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Encyclopedia > World War II cryptography

Cryptography was used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. In addition, the theoretical and practical aspects of cryptanalysis, or codebreaking, was much advanced. The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In the context of cryptography, a code is a method used to transform a message into an obscured form, preventing those not in on the secret from understanding what is actually transmitted. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ...


Probably the most important cryptographic event of the war was the successful decryption by the Allies of the German "Enigma" Cipher. The first complete break into Enigma was accomplished by Poland around 1932; the techniques and insights used were passed to the French and British Allies just before the outbreak of the War in 1939. They were substantially improved by British efforts at the Bletchley Park research station during the War. Decryption of the Enigma Cipher allowed the Allies to read important parts of German radio traffic on important networks and was an invaluable source of military intelligence throughout the War. Intelligence from this source (and other high level sources, including the Fish cyphers) was eventually called Ultra. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Fish (sometimes FISH) was the Allied codename for any of several German teleprinter stream ciphers used during World War II. While a large number of links were monitored, at least three different encryption systems were distinguished: Tunny — the Lorenz SZ 40/42 from Lorenz Electric. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ...


A similar break into an important Japanese cypher (PURPLE) by the US Army Signals Intelligence Service started before the US entered the War. Product from this source was called MAGIC. It was the highest security Japanese diplomatic cypher. For Japanese Naval cyphers see JN-25. See also Attack on Pearl Harbor. Not to be confused with Violet (color). ... Look up magic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... JN-25 is the name used by Western cryptography organizations for the main secure command and control communications scheme used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (JIN) during and before WWII (it was the 25th Japanese Navy system identified). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel Walter Short others Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi Chuichi Hara Mikawa Gunichi Sentaro Omori others Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 aircraft 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser...

Contents

Australia

Central Bureau was one of two Allied Sigint organisations in the South West Pacific area (SWPA). ... The Fleet Radio Unit, Melbourne (FRUMEL) was a joint Royal Australian Navy-United States Navy signals intelligence unit operating from the Montery Apartments in Queens Road, Melbourne during World War II. It was one of two signals intelligence units operating in the South West Pacific theatre of World War II... Secret Intelligence Australia (SIA) was a British World War II political unit commanded by Captain Roy Kendall who reported directly to Prime Minister Winston Churchill. ...

France

PC Bruno was the code name for the intelligence station operated at a farmhouse in the west of France to which French cryptanalysts retired after Paris was captured by the Germans in 1940. ... Hans-Thilo Schmidt (13 May 1888 – 1943) code named Asché, was a spy who, during the 1930s, sold secrets about the Germans Enigma machine to the French. ...

Germany

In the history of cryptography, the Enigma was a portable cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. ... Fish (sometimes FISH) was the Allied codename for any of several German teleprinter stream ciphers used during World War II. While a large number of links were monitored, at least three different encryption systems were distinguished: Tunny — the Lorenz SZ 40/42 from Lorenz Electric. ... For the fish, see Tuna. ... STURGEON exhibit at the National Cryptologic Museum. ... The B-Dienst (Beobachtungsdienst) was a German Naval codebreaking organisation During World War II, B-Dienst solved British Naval Cypher No. ... Reservehandverfahren (RHV) (German: Reserve Hand Procedure) was a German Naval World War II hand-cipher system used as a backup method when no working Enigma machine was available[1]. The cipher had two stages: a transposition followed by bigram substitution. ...

Italy

  • used Commercial Enigma

Japan

Not to be confused with Violet (color). ... JN-25 is the name used by Western cryptography organizations for the main secure command and control communications scheme used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (JIN) during and before WWII (it was the 25th Japanese Navy system identified). ...

Poland

This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Biuro Szyfrów ( (?), Polish for Cipher Bureau) was the Polish agency concerned with cryptology between World Wars I and II. The Bureau enjoyed notable successes against Soviet cryptography during the Polish-Soviet War, helping to preserve Polands independence. ... Marian Rejewski (probably 1932, the year he first solved the Enigma machine). ... Jerzy Różycki, about 1928. ... Henryk Zygalski, about 1930. ... Cryptologic bomb. ... The Lacida (or LCD) was a rotor cipher machine designed before World War II by the Polish Cipher Bureau for wartime use by Polish higher commands. ...

Sweden

Arne Carl-August Beurling (February 3, 1905 - November 20, 1986) was a mathematician and professor of mathematics at Uppsala University (1937-1954) and later at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, USA. Arne Beurling worked extensively in harmonic analysis, complex analysis and potential theory. ...

United Kingdom

Typex was based on the commercial Enigma machine, but incorporated a number of additional features to improve the security. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... A Colossus Mark II computer. ... The Bombe replicated the action of several Enigma machines wired together. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... William T. Tutte. ... Brigadier John Tiltman (1894–1982) was a British Army officer who worked in intelligence, often at or with the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) starting in the 1920s. ... Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman (February 7, 1897 – February 22, 1984) was a British mathematician. ... Thomas (Tommy) Harold Flowers, MBE (22 December 1905 – 28 October 1998) was a British engineer. ... Irving John (Jack) Good (born 9 December 1916) is a British statistician who worked also as a cryptographer and developer of the Colossus computer at Bletchley Park. ... Leo Marks at the opening of the Violette Szabo Museum, Wormelow Leopold Samuel Marks (September 24, 1920 - January 15, 2001) was an English cryptographer and scriptwriter. ... The poem code is a simple, and insecure, cryptographic method. ...

United States

In World War II, Magic was the United States codename for intelligence derived from the cryptanalysis of PURPLE, a Japanese foreign office cipher. ... The Signals Intelligence Service (SIS) was the United States Army codebreaking division, headquartered at Arlington Hall. ... Arlington Hall Arlington Hall was the headquarters of the US Armys Signal Intelligence Service (SIS) cryptography effort during World War II. It was named for its location in Arlington Hall Station, Arlington, Virginia—a private girls school which was commandeered during the War. ... Headline text OP-20-G The Navys codebreaking system was better than the Armys S.I.S. It began with a secret slush fund of $100,000 in 1918. ... William Frederick Friedman (September 24, 1891 - November 12, 1969) served as a US Army cryptologist, running the research division of the Armys Signals Intelligence Service (SIS) through the 1930s and its follow-on services right into the 1950s. ... Frank Rowlett. ... Dr. Abraham Sinkov (1907-1998) was a US cryptanalyst. ... [[Image:joseph_rochefort. ... In the history of cryptography, Joseph Oswald Mauborgne (1881–1971) co-invented the one-time pad with Gilbert Vernam of Bell Labs. ... Agnes Meyer Driscoll (1889-1971) was a United States cryptanalyst. ... SIGABA In the history of cryptography, the ECM Mark II was a rotor machine used by the United States from World War II (WWII) until the 1950s. ... Page one of Navajo recommendation letter, 1942. ... SIGSALY exhibit at the National Cryptologic Museum In cryptography, SIGSALY (also Green Hornet) was a telephone scrambler used in World War II for the highest-level Allied communications. ... In cryptography, the M-209, designated CSP-1500 by the Navy (C-38 by the manufacturer) is a portable, mechanical cipher machine used by the US military primarily in World War II, though it remained in active use through the Korean War. ... In the history of United States cryptographic efforts, Station HYPO (for Hawaii) has a very important part, and has been the subject of considerable controversy, both at the time and since. ... In the history of United States cryptographic efforts, Station CAST (for Cavite Navy Yard) has a very important part. ...

See also

  • Cryptography
  • History of cryptography
  • World War I cryptography

  Results from FactBites:
 
WW II LINKS (2786 words)
The National World War II Memorial, located near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, is the first national memorial in the United States dedicated to all who served during World War II.
The Institute on World War II and the Human Experience, Florida State University, focuses on preserving the memories and artifacts of the men and women who served in World War II in the service and of civilians who helped on the home front.
Rutgers Oral History Archives of World War II is an enterprise to record the personal experiences of the men and women who served on the homefront and overseas.
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