also known as the Battle of Hengyang or Battle of Hengyang-Changsha, was an invasion of the Chinese province of Hunan by Japanese troops near the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Guilin-Liuzhou (Traditional Chinese: 桂柳會戰; Simplified Chinese: 桂柳会战; pinyin: ), also known as the Battle of Guiliu was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. ...


South East Asia

While the Americans steadily built the Ledo Road from India to China, in March 1944, the Japanese began their their own offensive into India. This "march to Delhi" was instigated by local commanders, and the leadership of the Japanese auxiliaries, the Indian National Army. The Japanese attempted to destroy the main British and Indian forces at Imphal, resulting in some of the most ferocious fighting of the war. While the encircled allied troops were reinforced and resupplied by transport aircraft until fresh troops broke the siege, the Japanese ran out of supplies and starved. They eventually retreated losing 85,000 men, one of the largest Japanese defeats of the war. The Battle of Imphal took place in Manipur district of North East India from April until June 1944. ... The Battle of Kohima was a battle of the Burma Campaign in World War II, fought around the town of Kohima in northeast India from April 4 to June 22, 1944. ... The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ... The flag used by Indian National Army during World War II. The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was an auxiliary force to the Imperial Japanese Army in its southern mainland campaign during the Second World War. ... Imphal is the capital of Manipur, India. ...


End of war: 1945

European Theatre

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Marshall of the Soviet Union Zhukov leader of the Red Army

Soviet winter offensive Image File history File links Marshall Georgij Žukov from en. ... Image File history File links Marshall Georgij Žukov from en. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...

Main articles: Vistula-Oder Offensive and Operation Frühlingserwachen

On January 12, the SU Red Army was ready for its next big offensive. Konev's armies attacked the Germans in southern Poland and expanded out from their Vistula River bridgehead near Sandomierz. On January 14, Rokossovsky's armies attacked from the Narew River north of Warsaw. They broke the defences covering East Prussia. Zhukov's armies in the centre attacked from their bridgeheads near Warsaw. The German front was now in shambles. Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Dietrich (6. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshal Ivan Konev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 – May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


On January 17, Zhukov took Warsaw. On January 19, his tanks took Łódź. That same day, Konev's forces reached the German pre-war border. At the end of the first week of the offensive, the Soviets had penetrated 160 kilometers (100 mi) deep on a front that was 650 kilometers (400 mi) wide. By February 13, the Soviets took Budapest. The SU onslaught finally halted on the Oder River at the end of January, only 60 kilometers (40 mi) from Berlin. January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Łódź ((?)) is Polands second largest city (population 776,297 in 2004). ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ...


Allied Winter Offensive
On January 14th the XII Corps / 2nd British Army launched Operation Blackcock in order to clear the Roer Triangle, a German held salient between the rivers Maas and Roer south of Roermond. By January 27th the German forces were driven east of the Roer. Combatants Britain, Canada Germany Commanders Lt. ...


Yalta Conference

Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin at Yalta in 1945.
Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin at Yalta in 1945.
Main article: Yalta Conference

Meanwhile,Roosevelt , Churchill, and Stalin made arrangements for post-war Europe at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Their meeting resulted in many important resolutions: New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... FDR redirects here. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC(Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Stalin redirects here. ...

  • An April meeting would be held to form the United Nations;
  • Poland would have free elections;
  • The borders of Poland were to be drastically moved westwards, at the expense of Germany.
  • SU nationals were to be repatriated;
  • The Soviet Union was to attack Japan within three months of Germany's surrender.

Soviet spring offensive To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term used to describe the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ...

Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the reichstag in Berlin, Germany
Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the reichstag in Berlin, Germany

The Red Army (including 78,556 soldiers of the 1st Polish Army) began its final assault on Berlin on April 16. By April 24, three SU Army groups completed the encirclement of the city. As a final resistance effort, Hitler called for civilians, including teenagers and the elderly, to fight the oncoming SU Red Army in the Volkssturm militia. Those forces were augmented by the battered German remnants that had fought the Soviets in Seelow Heights. The urban fighting was heavy, with house-to-house and hand-to-hand combat. The Soviets sustained 305,000 dead; the Germans sustained as many as 325,000, including civilians. Hitler and his staff moved into the Führerbunker, a concrete bunker beneath the Chancellery, where on April 30, 1945, he committed suicide, along with his bride, Eva Braun. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Georgy Zhukov Strength 100,000 men 512 Tanks 344 artillery pieces 400 Anti-aircraft guns 1,000,000 men 3,155 Tanks 16,934 artillery pieces Casualties 12,000 Killed 33,000 Killed The Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... The Battle of Halbe occurred during the last days of April 1945 in the Spree Forest near the village of Halbe, south-east of Berlin. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... German Peoples Storm Defense Force The Volkssturm, literally translated as Peoples Storm in the meaning of National Storm, was a German national militia of the last months of the Nazis Third Reich. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Georgy Zhukov Strength 100,000 men 512 Tanks 344 artillery pieces 400 Anti-aircraft guns 1,000,000 men 3,155 Tanks 16,934 artillery pieces Casualties 12,000 Killed 33,000 Killed The Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... Eva Braun and Adolf Hitler. ...

US General Omar Bradley led the advance into Germany
US General Omar Bradley led the advance into Germany

Allied spring offensive Picture of Omar Bradley from http://www. ... Picture of Omar Bradley from http://www. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during the World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ...

The Allies resumed their advance into Germany in late January. The final obstacle to the Allies was the river Rhine which was crossed in late March 1945, aided by the fortuitous capture of the Ludendorff Bridge. During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... The Ludendorff Bridge was a railroad bridge across the Rhine in Germany, connecting the cities of Remagen and Erpel. ...


Once the Allies had crossed the Rhine, the British fanned out northeast towards Hamburg crossing the river Elbe and on towards Denmark and the Baltic Sea. The US Ninth Army went south as the northern pincer of the Ruhr encirclement and the US First Army went north as the southern pincer of the Ruhr encirclement. These armies were commanded by General Omar Bradley who had over 1,300,000 men under his control. On April 4, the encirclement was completed and the German Army Group B commanded by Field Marshal Walther Model was trapped in the Ruhr Pocket. 300,000 soldiers became prisoners of war. The First and Ninth US armies then turned east. They halted their advance at the Elbe river where they met up with SU forces in mid-April. The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during the World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Italy
Allied advances in the winter of 1944-45 up the Italian peninsula had been slow because of the mountains and troop re-deployments to France. By April 9, the British/American 15th Army Group, broke through the Gothic Line and attacked the Po Valley gradually enclosing the main German forces. Milan was taken by the end of April. The US 5th Army continued to move west and linked up with French units. The NZ Second Division entered Trieste to confront Yugoslav partisans, who were intending to make the city part of Yugoslavia. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... The British/American 15th Army Group was an important unit in World War II. It was activated in 1943 in Algiers, North Africa, to plan the invasion of Sicily. ... The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last line of defence along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of Nazi Germanys forces from Italy in the final stages of World War II. The Gothic Line developed as a result... The Po (Latin: Padus) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Milan (MI) Mayor Letizia Moratti Elevation 120 m Area 182 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,308,311  - Density 6,988/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Milanesi Dialing code 02 Postal code 20100 Patron St. ... Country Italy Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia Province Trieste (TS) Mayor Roberto Dipiazza (since 2001) Elevation 2 m Area 8,449 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 207,069  - Density 2,480/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Triestini Dialing code 040 Postal code 34100 Frazioni See...


A few days before the surrender of German troops in Italy, Italian partisans captured Mussolini, trying to make his escape to Switzerland. He was executed, along with his mistress, Clara Petacci. Their bodies were taken to Milan and hung upside down on public display. Clara Petacci (Claretta Petacci) (February 28, 1912 – April 28, 1945) was a young Roman girl from an upper-class family who became Benito Mussolinis mistress. ...


Germany surrenders

Marshals of the Soviet Union Zhukov (on the white horse) and Rokossovsky at the Victory Parade in Red Square on June 24, 1945.
Marshals of the Soviet Union Zhukov (on the white horse) and Rokossovsky at the Victory Parade in Red Square on June 24, 1945.

Admiral Karl Dönitz became leader of the German government after the death of Hitler, but the German war effort quickly disintegrated. German forces in Berlin surrendered the city to the Soviet troops on May 2, 1945. Image File history File links Summary Marshal Zhukov and Marshal Rokossovsky during the Victory Parade on Red Square (June 24, 1945) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Summary Marshal Zhukov and Marshal Rokossovsky during the Victory Parade on Red Square (June 24, 1945) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: КОНСТАНТИН КОНСТАНТИНОВИЧ РОКОССОВСКИЙ, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 - August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister, was born in the town of Velikie Luki near Pskov in northern Russia, the son of a Polish railway... The 1945 Victory parade was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II and the German surrender took place in late April and early May 1945. ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronounciation: ); September 16, 1891 – December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as Reichspräsident after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The German forces in Italy surrendered on May 2, 1945, at General Alexander's headquarters, and German forces in northern Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands surrendered on May 4. The surrender in Italy was preceded by the controversial secret Operation Sunrise in March 1945, during which the Great Britain and the United States were accused by the Soviet Union of trying to reach a separate peace. The German High Command under Generaloberst Alfred Jodl surrendered unconditionally all remaining German forces on May 7 in Reims, France. The western Allies celebrated "V-E Day" on May 8. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The phrase separate peace refers to a nations agreement to cease military hostilities with another, even though the former country had previously entered into a military alliance with other states that remain at war with the latter country. ... Generaloberst Alfred Jodl Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 - October 16, 1946) was a Wehrmacht leader. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day or VE Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Third Reich. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ...


The Soviet Union celebrated "Victory Day" on May 9. Some remnants of German Army Group Center continued resistance until May 11 or May 12 (See Prague Offensive). [2] Victory Day is the name of a public holiday in various countries to commemorate the victory in an important battle or war in the countrys history. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ...


Potsdam
The last Allied conference of World War II was held at the suburb of Potsdam, outside Berlin, from July 17 to August 2. During the Potsdam Conference, agreements were reached between the Allies on policies for occupied Germany. An ultimatum was issued calling for the unconditional surrender of Japan. July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945 The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ...


Pacific Theatre

Main article: Pacific War

Central and South West Pacific US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ...

U.S. troops raising the flag on Iwo Jima
U.S. troops raising the flag on Iwo Jima

In January, the US Sixth Army landed on Luzon, the main island of the Philippines. Manila was re-captured by March. U.S. capture of islands such as Iwo Jima in February and Okinawa (April through June) brought the Japanese homeland within easier range of naval and air attack. Amongst dozens of other cities, Tokyo was firebombed, and about 90,000 people died from the initial attack. The dense living conditions around production centres and the wooden residential constructions contributed to the large loss of life. In addition, the ports and major waterways of Japan were extensively mined by air in Operation Starvation, which seriously disrupted the logistics of the island nation. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi† Strength 100,000 Marines 20,700 soldiers Casualties 6,821 dead 20,000 wounded 18,000 dead 216 captured Battle of Iwo Jima (Operation Detachment) was fought between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during... Combatants United States United Kingdom (naval involvement only) Empire of Japan Commanders Simon Bolivar Buckner† Joseph Stilwell Mitsuru Ushijima† Strength 548,000 marines 107,000 regulars 24,000 militia Casualties 12,500 killed or missing 38,000 wounded 33,096 non-combat wounded 38 ships lost 763 aircraft lost 110... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1380x1111, 200 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1380x1111, 200 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi† Strength 100,000 Marines 20,700 soldiers Casualties 6,821 dead 20,000 wounded 18,000 dead 216 captured Battle of Iwo Jima (Operation Detachment) was fought between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during... Combatants United States United Kingdom (naval involvement only) Empire of Japan Commanders Simon Bolivar Buckner† Joseph Stilwell Mitsuru Ushijima† Strength 548,000 marines 107,000 regulars 24,000 militia Casualties 12,500 killed or missing 38,000 wounded 33,096 non-combat wounded 38 ships lost 763 aircraft lost 110... The U.S. bombing of Tokyo during World War II took place between 1942 and 1945. ... Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ...


The last major offensive in the South West Pacific Area was the Borneo campaign of mid-1945, which was aimed at further isolating the remaining Japanese forces in South East Asia and securing the release of Allied prisoners of war. South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ...


South East Asia

In South-East Asia, during the monsoon from August to November 1944, the Japanese were pursued to the Chindwin River in Burma after their failed attack on India. With the onset of the dry season in early 1945, while the American and Chinese forces finally completed the Ledo Road although too late to have any decisive effect, the British Fourteenth Army, consisting of Indian, British and African units, launched an offensive into Central Burma. The Japanese forces were heavily defeated and the Allies pursued them southward, taking Rangoon on May 2 (see Operation Dracula). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Battle of Meiktila. ... During World War II, Operation Dracula was the name given to an airborne and amphibious attack on Rangoon by British and Indian forces, part of the Burma Campaign. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The Chindwin River is a river in Myanmar and the major tributary of the Irrawaddy River. ... The Northern Combat Area Command or NCAC was a mainly Sino-American formation that held the northern end of the Allied front in Burma during World War II. For much of its existence it was commanded by the acerbic General Joseph Stilwell. ... The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ... The British Fourteenth Army was a multinational force comprising units from Commonwealth countries during World War II. Many of its units were from the Indian Army as well as British units and there were also significant contributions from East African divisions within the British Army. ... During World War II, Operation Dracula was the name given to an airborne and amphibious attack on Rangoon by British and Indian forces, part of the Burma Campaign. ...


Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

President Harry Truman decided to use the new super-weapon to bring the war to a swifter end. The battle for Okinawa had shown that an invasion of the Japanese mainland (planned for November), would result large numbers of American casualties. The official estimate given to the Secretary of War was 1.4 to four million Allied casualties, though some historians dispute whether this would have been the case. Invasion would mean the death of millions of Japanese soldiers and civilians, who were being trained as militia. The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice-President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ...


On August 6, 1945, a B-29 Superfortress, the "Enola Gay", dropped a nuclear weapon dubbed "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, destroying the city. On August 9, a B-29, "Bockscar", dropped a second atomic bomb dubbed "Fat Man" on the port city of Nagasaki. August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Colonel Paul Tibbets waving from Enola Gays cockpit after the bombing of Hiroshima. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A postwar Little Boy casing mockup. ... Hiroshima City Hall Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba Address 〒730-8586 Hiroshima-shi, Naka-ku, Kokutaiji 1-6-34 Phone number 082-245-2111 Official website: Hiroshima City , // The city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... BOCKS CAR after its mission against Nagasaki. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ...


Soviet offensive in the Far East

On August 8, two days after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, the Soviet Union, having renounced its nonaggression pact with Japan, attacked the Japanese in Manchuria, fulfilling its Yalta pledge to attack the Japanese within three months after the end of the war in Europe. The attack was made by three Soviet army groups. In less than two weeks, the Japanese army in Manchuria consisting of over a million men had been destroyed by the Soviets. The Red Army moved into North Korea on August 18. Korea was subsequently divided at the 38th parallel into Soviet and U.S. zones. Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day or VE Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Third Reich. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in the wartime capital of Chongqing, to toast to the Chinese victory over Empire of Japan.
Enlarge
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in the wartime capital of Chongqing, to toast to the Chinese victory over Empire of Japan.

Japan Surrenders This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade-Giles: Chung-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ...

The American use of atomic weapons against Japan and the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo prompted Hirohito to bypass the existing government and intervene to end the war. In his radio address to the nation, the Emperor did not mention the entry of the Soviet Union into the war but in his "Rescript to the soldiers and sailors" of August 17th, ordering them to cease fire and lay down arms, he stressed the relationship between Soviet entrance into the war and his decision to surrender, omitting any mention of the atomic bombs. Victory over Japan Day or V-J Day is the celebration of the August 15, 1945 Surrender of Japan and the end of World War II. In Japan, the day is known as, Shusen-kinenbi, which literally means the Memorial day for the end of the war. This is commemorated... Emperor Hirohito of Japan (Japanese: 裕仁) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 1926 to 1989. ...


The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945 (V-J day), signing the Japanese Instrument of Surrender on September 2. The Japanese troops in China formally surrendered to the Chinese on September 9, 1945. The Surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Victory over Japan Day or V-J Day is the celebration of the August 15, 1945 Surrender of Japan and the end of World War II. In Japan, the day is known as, Shusen-kinenbi, which literally means the Memorial day for the end of the war. This is commemorated... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Casualties, civilian impact, and atrocities

Casualties

Some 62 million people, or 2.5% of the world population, died in the war, though estimates vary greatly - about 25 million soldiers and 37 million civilians. This total includes the estimated 12 million lives lost in the Holocaust[5]. Of the total deaths in World War II approximately 80% were on the Allied side and 20% on the Axis side.[6] Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ...


Allied forces suffered approximately 17 million military deaths, of which about 10 million were Soviet and 4 million Chinese. Axis forces suffered about 8 million, of which more than 5 million were German. The Soviet Union suffered by far the largest death toll of any nation in the war; around 23 million people died in the Soviet Union, including more than 12 million civilians. Some modern estimates double the number of Chinese casualties originally mentioned. [7]


The dead and missing among Allied uniformed personnel totaled about 14.2 million, including about 10 million from the USSR, 2.5 million from China, 400,000 from the British Commonwealth, 400,000 from the U.S., 400,000 from Poland, 300,000 from Yugoslavia, and 250,000 from France. The Axis military lost about 8.5 million including 5.5 million from Germany, 2.0 million from Japan, and 400,000 from Italy. [8]


About 49 million deaths were civilians, who died as a result of disease, starvation, genocide (in particular, the Holocaust), massacres, and aerial bombing. One estimate is that 12 million civilians died in the camps, 1.5 million by bombs, 7 million in Europe from other causes, and 7.5 million in China from other causes. Allied civilian deaths came to about 38 million, including Soviet Union (20 million), China (10 million), Poland (5.5 million) and Yugoslavia (1.7 million). There were about 4-5 million civilian deaths on the Axis side, including Germany (1.8 million) Japan (2.0 Million), Italy (500,000) and Romania (500,000). The Holocaust refers to the organized state-sponsored murder of 6 million Jews, 220,000 Roma people, and other ethnic minorities and political opponents carried out by the Nazis during the war. [9] Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) Article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... The remains of german town of Wesel after intensive allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 98 % of all buildings) Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Genocide

Main article: The Holocaust

The Holocaust was the organized murder of at least nine million people[citation needed], about two-thirds of whom were Jewish. Originally, the Nazis used killing squads, Einsatzgruppen, to conduct massive open-air killings, shooting as many as 33,000 people in a single massacre, as in the case of Babi Yar. By 1942, the Nazi leadership decided to implement the Final Solution (Endlösung), the genocide of all Jews in Europe, and increase the pace of the Holocaust. The Nazis built six extermination camps specifically to kill Jews. Millions of Jews who had been confined to massively overcrowded ghettos were transported to these "Death-camps", in which they were either killed on arrival or put to work until the Nazis could find no more use for them, at which point they were disposed of through methods of shooting or mass gas chambers. Image File history File links Massdeportations. ... Image File history File links Massdeportations. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Extermination camp (German: Vernichtungslager) or Death Camp was the term applied to a group of facilities set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to execute Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... The massacre at Babi Yar Babi Yar (Russian:Бабий яр, Ukrainian:Бабин яр, Babyn Yar) is a ravine in Kiev, Ukraine, which was the site of massacres of Jews, Gypsies, and other civilians by the Nazis, with assistance from local collaborators, during World War II. // Before the massacre The Germans reached Kiev on September... In a February 26, 1942 letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Extermination camp (German: Vernichtungslager) or Death Camp was the term applied to a group of facilities set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Extermination camp (German: Vernichtungslager) or Death Camp was the term applied to a group of facilities set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma...


Chemical and bacteriological weapons


Despite the international treaties and a resolution adopted by the League of Nations on 14 May 1938 condemning the use of toxic gas by Japan, the showa army frequently used chemical weapons. By fear of retaliation, those weapons were however never used against occidentals but only against other orientals judged "inferior" by the imperial propaganda. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the authorization for the use of chemical weapons was given by specific orders (rinsanmei) of Hirohito himself. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the invasion of Wuhan from August to October 1938. The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... Shōwa is the name of several places, times, people and things in Japan. ... Emperor Hirohito of Japan (Japanese: 裕仁) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 1926 to 1989. ... Location within China Modern and ancient Wuhan (Simplified Chinese: 武汉; Traditional Chinese: 武漢; Pinyin: WÇ”hàn) is the capital of Hubei province, and is the most populous city in central China. ...


The bacteriological weapons were experimented on humans by many units incorporated in the showa army such as the infamous unit 731, integrated by Imperial decree in the Kwantung army in 1936. Those weapons were mainly used in China and, according to some japanese veterans, against mongolians and russians soldiers in 1939 during the Nomonhan incident (Hal Gold, Unit 731 testimony, p.64-65, 1996). Shōwa is the name of several places, times, people and things in Japan. ... now. ... Kwantung (Simplified Chinese: 关东; Traditional Chinese: 關東; pinyin: Guāndōng; Wade-Giles: Kuan-tung) is a coastal area of northeastern China which is remembered most for its connection to Japans Kwantung Army. ... Nomonhan is a small village near the border between Mongolia and Manchuria, China south of the Chinese city of Manzhouli. ...


Slave labor


According to a joint study of historians featuring Zhifen Ju, Mark Peattie, Toru Kubo and Mitsuyochi Himeta, more than 10 millions chinese were mobilized by the showa army and enslaved by the Kôa-in for slave labor in Manchukuoand north China. (Zhifen Ju, "Japan's atrocities of conscripting and abusing north China draftees after the outbreak of the pacific war", 2002). According to Mitsuyochi Himeta, at least 2,7 millions of them died during the sanko sakusen operation implemented in Heipei and Shantung by general Yasuji Okamura. Shōwa is the name of several places, times, people and things in Japan. ... Manchukuo (1932 to 1945) (Simplified Chinese: 满洲国; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; Pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu Guó Kanji: 満州国) was a former country in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia under the leadership of the Emperor Puyi, the last emperor of Qing Dynasty. ... Sankō sakusen (Japanese: 三光作戦, sankō sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sānguāng Zhèngcè; literally The Three Nothings Strategy/Policy) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although it literally means three nothings, in this case the word nothing means nothing left. Thus, the term is more... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... General Yasuji Okamura (1884-1966) Yasuji Okamura was a Japanese General, commanding 2nd Division at the begining of the Second Sino-Japanese War. ...


Concentration camps, labour camps and internment

Mistreated, starved prisoners in the Ebensee concentration camp, Austria.

In addition to the Nazi concentration camps, the Soviet Gulag, or labor camps, led to the death of citizens of occupied countries such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as German prisoners of war (POW) and even Soviet citizens themselves: supporters of the Nazis. Japanese POW camps also had high death rates; many were used as labour camps, and starvation conditions among the mainly U.S., British, Australian and other Commonwealth prisoners were little better than many German concentration camps. Sixty percent (1,238,000 ref. Krivosheev) of Soviet POWs died during the war. Vadim Erlikman puts it at 2.6 million Soviet POWs that died in German Captivity.[10] Richard Overy gives the number of 5.7 million Soviet POW and out of those 57% died or were killed.[11] Image File history File links Starved_prisoners,_nearly_dead_from_hunger,_pose_in_concentration_camp_in_Ebensee,_Austria. ... Image File history File links Starved_prisoners,_nearly_dead_from_hunger,_pose_in_concentration_camp_in_Ebensee,_Austria. ... Ebensee lies in Upper Austria near Langbathbach and river Traun. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the West Coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... A Prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of persons captured by the enemy in time of war. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ...


Furthermore, 150,000 Japanese North Americans were interned by the U.S. and Canadian governments as well as nearly 11000 German and Italian residents of the U.S. Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the West Coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed...

Survivor of German aerial bombardment, Siege of Warsaw.
Survivor of German aerial bombardment, Siege of Warsaw.

War crimes Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ...

Main article: Katyn massacre
and sanko sakusen

From 1945 to 1951, German and Japanese officials and personnel were prosecuted for war crimes. Top German officials were tried at the Nuremberg Trials and many Japanese officials at the Tokyo War Crime Trial and other war crimes trials in the Asia-Pacific region. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... now. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for women who were forced to work as sex slaves in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II. The majority of the women were Korean and Chinese. ... At the end of World War II, several trials of Axis war criminals took place, most famously the Nuremberg Trials. ... At the end of World War II, Red Army soldiers raped more than 200,000 German females who then were murdered, died from injuries or committed suicide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wehrmacht. ... Mass graves at Katyn war cemetery. ... Sankō sakusen (Japanese: 三光作戦, sankō sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sānguāng Zhèngcè; literally The Three Nothings Strategy/Policy) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although it literally means three nothings, in this case the word nothing means nothing left. Thus, the term is more... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ...


Resistance and collaboration

Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.
Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.

Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation, and propaganda to outright warfare. Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. ... Collaboration during World War II refers to the events when the nationals of the countries that were occupied by other powers (such as the Soviet Union, the Nazi Germany, the Empire of Japan and Italy) supported the goals of the occupying power during the time of the World War II... Image File history File links 101st_with_members_of_dutch_resistance. ... Image File history File links 101st_with_members_of_dutch_resistance. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) —nicknamed the Screaming Eagles— is an air assault division of the United States Army mainly trained for air assault operations. ... Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender brooks. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Gerd von Rundstedt Strength XXX Corps, 35,000 airborne 20,000 Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical objectives were...


Among the most notable resistance movements were the Polish Home Army, the French Maquis and the Yugoslav Partisans and the Greek resistance force, and the Italian Resistance in the German-occupied Northern Italy after 1943. Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi movement. The Communist resistance was among the fiercest, since they were already organised and militant even before the war and they were ideologically opposed to the Nazis. The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) or AK functioned as the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Members of the Maquis in La Tresorerie For other uses, see Maquis. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Slovene: Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Before D-Day, there were some operations performed by the French Resistance to help with the forthcoming invasion. Communications lines were cut; trains were derailed; roads, water towers and ammunition depots were destroyed; and some German garrisons were attacked. Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Bold textItalic textLink title // Headline text Headline text Headline text == The cross of Lorraine used by the French Resistance as a symbolic reference to Joan of Arc. ...


Home fronts

During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East.
During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East.
Main article: Homefront-United States-World War II

"Home front" is the name given to the activities of the civilians of the nations at war. All the main countries reorganized their homefronts to produce munitions and soldiers, with 40-60% of GDP being devoted to the war effort. Women were drafted in the Soviet Union and Britain. Shortages were everywhere--and severe food shortages caused malnutrition and even starvation, as in the Netherlands and in Leningrad. New workers were recruited, especially housewives, the unemployed, students and retired people. Skilled jobs were re-engineered and simplified ("deskilling") so that unskilled workers could handle them. Every major nation imposed censorship on the media as well as a propaganda program designed to boost the war effort and stifle negative rumors. Every major country imposed a system of rationing and price controls. Black markets flourished in areas controlled by Germany. Germany brought in millions of prisoners of war, slave laborers, and forced workers to staff its munitions factories. Many were killed in the bombing raids, the rest became refugees as the war ended. Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East. ... Homefront-United States-World War II covers all the developments inside the United States, 1940-1945. ... Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ...


Technologies

German Enigma machine for encryption.
Enlarge
German Enigma machine for encryption.

Weapons and technology improved rapidly during World War II and played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. Many major technologies were used for the first time, including nuclear weapons, radar, proximity fuzes, jet engines, V-2 rockets, and data processing analog devices (primitive computers). Every year the piston engines were improved; the Allies invented 100 octane gasoline while the Germans only had 87 octane. Enormous advances were made in aircraft, submarine, and tank design, such that models coming into use at the beginning of the war were long obsolete by its end. One entirely new kind of ship was the amphibious landing craft. Download high resolution version (480x640, 400 KB)From NSA website: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 400 KB)From NSA website: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A three-rotor German military Enigma machine showing, from bottom to top, the plugboard, the keyboard, the lamps and the finger-wheels of the rotors emerging from the inner lid (version with labels). ... German Enigma encryption machine. ... Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect, determine the distance of, and map, objects such... Look up Proximity fuze in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A proximity fuze (also called a VT fuze) is a fuze that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... German test launch. ... Airbus A380 An aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine Inside of the Argonaute, showing the typical obstructed, tiny space of a post-WWII diesel attack submarine. ...


Industrial production

Industrial production played a role in the Allied victory. The Allies more effectively mobilized their economies and drew from a larger economic base. The peak year of munitions production was 1944, with the Allies out-producing the Axis by a ratio of 3-1. (Germany produced 19% and Japan 7% of the world's munitions; the US produced 47%, Britain and Canada 14%, and Russia 11%). [12]


The Allies used low-cost mass production techniques, using standardized models. Japan and Germany continued to rely on expensive hand-crafted methods. Japan thus produced hundreds of airplane models and did not reach mass production efficiency; the new models were only slightly better than the original 1940 planes, while the Allies rapidly advanced in technology.<Richard Overy. The Air War, 1939-1945 (2005)</ref> Germany thus spent heavily on high-tech weaponry, including the V-1 and V-2, advanced submarines, jet engines, and heavy tanks which proved strategically of minor value. "The Allies did not depend on simple numbers for victory but on the quality of their technology and the fighting effectiveness of their forces... In both Germany and Japan less emphasis was placed upon the non-combat areas of war: procurement, logistics, military services," concludes historian Richard Overy.[13]


Delivery of weapons to the battlefront was a matter of logistics. The Allies again did a much better job in moving munitions from factories to the front lines. Thus a large fraction of the German tanks after June 1944 never reached the battlefield, and those that did often ran short of fuel. Japan in particular was notably inefficient in its logistics system.[14]


Medicine

Many new medical and surgical techniques were employed as well as new drugs like sulfa and penicillin, not to mention serious advances in biological warfare and nerve gases. The Japanese control of the quinine supply forced the Australians to invent new anti-malarial drugs. The saline bath was invented to treat burns. More prompt application of sulfa drugs saved countless lives. New local anesthetics were introduced making possible surgery close to the front lines. The Americans discovered that only 20% of wounds were cause by machine gun or rifle bullets (compared to 35% in World War I). Most came from high explosive shells and fragments, which besides the direct wound caused shock from their blast effects. Most deaths came from shock and blood loss, which were countered by a major innovation, blood transfusions.[15] SULFA, short for Surrendered ULFA, i. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... 155 mm M198 howitzer USS Iowa (BB-61) fires a full broadside of nine 16/50 and six 5/38 guns during a target exercise near Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, 1 July 1984. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ...


The massive research and development demands of the war accelerated the growth of the scientific communities in Allied states, while German and Japanese laboratories were disbanded; many German engineers and scientists continued their weapons research in the United States and the Soviet Union.

See also: Military production during World War II and List of World War II military equipment


During World War II women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II...


Aftermath

German occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations in the East. The Saarland (in the French zone) is shown with stripes because it was removed from Germany by France in 1947 as a protectorate, and was not incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany until 1957. Historical Eastern Germany, not contained in this map was annexed by Poland, and the Soviet Union.
German occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations in the East. The Saarland (in the French zone) is shown with stripes because it was removed from Germany by France in 1947 as a protectorate, and was not incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany until 1957. Historical Eastern Germany, not contained in this map was annexed by Poland, and the Soviet Union.

Europe in ruins Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ...

At the end of the war, millions of refugees were homeless, the European economy had collapsed, and 70%[citation needed] of the European industrial infrastructure was destroyed. The Soviet Union had been heavily affected, with 30% of its economy destroyed. Note: This section was copied from the article World War II and removed from that article in order to reduce the size of the article. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


Luftwaffe bombings of Frampol, Wieluń,Warsaw in 1939 instituted the practice of bombing purely civilian objectives. The United Kingdom ended the war economically exhausted by the war effort. The wartime coalition government was dissolved; new elections were held; Churchill was defeated in a landslide general election by the Labour Party under Clement Attlee. Frampol is a town in Poland, in Lublin Voivodship, in BiÅ‚goraj County. ... WieluÅ„ is a town in central Poland with 25,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883–8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...


In 1947, US Secretary of State George Marshall devised the "European Recovery Program", better known as the Marshall Plan, effective in the years 1948 - 1952 it allocated 13 billion dollars for the reconstruction of Western Europe. This article is about the general and statesman. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


Communist control of Central and Eastern Europe

Main articles: Eastern bloc and Iron Curtain

At the end of the war the Soviet Union occupied much of Central and Eastern Europe and of the Balkans. In all the USSR-occupied countries, with the exception of Austria, the Soviet Union helped Communist regimes to power. Furthermore, it annexed the Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... Countries behind the Iron Curtain are shaded red. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Occupation of Germany and Austria

Germany was partitioned into four zones of occupation, coordinated by the Allied Control Council. The American, British, and French zones joined in 1949 as the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic. In Germany economic suppression and Denazification took place. Millions of Germans and Poles were expelled from their homelands as a result of the teritorial annexations in Eastern Europe agreed upon at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences. In the West Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, which also separated the Saar area from Germany. Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas of Eastern Germany and Eastern Europe during the first three years after World War II 1945-48. ... The four Allied occupation zones in post-war Germany and Austria The Allied powers who defeated Germany in World War II divided the country west of the Oder-Neisse line into four occupation zones for administrative purposes during the period 1945-1949. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) is the border between Germany and Poland. ... Image:Smalbldg. ... GDR redirects here. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945 The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (French: Alsace-Lorraine; German: Elsaß-Lothringen) was a territory disputed between the nation states of France and Germany. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ...


Austria was separated from Germany and divided into four zones of occupation, which reunited in 1955 to become the Republic of Austria.


Occupation of Japan and Korea

Japan was occupied by the U.S, aided by Commonwealth troops, until the peace treaty took effect in 1952. In accordance with the Yalta Conference agreements the Soviet Union occupied and subsequently annexed Sakhalin. Korea was divided between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of two separate governements in 1948. At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdǎo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian... Korea (Korean: (조선 or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


Decolonization

Main article: Decolonization

The areas previously occupied by the colonial powers gained their freedom, some peacefuly such as the Philippines in 1946, India and Pakistan in 1947. Others had to fight bloody wars of liberation before gaining freedom, such as against the French attenpt to reoccupy Vietnam in the First Indochina War, and against the Netherlands attempt to reoccupy the Dutch East Indies. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization is the process by which a colony gains its independence from a colonial power, a process opposite to colonization. ... Combatants French Colonialists Việt Minh Strength 500,000  ? Casualties 94,581 dead 78,127 wounded 40,000 captured 300,000+ dead 500,000+ wounded 100,000 captured The First Indochina War (also called the French Indochina War, the French War or the Franco-Vietnamese War) was fought in Indochina... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ...


China

Main article: China

After Chinas victory against Japan in 1945 the truce between the U.S. backed republicans and the Soviet Union backed communists soon broke down. The victorious communists declared the People's Republic of China in 1949. The Republicans fled to Taiwan.


Border revisions and population expulsions

Expulsion of Germans from the Sudetenland
Expulsion of Germans from the Sudetenland
Main article: Expulsion of Germans after World War II

As a result of the new borders drawn by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory. The Soviet Union took over areas formerly controlled by Germany, Finland, Poland, and Japan. Poland received most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line, including the industrial regions of Silesia. The German state of the Saar was temporarily a protectorate of France but it later returned to German administration. Image File history File links Vertreibung_1. ... Image File history File links Vertreibung_1. ... Sudetenland (German: Sudetenland; Czech: Sudety, Polish: Sudety) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the various places of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas of Eastern Germany and Eastern Europe during the first three years after World War II 1945-48. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) is the border between Germany and Poland. ... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślonsk / Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ...


The number of Germans expelled, as set forth at Potsdam, totalled roughly 15 million, including 11 million from Germany proper and 3.5 million from the Sudetenland. Mainstream estimates of casualties from the expulsions range between 1 - 2 Million dead. Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945 The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Sudetenland (German: Sudetenland; Czech: Sudety, Polish: Sudety) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the various places of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia. ...


4 million Poles were expelled by the Soviet Union from east of the new border which approximated the Curzon Line. The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ...


Reparations and Allied occupation

Germany paid reparations to the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union mainly in the form of dismantled factories, forced labor, and coal. The US also confiscated German patents and German owned property in the United States. [citation needed] Germany was to be reduced to the standard of living she had had at the height of the depression (1932). [16] Not by Their Own Will. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasting through most of the 1930s. ...


In accordance with the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, payment of war reparations was assessed from the countries of Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland. The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...


United Nations

Main article: United Nations

Because the League of Nations had failed to actively prevent the war, the United Nations was created in 1945. The UN operates within the parameters of the United Nations Charter, and the reason for the UN’s formation is outlined in the Preamble to the United Nations Charter. One of the first actions of the United Nations was the creation of the State of Israel, partly in response to the Holocaust. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... United Nations Charter Opened for signature June 26, 1945 at San Francisco Entered into force October 24, 1945 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of... The Preamble to the United Nations Charter is the opening of the United Nations Charter. ...


Names

The term most used in the United Kingdom and Canada is "Second World War", while American publishers use the term "World War II". Thus the Oxford University Press used The Oxford Companion to the Second World War in the United Kingdom and The Oxford Companion to World War II for the identical 1995 book in the United States.


The OED reports the first use of "Second World War" was by novelist H.G. Wells in 1930, although it may well have been used earlier.[17] The term was immediately used when war was declared; for example, the September 3, 1939 issue of the Canadian newspaper, The Calgary Herald. OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... The Calgary Herald is a daily Calgary, Alberta newspaper. ...


Media

World War II has been the setting for hundreds of war movies in many languages. For example, Hollywood Canteen (1944), The Story of G.I. Joe (1945), Sands of Iwo Jima (1949), Twelve O'Clock High (1949), Home of the Brave (1949), Battleground (1949), The Enemy Below (1957), Men in War (1957), The Longest Day (1962), Patton (1970), Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970), Das Boot (1982), A Midnight Clear (1992), Stalingrad (1993), When Trumpets Fade (1998), and Saving Private Ryan (1998). There have been many made-for TV series, such as Band of Brothers (2001). Many films not directly related to the war also make references to it or devote screentime to portraying it. It has also been the setting of many video games including, Day of Defeat, the Medal of Honor series, the Call of Duty series, the Battlefield series, the Brothers in Arms series, etc. Some of these games are very popular. The war also figures prominently in thousands of novels. The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... The Hollywood Canteen operated at 1451 Cahuenga Boulevard in Hollywood, California between October 3, 1942 and the end of World War II as a club offering food and entertainment for American servicemen, usually on their way overseas. ... The Story of G.I. Joe is a war film released in 1945. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1949 films | World War II films | Best Actor Oscar Nominee (film) ... Twelve OClock High is a 1949 film about the U. S. Army Air Force crews who flew daylight bombing missions against Germany and occupied France during World War II. It stars Gregory Peck as Brigadier General Frank Savage, Gary Merrill as Colonel Keith Davenport, Millard Mitchell as General Ben... Home of the Brave is a phrase used in the refrain of The Star Spangled Banner, the national anthem of the United States. ... Movie poster reprint of Battleground Battleground is a 1949 war film which tells the story of a squad of the 101st Airborne Division trying to cope during the Battle of the Bulge at Bastogne, Belgium. ... The Enemy Below is a 1957 film which tells the story of battle between the captain of an American destroyer escort and the commander of a German submarine during World War II. It stars Robert Mitchum, Curd Jürgens, David Hedison and Theodore Bikel. ... The Longest Day is a 3-hour-long 1962 war film with a very large cast, based on the 1959 book The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan, about D-Day, the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, during World War II. // Background The movie was adapted by Romain Gary... Patton is a 1970 biographical film which tells the story of General George Pattons commands during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, and Michael Bates. ... Tora! Tora! Tora! ) is a 1970 film that dramatizes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the series of American blunders that unintentionally improved its effectiveness. ... Das Boot (IPA: , German for The Boat) is a film directed by Wolfgang Petersen, adapted from a novel of the same name by Lothar-Günther Buchheim. ... A Midnight Clear is a 1992 film directed by Keith Gordon and stars an ensemble cast. ... Stalingrad is a 1993 film by Joseph Vilsmaier, similar to Apocalypse Now and Platoon in its approach to depicting the horrors of war in a realistic and unromanticized fashion. ... When Trumpets Fade is a television film made in 1998 and directed by John Irvin. ... Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy Award winning film, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat, set in World War II. This film is particularly notable for the intensity of the scenes in its first thirty minutes or so, which depict the Omaha beachhead assault of June... Band of Brothers is an acclaimed 10-part (600 minute runtime) television miniseries about World War II, co-produced by Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks. ... Day of Defeat (DoD) is a popular team-based multiplayer World War II first-person shooter computer game that immerses players into a 3D simulated virtual reality of the European Theatre of World War II. The games graphics and sounds have been influenced by the movie Saving Private Ryan... Medal of Honor (MOH) is the name of a series of first-person shooter games set in World War II. The first game was developed by DreamWorks Interactive (currently known as EA Los Angeles) and published by Electronic Arts in 1999 for the PlayStation game console. ... Call of Duty (released on October 19, 2003) is a first-person shooter video game based on the Quake III engine. ... Electronic Arts Battlefield franchise is a series of computer and console games that started with the PC game Battlefield 1942. ... Brothers in Arms can refer to: a 1985 album called Brothers in Arms by Dire Straits. ...


See also

World War II
Theatres     Main events     Specific articles     Participants    

Prelude:
Causes
in Europe
in Asia Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire The Dominion of Canada France Italy Russian Empire United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Sir Arthur Currie John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek Ä°smail Enver... Participants in World War II involves all nations who either participated directly or were affected by any of the theatres or events of World War II. // Alliances World Map with the participants in World War II. The Allies depicted in green (those in light green entered after the Attack on... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. ...


Main theatres:
Europe
Eastern Europe
Africa
Middle East
• Mediterranean
Asia & Pacific
China
Atlantic Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting from 1939 to 1945 during World War II. // Preceding events Main articles: Events preceding World War II in Europe, Causes of World War II After Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic...


General timeline:
Timeline For events preceding September 1, 1939, see the timeline of events preceding World War II. // 1939 September German soldiers supposedly destroying a Polish border checkpoint. ...

  

1939:
• Invasion of Poland
• Phony War
• Winter War
1940:
• Norwegian Campaign
• Battle of France
• Battle of Britain
1941:
• Operation Barbarossa
• Continuation War
• Attack on Pearl Harbor
• Battle of Moscow
• Siege of Leningrad
• Battle of Sevastopol
1942:
• Battle of Stalingrad
• Operation Torch
• Battle of Midway
• Second Battle of El Alamein
1943:
• Battle of Kursk
• Italian Campaign
1944:
• Battle of Normandy
• Operation Dragoon
• Operation Bagration
• Warsaw Uprising
• Battle of the Bulge
• Battle of Leyte Gulf
• Operation Market Garden
1945:
• Battle of Berlin
• End in Europe
• Hiroshima & Nagasaki
• Surrender of Japan
Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 950,000[1] 56 German divisions 4 German... British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Australia New Zealand Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700 fighters 1,260 bombers, 316 dive-bombers, 1,089 fighters Casualties 1,547 aircraft, 27,450 civilian dead, 32,138 wounded 2,698 aircraft One of the major campaigns of the early part of World War... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... The Continuation War or War of Continuation (Finnish: , Swedish: ) June 25, 1941-September 19, 1944, was the war that was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II. The United Kingdom declared war on Finland on December 6, 1941, but did not participate actively. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines, 441 planes Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Combatants Axis Powers, Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда) was the German... Combatants Germany, Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Filipp Oktyabrskiy, Ivan Petrov Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength Three carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Four carriers, Seven battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier and... Combatants British Commonwealth Poland Free French Greece Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 200,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 100,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 23,500 dead or wounded 710 tanks 12,000 dead or wounded 25,000 captured... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Günther von Kluge, Walther Model Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Nikolai Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Bertram Ramsay Trafford Leigh-Mallory Gerd von Rundstedt Erwin Rommel Friedrich Dollmann Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split up over the entire... A map of the operation. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... Combatants Allies Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts Many PT boats, submarines and fleet auxiliaries About 1,500 planes 4 aircraft carriers 9 battleships 19 cruisers 34 destroyers About 200 planes... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Gerd von Rundstedt Strength XXX Corps, 35,000 airborne 20,000 Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical objectives were... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II and the German surrender took place in late April and early May 1945. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The Surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ...

  

Blitzkrieg
Cryptography
Equipment
Home Front
Production
Resistance
Technology
One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... Cryptography was used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II... During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East. ... Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. ... German Enigma encryption machine. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities:
Holocaust
Dutch famine of 1944
Japanese war crimes
Strategic bombings
Allied war crimes Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew worse in Nazi occupied Netherlands. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... At the end of World War II, several trials of Axis war criminals took place, most famously the Nuremberg Trials. ...


Aftermath:
Effects
Casualties
Cold War Note: This section was copied from the article World War II and removed from that article in order to reduce the size of the article. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between capitalism and communism, centering around the global superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, and their military alliance partners. ...

  

The Allies
•  Soviet Union
•  United Kingdom
•  United States
•  Republic of China
•  Poland
•  France
•  Netherlands
•  Belgium
•  Canada
•  Norway
•  Greece
•  Yugoslavia
•  Czechoslovakia
•  Australia
•  New Zealand
•  South Africa
•  India
•  Egypt
•  Brazil
• more...
The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all South Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for the three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


The Axis
•  Germany
•  Japan
•  Italy
•  Hungary
•  Bulgaria
•  Romania
•  Finland
•  Thailand
• more... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Bulgaria_flag. ... Image File history File links Romania_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See Also

• Category: World War II
Topics
Military engagements
Conferences
Total war
WWII in contemporary culture
Military awards of World War II
Attacks in North America
United States Army enlisted rank insignia of World War II // Military engagements For military topics (land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges), please see List of military engagements of World War II. Political and social aspects of the war Causes of World War II Appeasement Occupation of Denmark Netherlands in World War II... German soldiers during the Battle of Stalingrad. ... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ... This article is about Total War. ... The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... Military awards of World War II were presented by most of the combatants. ... It has been suggested that Axis plans for invasion of the United States during WWII be merged into this article or section. ... The U.S. Army enlisted rank insignia that was used during WWII vastly differs from the current system used today. ...


More information on World War II:

 World War II from Wiktionary
 WWII Textbooks from Wikibooks
 WWII Quotations from Wikiquote
 WWII Source texts from Wikisource
 WWII Images and media from Commons
 WWII News stories from Wikinews
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

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References

  • Bauer, E. Lt-Colonel The History of World War II, Orbis (2000) General Editor: Brigadier Peter Young; Consultants: Brigadier General James L. Collins Jr., Correli Barnet. (1,024 pages) ISBN 1-85605-552-3
  • I.C.B. Dear and M.R.D. Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to World War II (1995), 1300 page encyclopedia covering all topics
  • Ellis, John. Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War (1999)
  • Gilbert, Martin Second World War (1995)
  • Mark Harrison. "Resource Mobilization for World War II: The U.S.A., UK, U.S.S.R., and Germany, 1938-1945" in The Economic History Review, Vol. 41, No. 2. (May, 1988), pp. 171-192. in JSTOR
  • Keegan, John. The Second World War (1989)
  • Liddell Hart, Sir Basil History of the Second World War (1970)
  • Murray, Williamson and Millett, Allan R. A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War (2000)
  • Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won (1995)
  • Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Simon & Schuster. (1959). ISBN 0-671-62420-2.
  • Smith, J. Douglas and Richard Jensen (2003). World War II on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites. ISBN 0-8420-5020-5.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L.A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (2005) ISBN 0-521-44317-2
  • (2004) Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. ISBN 5-93165-107-1.

Sir Martin Gilbert (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and biographer and author of over seventy books on a range of historical subjects. ... Sir John Keegan (born 1934) is an English military historian. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4970720.stm
  2. ^ Overy, Richard
  3. ^ King, Admiral Earnest J.. Naval Operations in the Pacific from March 1944 to October 1945 (in English). Sam Houston State University. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  4. ^ Parshall, Jon. Why Japan Really Lost The War (in English). Imperial Japanese Navy Page. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  5. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_casualties
  6. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_casualties
  7. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_casualties
  8. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_casualties
  9. ^ J. M. Winter, "Demography of the War," in Dear and Foot, ed. Oxford Companion to World War p 290.
  10. ^ Erlikman, Vadim
  11. ^ Richard Overy The Dictators Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia p.568-569
  12. ^ Raymond W. Goldsmith, "The Power of Victory: Munitions Output in World War II" Military Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 1. (Spring, 1946), pp. 69-80; online at JSTOR
  13. ^ Overy (1993) p 318-9
  14. ^ Mark Parillo, "The Pacific War" in Richard Jensen et al, eds. Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century (2003), pp. 93-104.
  15. ^ Harold C. Leuth, "Military Medicine" in Walter Yust, ed. 10 Eventful Years (1947) 3:163-67; Mark Harrison, Medicine and Victory: British Military Medicine in the Second World War (2004)
  16. ^ Cost of Defeat Time Magazine Monday, Apr. 8, 1946]
  17. ^ Library catalogs show the first use in 1934: Why war? A handbook for those who will take part in the second world war by Ellen Wilkinson & Edward Conze, (London, 1934), and Johannes Steel, The second world war, (New York, 1934).

Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ...

External links

General
Media
Stories
  • Voices in the Dark - Descriptions of life in Nazi-occupied Paris
  • WW2 People's War - A project by the BBC to gather the stories of ordinary people from World War II
  • Memories of Leutnant d.R. Wilhelm Radkovsky 1940-1945 Experiences as a German soldier on the Eastern and Western Front
  • The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 — "a heroic and tragic 63-day struggle to liberate World War 2 Warsaw from Nazi/German occupation."
  • "So Great a Heritage" A collection of 150 letters from an American soldier to his family during World War II gives the reader an insight into the war that they may not otherwise have. The letters were written from the time the soldier reported to boot camp, through his deployments to North Africa, Italy, France, and finally, Germany.
  • (Italian) La Città Invisibile Collection of signs, stories and memories during the Gothic Line age.
Documentaries
  • The World at War (1974) is a 26-part Thames Television series that covers most aspects of World War II from many points of view. It includes interviews with many key figures (Karl Dönitz, Albert Speer, Anthony Eden etc.) (Imdb link)
  • The Second World War in Colour (1999) is a three episode documentary showing unique footage in color (Imdb link)

The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest public broadcasting corporation in the world. ... The World at War was a 1974 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, the events that led up to it, and those that followed in its wake. ... Thames Television was an British television production company, and between 1968 and 1992, it was the weekday ITV company serving London. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronounciation: ); September 16, 1891 – December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as Reichspräsident after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was born Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer in Mannheim, Germany, the second of three sons. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (June 12, 1897– January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ...


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